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NUMERICAL METHODS FOR NAVIGATION
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• Introduction to Linköping University
• Traditional Extended Kalman (EKF) filters or recent particle
filters (PF)?
• Illustrative examples when PF is used with geographical
information systems (GIS)
Linköping – Norrköping
Sweden’s fourth “metropolitan” region
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Linköping
Norrköping
133 000 inhabitants
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124 000 inhabitants
>25000 students
>240 full professors
>1,400 research students
>140 doctoral degrees/year
>70 licentiate degrees/year
Highly dependent on external
funding
• 34% of the students from the
region
Science Parks
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Mjärdevi Science Park
150 companies, 5000 employees,
focus: communication, automotive
safety, business systems
Berzelius Science Park
20 companies,
focus: bioscience
Pro Nova Science Park
80 companies, focus: IT
Aerospace projects at LiU
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• IDA/ISY: WITAS, the Wallenberg Laboratory for Information
Technology and Autonomous Systems, is engaged in goal-directed
basic research in the area of intelligent autonomous vehicles and
other autonomous systems.
• IKP: The Graduate School for Human-Machine Interaction (HMI)
• ISY/IDA: The competence center ISIS: ISIS is a cooperation
between several research groups at Linköping University, and
several industrial partners. Its mission is to do research around
methods for developing systems for control and supervision.
Communication Systems, LiTH
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LiU
25000 students
2000 employees
Institute of technology
www.control.liu.se
Communication Systems
10 employees
Faculty of health sciences
Dept of EE
150 employees
8 other dept's
Automatic Control
20 employees
9 other divisions
Research areas in communication systems:
• Sensor fusion
• Diagnosis
• Adaptive filtering and fault detection
Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Short CV
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•Fredrik Gustafsson, born 1964, MSc 1988, PhD
1992.
•Prof in Communication systems, Dept of Elec
Eng since 1999.
•Author of 120 international papers, 15 patent
applications, 4 books and one Matlab toolbox
•Supervisor of 4 graduated PhD’s, 12 lic degrees
(currently supervising 10 students) and over 100
master theses.
•Owner of Sigmoid AB, co-founder of NIRA
Dynamics AB and Softube AB.
•www.control.isy.liu.se/~fredrik
Aircraft navigation
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New (2G) integrated navigation
/landing system for JAS:
•Sensor fusion and diagnosis
•Terrain navigation
NINS System Block Diagram
Support &
Sensors
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Basic Sensors
GPS
INS
ADC
SPS
PPS
DGPS
RALT
DME
NINS Processor
TERNAV
GIS Databases:
- Elevation
- Ground Cover
- Obstacle
- Runway
GIS Server
Data Fusion
Kalman
filter
Integrity
Monitoring
Position and
Velocity
Corrections
NINS estimated
Position and Velocity
Position and Velocity
from INS
Abbreviations & Acronyms
INS: Inertial Navigation System
ADC: Air Data Computer
RALT: Radar Altimeter
PPS: Precise Positioning Service
GPS: Global Positioning System
SPS: Standard Positioning Service
DGPS: Differential GPS
TERNAV: Terrain Referenced Navigation
GIS: Geographical Information System
NINS: New Integrated Navigation System
DME: Distance Measuring Equipment
Positioning: GIS as a sensor
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GIS animation: ground
collision avoidance system
Digital Terrain Elevation Database: 200 000 000 grid
points
50 meter between
points
2.5 meters
uncertainty
Ground Cover Database: 14 types of vegetation
Obstacle Database: All man made obstacles above 40
m
Motivating example: car positioning
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• Given: wheel speeds and street map
• Assumption: car is located on a road
(most of the time)
• Intuitive approach using map matching:
–Integration of wheel speeds on one axle
gives a trajectory
–Try all orientations and translations of the
trajectory and compute the fit to map
• Three-dimensional search with
many local minima
Motivating example: car positioning
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• Recursive ad-hoc solution:
–Randomize a large number of positions
on the roads, each one with an associated
orientation in [0, 2p]
–Translate each of them according to
wheel speeds. Keep only the ones that are
left on a road. Let the other ones explore
‘similar’ paths.
• Next: the particle filter in action!
Car positioning I
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• First attempt: off-line Matlab
evaluation of logged data against
logged GPS position
• Initizalization of PF in a known
neighborhood
Particles
Position
estimate
True position
(GPS)
Car positioning II
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1. After slight bend, four particle
clusters left
Car positioning III
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1. After slight bend, four particle
clusters left
2. Convergence after turn
Car positioning IV
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1. After slight bend, four particle
clusters left
2. Convergence after turn
3. Spread along the road
Car positioning V
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• Particle filter using street map
 (t ) from car’s ABS
and v(t),
sensors.
• Off-line evaluation against GPS
• Satellite image background
• Green - true position
• Blue – estimate
• Red - particles
Kalman versus particle filter
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•
Linear Gaussian model
xt 1  Axt  wt
yt  Cxt  et
•
Kalman filter optimal filter
Non-linear non-Gaussian model
xt 1  f ( xt )  wt
yt  h( xt )  et
1. Linearize model: Extended Kalman filter optimal filter to
approximate model
2. Particle filter approximate numerical solution with arbitrary
accuracy for exact model
Particle filter algorithm
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Example: x(t+1)=x(t)+v(t)+w(t),
y(t)=h(x(t))+e(t)
x(t)
Generic Particle Filter
1. Generate random states x0(i )  p( x0 )
x(1)
h(x)
2. Compute likelihood
t(i )  pe ( yt  h( xt(i ) ))
1
3. Resampling: x   ,  
N
2
4. Prediction:x(i )  f ( x(i ) )  w(i ) , w(i )  p 3
t 1
t
t
t
w
4
(i )
t
1.
2.
(i )
t
y(1)
(i )
t
Cramer-Rao: position error > altitude error *
velocity error / sqrt(terrain variation)
•
h(x) terrain map
The particle filter normally attains the Cramer-Rao y(t)=barometric altitude - height radar
bound!
v(t) from INS
Terrain-aided navigation
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2D Example
• Simulated flight trajectory on GIS
• Snapshots at t=0, 20 and 31 seconds
• Red: true Green: estimate
Terrain-aided navigation
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Car positioning VII
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Light green: particles
Red – GPS
Blue: estimate (after convergence)
Real-time implementation on
Compac iPAQ
Works without or with GPS
Map database background
• Complete navigator with voice
guidance!
Ship navigation
• Radar and sea chart input to particle filter
• Support or backup to more vulnerable GPS
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