INTRODUCTION TO IPM & INSECT PESTS Pam Compton IPM Tech CES/UAF IPM – Integrated Pest Management The use of all available tactics or strategies to attain an economically acceptable yield or plant quality while causing the least disruption to people, pets and the environment. The 6 Steps of IPM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Inspect and Investigate Identify and Learn Monitor Choose Control Methods Evaluate Educate 1. Inspect & Investigate Locations discovered Conditions Number observed When noticed 2. Identify & Learn Id the pest life cycle pest/beneficial what does it eat where does it live Is it native to Alaska, to South Central? 3. Monitor Trap Check back with client Learn which control method works best 4. Choose Control Methods Habitat Modification clean fix leaks seal holes remove food & shelter Biological Controls encourage beneficals Physical Methods trapping remove by hand fly swatter pest proof barriers vacuuming strong spray of water Pesticides least poisonous pest specific 5. Evaluate Check if the pests are still there. Which control method is working the best. Use a different control if necessary. 6. Educate Teach others what you have learned. INSECT PESTS Of The Garden APHIDS Dave Guinn Green Peach Aphid, more than 800 plant species host this insect Appear to over winter in the egg stage, aphids can produce live young continuously over the summer without mating P F Compton, UAF/CES Winged mated adults produce the over wintering eggs in the fall Eggs are often laid in a protected site; near a leaf bud or on the bark of trees STINKBUG Nymphs go through 5 instars before becoming adults Feed on over 52 different plants, including native and ornamentals Overwinter as adults DAMAGE Leaf distortion caused by feeding; feeding can also distort flowers and fruit www.hortnet.co.nz Loss of plant vigor Aphids also secrete honeydew on which sooty black mold can grow Spread of disease P F Compton, UAF/CES Control Options Use a high pressure spray of water Rub insects off Encourage predators Reflective mulches Insecticidal soap spray Horticultural oils Other registered pesticides PF Compton UAF/CES Ipm ncsu edu CUTWORMS Pam Compton CES/UAF Different species of soildwelling caterpillars (Noctuidae) Curl into a ‘C’ when disturbed Usually feed at night, clip plant off at soil level Some climb mature plants to feed on leaves Many over winter as eggs that hatch in early spring Feed on crops or weeds Move into the soil to pupate by mid summer Adults emerge in July or August Damage Control Options Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and weeds Cultivate the soil in the fall Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from reaching plants Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious damage occurs MITES Tiny, eight-legged, round-bodied animals that resemble spiders Both young and adult pierce the plant then feed on the plant juices Pam Compton CES/UAF DAMAGE Feeding result in a mottled pattern and leaf distortion Can result in reduced flower and fruit production Some mites produce webbing or galls Pam Compton CES/UAF Clover Mites P F Compton, UAF/CES CONTROL OPTIONS If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites Predator introduction IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator) Miticides THRIPS Insect Images Jack T Reed Small, fast moving, dark-brown insects with feathery wings Deposit eggs in slits made in the leaf Generally over winter as adults DAMAGE Leaves where feeding has occurred may become silvery-grey with brownish feces left by feeding thrips Leaves may become distorted; flowers mottled Insect Images-Ronald Smith-Whitney Cranshaw CONTROL OPTIONS Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions when using on delicate blooms Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also available Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org The rose tortrix moth is established in Anchorage and has now been introduced to the Mat-Su European leaf-roller Attacks the rose family; wild & cultivated roses, raspberry, cotoneaster, apple and mt ash. P F Compton, UAF/CES DAMAGE Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below calyx Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or malformed fruit Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis Larch Sawfly Imported Currant Worm Diamond Backed Moth Raspberry Cane Maggot Greenhouse and Houseplant Pests FUNGUS GNATS Adults live ~1 week and tend to be a pest due to their flying behavior and numbers Eggs are laid in the soil soon after mating Larvae feed on organic material including plant roots Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw DAMAGE Plant injury occurs when the larvae feeds on tiny plant roots Seedlings are more at risk to feeding damage Insect Images-Gerald J Lenhard CONTROL OPTIONS Vacuum pests off plants Sticky traps Introduce beneficial insects Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the label Eliminate any easy way in Alter habitat, reduce moisture LEAFMINERS Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw Foliage of many plants may be attacked; vegetables, houseplants, and trees Leafminers may be flies, sawflies, or moths Eggs are laid on the surface or inserted into plant tissue DAMAGE Larvae live and feed between leaf surfaces (top)Pam Compton, CES/UAF (bottom)Insect Images-John A Weidhass Photosynthetic activity is reduced and plant is weakened CONTROL OPTIONS Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults are present Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce future pest populations Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site listed on label IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific Secure points of access for pests MEALYBUGS The nymph move freely about the plant until they find a spot to settle Once they settle production of the waxy covering begins or else will develop into short lived winged males Females will lay hundreds of eggs beneath the waxy covering Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw//USDA ARS photo unit DAMAGE Cousin to the aphid, mealybugs pierce the plant and feed on the sap The plants vigor and growth is reduced as they feed Plants then become more susceptible to other insects and disease Insect Images-William M Ciesla CONTROL OPTIONS Hand pick Shower with high pressure spray (careful with fragile foliage) Stationary insects can be swabbed off with alcohol Introduce beneficial insects Sticky traps Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest, and site SPRINGTAILS Primarily are decomposers Can be found in rich organic soil They have a short life cycle Stevehopkin.co.uk DAMAGE Rarely are plants damaged by springtails Large populations may damage root hairs of most greenhouse plantings www.emporia.edu/biosci CONTROL OPTIONS Change the organic content of your potting soil Eliminate high moisture areas Introduce beneficial insects Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site WHITEFLIES Females lay circular groups of eggs on the undersides of leaves Nymphs resemble the young of mealybugs or scale The adults emerge after pupation Broadly oblong wings are covered with a white waxy powder (top)Insect Images-David Riley—(down) Central Science Lab. Harpenden Archives DAMAGE Most greenhouse and houseplants are hosts Adults can usually be seen resting on the foliage Nymphs decrease the vigor of the plant by sucking the sap Insect Images-David Riley CONTROL OPTIONS Hand pick or vacuum visible pests Sticky traps Spot kill with an alcohol swab Introduce and encourage beneficial insects Alter plant habitat Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing host plant, pest, and site IGR’s In and Around Your Home CARPENTER ANTS Among the most efficient wood-destroyers in Alaska Construct nests in wood (top) Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org (bottom) Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, www.insectimages.org Winged ants develop in mature nests of >2,000 Important decomposers of decaying trees DAMAGE Often enter standing trees through a wound Nesting sites; between insulation & subfloor, ceilings, wall voids, supports in crawl places, & heartwood of live trees Only need 12% moisture to colonize (top) USDA Forest Service-NW Area Archives, www.insectimages.org (bottom) R. Werner, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org Control options Determine location of nest and look for signs of wood damage Prune or remove foliage near home Avoid storing wet or rotting wood, or firewood, along side structures Remove the nest Use diatomaceous earth or silica aerogel on the exposed nest Boric acid can be used according to label directions Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service. www.insectimages.org STORED FOOD PESTS Life history varies among species, though many can have several generations a year depending on temperature and food availability Pam Compton CES/UAF Adult and larval stage of stored food beetles infest foods; consuming and often breeding in the material. DAMAGE Pam Compton UAF/CES Laura Jesse, Iowa State University A wide range of stored foods can be contaminated: -grains -flours -nuts -beans -pasta -dried fruit -spices Plus the areas where foods are stored CONTROL OPTIONS Examine foods for pests before storing Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge Monitor for pests with traps RESOURCES Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES, College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska Fairbanks ?