INSECT PESTS - University of Alaska Fairbanks

Report
INTRODUCTION TO IPM
&
INSECT PESTS
Pam Compton
IPM Tech
CES/UAF
IPM – Integrated Pest Management
The use of all available tactics or strategies to
attain an economically acceptable yield or plant
quality while causing the least disruption to
people, pets and the environment.
The 6 Steps of IPM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Inspect and Investigate
Identify and Learn
Monitor
Choose Control Methods
Evaluate
Educate
1. Inspect & Investigate

Locations discovered

Conditions

Number observed

When noticed
2. Identify & Learn

Id the pest
life cycle
pest/beneficial
what does it eat
where does it live

Is it native to Alaska, to South Central?
3. Monitor

Trap

Check back with client

Learn which control method works
best
4. Choose Control Methods

Habitat Modification
clean
fix leaks
seal holes
remove food & shelter

Biological Controls
encourage beneficals

Physical Methods
trapping
remove by hand
fly swatter
pest proof barriers
vacuuming
strong spray of water

Pesticides
least poisonous
pest specific
5. Evaluate



Check if the pests are still there.
Which control method is working the best.
Use a different control if necessary.
6. Educate

Teach others what you have learned.
INSECT PESTS
Of The Garden
APHIDS
Dave Guinn

Green Peach Aphid, more
than 800 plant species host
this insect

Appear to over winter in
the egg stage, aphids can
produce live young
continuously over the
summer without mating
P F Compton, UAF/CES

Winged mated adults
produce the over
wintering eggs in the
fall

Eggs are often laid in a
protected site; near a
leaf bud or on the bark
of trees
STINKBUG

Nymphs go through 5
instars before
becoming adults

Feed on over 52
different plants,
including native and
ornamentals

Overwinter as adults
DAMAGE

Leaf distortion caused by
feeding; feeding can also
distort flowers and fruit
www.hortnet.co.nz

Loss of plant vigor

Aphids also secrete
honeydew on which sooty
black mold can grow

Spread of disease
P F Compton, UAF/CES
Control Options







Use a high
pressure spray of water
Rub insects off
Encourage predators
Reflective mulches
Insecticidal soap spray
Horticultural oils
Other registered
pesticides
PF Compton UAF/CES
Ipm ncsu edu
CUTWORMS


Pam Compton CES/UAF
Different species of soildwelling caterpillars
(Noctuidae)
Curl into a ‘C’ when
disturbed

Usually feed at night, clip
plant off at soil level

Some climb mature plants
to feed on leaves

Many over winter as
eggs that hatch in early
spring

Feed on crops or weeds

Move into the soil to
pupate by mid summer

Adults emerge in July
or August
Damage
Control Options

Keep the areas surrounding the garden free of sod and
weeds

Cultivate the soil in the fall

Use collars, barriers or screens to keep cutworms from
reaching plants

Sticky bands can trap climbing cutworms

Insecticides including Bt can be used before serious
damage occurs
MITES
Tiny, eight-legged,
round-bodied animals
that resemble spiders
Both young and adult
pierce the plant then
feed on the plant juices
Pam Compton CES/UAF
DAMAGE

Feeding result in a mottled
pattern and leaf distortion

Can result in reduced flower
and fruit production

Some mites produce
webbing or galls
Pam Compton CES/UAF
Clover Mites
P F Compton, UAF/CES
CONTROL OPTIONS

If possible use a forceful spray of water to dislodge

Insecticidal soap if labeled for mites

Predator introduction

IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulator)

Miticides
THRIPS
Insect Images Jack T Reed

Small, fast moving,
dark-brown insects with
feathery wings

Deposit eggs in slits
made in the leaf

Generally over winter as
adults
DAMAGE


Leaves where feeding
has occurred may
become silvery-grey
with brownish feces left
by feeding thrips
Leaves may become
distorted; flowers
mottled
Insect Images-Ronald Smith-Whitney Cranshaw
CONTROL OPTIONS

Insecticidal soap, check label for precautions
when using on delicate blooms

Botanical and synthetic insecticides are also
available
Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

The rose tortrix moth is
established in
Anchorage and has now
been introduced to the
Mat-Su

European leaf-roller

Attacks the rose family;
wild & cultivated roses,
raspberry, cotoneaster,
apple and mt ash.
P F Compton, UAF/CES
DAMAGE



Stop local growth by chewing terminal buds below
calyx
Damage to blossoms can cause premature drop or
malformed fruit
Webbing can interfere with photosynthesis
Larch Sawfly
Imported Currant Worm
Diamond Backed Moth
Raspberry Cane Maggot
Greenhouse and Houseplant
Pests
FUNGUS GNATS

Adults live ~1 week and
tend to be a pest due to
their flying behavior
and numbers

Eggs are laid in the soil
soon after mating

Larvae feed on organic
material including plant
roots
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

DAMAGE

Plant injury occurs
when the larvae feeds
on tiny plant roots

Seedlings are more at
risk to feeding damage
Insect Images-Gerald J Lenhard
CONTROL OPTIONS






Vacuum pests off plants
Sticky traps
Introduce beneficial insects
Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide, or
other; listing host plant, pest and the site on the
label
Eliminate any easy way in
Alter habitat, reduce moisture
LEAFMINERS
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw

Foliage of many plants
may be attacked;
vegetables, houseplants,
and trees

Leafminers may be
flies, sawflies, or moths

Eggs are laid on the
surface or inserted into
plant tissue
DAMAGE

Larvae live and feed
between leaf surfaces
(top)Pam Compton, CES/UAF
(bottom)Insect Images-John A Weidhass

Photosynthetic activity
is reduced and plant is
weakened
CONTROL OPTIONS





Screen or cover susceptible plants when adults
are present
Removal of infested plant leaves will reduce
future pest populations
Systemic insecticides; plant, pest, and site
listed on label
IGR’s (Insect Growth Regulators) pest specific
Secure points of access for pests
MEALYBUGS

The nymph move freely
about the plant until
they find a spot to settle

Once they settle
production of the waxy
covering begins or else
will develop into short
lived winged males

Females will lay
hundreds of eggs
beneath the waxy
covering
Insect Images-Whitney Cranshaw//USDA ARS photo unit
DAMAGE

Cousin to the aphid,
mealybugs pierce the
plant and feed on the
sap

The plants vigor and
growth is reduced as
they feed

Plants then become
more susceptible to
other insects and disease
Insect Images-William M Ciesla
CONTROL OPTIONS






Hand pick
Shower with high pressure spray (careful with
fragile foliage)
Stationary insects can be swabbed off with
alcohol
Introduce beneficial insects
Sticky traps
Systemic insecticides, labeled for plant, pest,
and site
SPRINGTAILS

Primarily are decomposers

Can be found in rich
organic soil

They have a short life
cycle
Stevehopkin.co.uk
DAMAGE

Rarely are plants
damaged by springtails

Large populations may
damage root hairs of
most greenhouse
plantings
www.emporia.edu/biosci
CONTROL OPTIONS

Change the organic content of your potting soil

Eliminate high moisture areas

Introduce beneficial insects

Insecticides which list pest, plant, and site
WHITEFLIES

Females lay circular groups
of eggs on the undersides of
leaves

Nymphs resemble the young
of mealybugs or scale

The adults emerge after
pupation

Broadly oblong wings are
covered with a white waxy
powder
(top)Insect Images-David Riley—(down) Central Science Lab. Harpenden
Archives
DAMAGE

Most greenhouse and
houseplants are hosts

Adults can usually be
seen resting on the
foliage

Nymphs decrease the
vigor of the plant by
sucking the sap
Insect Images-David Riley
CONTROL OPTIONS







Hand pick or vacuum visible pests
Sticky traps
Spot kill with an alcohol swab
Introduce and encourage beneficial insects
Alter plant habitat
Insecticidal soap, botanical insecticide listing
host plant, pest, and site
IGR’s
In and Around Your Home
CARPENTER ANTS

Among the most efficient
wood-destroyers in Alaska

Construct nests in wood
(top) Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org
(bottom) Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, www.insectimages.org

Winged ants develop in
mature nests of >2,000

Important decomposers of
decaying trees

DAMAGE

Often enter standing
trees through a wound

Nesting sites;
between insulation &
subfloor, ceilings, wall
voids, supports in crawl
places, & heartwood of
live trees

Only need 12%
moisture to colonize
(top) USDA Forest Service-NW Area Archives, www.insectimages.org
(bottom) R. Werner, USDA Forest Service, www.insectimages.org
Control options






Determine location of nest and
look for signs of wood damage
Prune or remove foliage near
home
Avoid storing wet or rotting
wood, or firewood, along side
structures
Remove the nest
Use diatomaceous earth or
silica aerogel on the exposed
nest
Boric acid can be used
according to label directions
Edward H Holsten, USDA Forest Service. www.insectimages.org
STORED FOOD PESTS
Life history varies among species,
though many can have several
generations a year depending on
temperature and food availability
Pam Compton CES/UAF
Adult and larval stage of stored
food beetles infest foods;
consuming and often breeding in
the material.
DAMAGE
Pam Compton UAF/CES
Laura Jesse, Iowa State University
A wide range of stored foods
can be contaminated:
-grains
-flours
-nuts
-beans
-pasta
-dried fruit
-spices
Plus the areas where foods
are stored
CONTROL OPTIONS

Examine foods for pests before storing

Use airtight containers to keep pests out of foods, or
store susceptible foods in the refrigerator or freezer

Kill pests in foods by freezing or heating

Keep food service and storage areas clean and free of
spilled food; use vaccum or stiff brush and sponge

Monitor for pests with traps
RESOURCES

Identifying & Controlling Pests in Alaska, CES,
College of Rural Alaska, University of Alaska
Fairbanks
?

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