Week 3 - EDIT 202 Le..

Social theory
 Communication theory
 Media studies
 Technology theories
 Neuroscience
 Etc…
Empiricism (experience)
› Knowledge comes from sensory input +
experiences that get meshed together into
complex associations.
› Empirical truths (things are proven to be
› Learning comes in controlling the
Rationalism (reason)
› Knowledge is already in the mind. Learning
and comes from reflection on what learners
know combined + what they observe (aka
› A priori truths (things are just true based on
› Learning comes in making connections with
prior knowledge.
 Behaviourism
 Cognitivism
› Cognitive Load Theory
 Constructivism
 Connectivism
 Others...
Key theorists: Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike,
 The mind is a black box.
 Learning is an expected response to a
given stimulus; we can’t see what goes
on in the black box.
Practice Makes Perfect!
Stimulus-response (repetition)
 Operant conditioning (reinforcement)
 Punishment
 Consequences
 Modelling
 Shaping
 Cuing
 Drill and practice
Aka – Direct instruction
 Aka - Teacher-directed
Primary mode: Lecture
Learning objectives / curriculum
 Direct instruction
 Behaviour analysis
 Classroom management techniques
 Choice
 Rewards
Math Blaster
Computer Assisted
Instruction (CAI)
 Computer Assisted
Assessment (CAA)
Online Tutorials
TED Talks / YouTube
Foursquare, Huffingtonpost
Microquest games (e.g., Robinson)
The Future?
Grossly oversimplifies learning
 Learning is not always tied to behaviours
 Learning does not require rewards or
 The mind is not a black box
 People adapt
Tweet me another behaviourist
technology and tell me why you feel it is
behaviourist. Don’t forget #edit202!
Emerged in the 1900s as a response to
behaviourism: got big in the 50s/60s.
 Key theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky,
 Beyond behaviour and into the “black
 Memory systems are active, organized
processors of information
 Prior knowledge is key in learning
The mind is a computer.
 Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model
(Sensory/ST/LT Memory)
 Working memory
 Meaningful effect
 Motivation
 Seriality
Practice for retention
 Organization
 Mneumonic devices
 Metaphor / Symbolism
 ”Memory palace”
 Mental maps
 Advance organizers
Processing information can over or under
load working memory.
 Things must run smoothly in order for
meaningful learning to occur.
 Key Theorists: Miller, Sweller
 Example: High falutin’ mumbo jumbo
 Example: Learning in another language
 Example: Overstimulation
 Learning structures
 Instructional design
 Means-ends analysis (inching closer)
 Intrinsic load (difficulty)
 Extraneous load (simplicity)
 Germane load (schemas/connections)
 Error / Fundamental Attribution Error
Working memory is the system which
actively holds multiple pieces of
transitory information in the mind when
needed for verbal and nonverbal tasks
such as reasoning and comprehension,
and to make them available for further
information processing.
 Becker & Morris (1999)
 It has replaced Atkinson & Shiffrin’s STM
What things look like matter
› User Interface
› General Aesthetic
How things are organized matter
› Navigational structures
› Layout of information
Digital Concept Mapping
Artificial Intelligence
 Learning theorists and
computer scientists
often work together
in this area.
Ignores the affective and psychomotor
 Too focused on knowledge; difficult to
measure understanding and HOTS
 The brain is not a computer
Tweet me an example of a web tool or
site that has high extraneous load. Label
it #edit202 AND #extraneousload
Emerged in the early 1930s
 Key Theorists: Dewey, Kolb, Montessori,
Piaget, Bruner, Jonassen
 The mind is a rhizome (network)
 Teacher as facilitator
Learning is building connections by
actively interacting with the environment
 begin with complex problems and teach
basic skills while solving these problems
 learning involves constructing one's own
knowledge from one's own experiences
“Learners construct their own reality or at
least interpret it based upon their
perceptions of experiences, so an
individual's knowledge is a function of one's
prior experiences, mental structures, and
beliefs that are used to interpret objects
and events.... What someone knows is
grounded in perception of the physical and
social experiences which are
comprehended by the mind."
 Jonasson, 1991
Constructivism and Technology
 Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools
for Critical Thinking (1996)
 http://web.missouri.edu/jonassend/
Problem-based learning
Project-based learning
Authentic tasks
Discovery learning
Case-based learning
Collaborative learning
Active learning (responsibility on learners)
Vygotsky’s Zone of proximal development
 Learning is most effective when learners
create tangible, real-world objects.
 “Learning by making”
 Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and
Powerful Ideas (1980)
 Father of Lego Robotics
 http://www.papert.org/
Knowledge is constructed from
 Learning is a personal interpretation of
the world
 Learning is an active process in which
meaning is developed on the basis of
Conceptual growth comes from the
negotiation of meaning, the sharing of
multiple perspectives and the changing
of our internal representations through
collaborative learning
 Learning should be situated in realistic
settings; testing should be integrated
with the task and not a separate activity
(Merrill, 1991, in Smorgansbord, 1997)
Many video games
Lego Robotics (Constructionist)
Technology as tool: A means to an end
 Google Sites
 Wikispaces
 PB Works
 Blogger
 Wordpress
 Etc...
Bernie Dodge
Quest 2 Learn
 High Tech High
 New Tech High
Edutopia Schools That Work
 http://www.edutopia.org/schools-that-work
Time consuming
 Subjective learning
 Mature learners required
 Difficult assessment
 Impractical without prior knowledge
 Lack of research / empirical evidence
Constructivism is COMPLEX!
 You can take entire courses on it.
 This is a very, very simplified version...
Tweet me an example of a good
constructivist learning activity you can
do in your major/minor area. Tag it
#edit202 AND #constructivism
Theory that has emerged since 2006
 Learning is the process of creating
connections and developing a network
 Key theorists: George Siemens
(http://www.connectivism.ca) and
Stephen Downes
 Key work:
A learning theory for the digital age.
What is Learning to Me?
“At its heart, connectivism is the thesis
that knowledge is distributed across a
network of connections, and therefore
that learning consists of the ability to
construct and traverse those networks…
… It shares with some other theories a
core proposition, that knowledge is not
acquired, as though it were a thing…
Knowledge is, on this theory, literally the
set of connections formed by actions
and experience.”
 Stephen Downes
“Fast forward to today and connectivism
is all the rage. In this digital era, we
recognise that there’s simply too much
knowledge to take in – and it changes
too quickly anyway. So forget about
trying to ‘know’ everything; instead, build
your network of knowledge sources, and
access them whenever you need them.”
 Ryan Tracey
A central tenet of most learning theories is that
learning occurs inside a person. Even social
constructivist views, which hold that learning is
a socially enacted process, promotes the
principality of the individual (and her/his
physical presence – i.e. brain-based) in
learning. These theories do not address
learning that occurs outside of people (i.e.
learning that is stored and manipulated by
technology). They also fail to describe how
learning happens within organizations
 George Siemens
Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of
Learning is a process of connecting specialized
nodes or information sources.
Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
Capacity to know more is more critical than
what is currently known
Nurturing and maintaining connections is
needed to facilitate continual learning.
Ability to see connections between fields,
ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is
the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
Decision-making is itself a learning process.
Choosing what to learn and the meaning of
incoming information is seen through the lens
of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer
now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to
alterations in the information climate affecting
the decision.
George Siemens
Networks are a set of connected notes.
 Nodes are anything that can be
connected to another node.
 Nodes can include: people, information,
data, feelings, images, etc...
 Learning can exist outside of people
 It is more important to “know-where” to
find things in your network than to
“know-how” or “know-what”
 http://cck11.mooc.ca/index.html
Social Networking
RSS Feeds and Newsreaders
Bookmarking Apps
Search Engines
Any communication
 Email
 Webcam
 Chat
 VC
 Discussion forums
Anywhere we
can store data:
 Databases
 Intranets
 Drives
 Servers
Informal vs. formal learning
 Is it really a new theory?
 http://stranack.ca/2012/08/16/criticalreview-of-connectivism-a-learningtheory-for-the-digital-age/
Downes: Socialization should not be a
goal of education.
 Siemens: Groups are networks.
Connectivism or Constructivism? Which
one do you connect with more? Why?
Tag it #edit202 and #cvsc
Scenario: Learning Pythagorean
 Behaviourist: Practice, practice, practice
 Cognitivist: Connect to prior knowledge.
Show how it works.
 Constructivist: Give real life application
situations where the PT can be applied.
 Connectivist: Here are 5 links that show
how, why and applications of PT.
Scenario: Learning grammar rules
 Behaviourist: Worksheets!
 Cognitivist: Use mneumonics to
remember rules. Practice in context.
 Constructivist: Write stories, essays, etc...
And correct grammar as you go.
 Connectivist: Bookmark 5 good grammar
sites and find a good grammar checking
BCCC3: Tweet me a scenario to discuss.
Tag it #edit202 AND #bccc
Lorin Anderson
Andrew Churches
Technology influences society
 Key theorists: Postman, McLuhan,
 We are currently in the digital era.
 The medium is the message.
 Hot (low involvement) and cool (high
involvement) media
"the study of media environments, the
idea that technology and techniques,
modes of information and codes of
communication play a leading role in
human affairs.”
 The Media Ecology Association
Social Construction of Technology
 Society and human action influence
 Key theorists: Bijker, Pinch
 Bicycle example
 Symmetry
 Closure

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