Report

Frequency, Percentage, and Proportion Statistical Symbols • X or x = Individual Subject/value/score • N or n = Total number of subjects/values/scores Frequency Distributions • an organization of raw data into tabular forms using categories/intervals and frequencies – frequency/frequency count • the # of times a specific value occurs in the data set – often represented by the symbol f • 3 main types – categorical, ungrouped, & grouped Frequency Distributions • Categorical – AKA Qualitative Frequency Distribution • represents data that can be placed in specific categories – Gender, Hair Color, Religious Affiliation • Ex: AB B A O B O B O A O B O B B B A O AB AB O A B AB O A Frequency Distributions • Ex: Categorical Frequency Table Category: Blood Type Frequency f A 5 B 8 O 8 AB 4 Total 25 Frequency Distributions • Ungrouped – a simple listing of the data values w/ the f w/ which each value occurs. • Ex: Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Defects 10 10 6 12 6 9 16 20 11 10 Day 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Defects 11 11 9 12 11 7 10 11 14 21 Day 21 22 23 24 25 Defects 12 6 10 11 6 Frequency Distributions • Ex: Ungrouped Frequency Table Frequency Distributions • Often times, the researcher will also display the relative frequency and the corresponding percentages – relative frequency for any value (class) • obtained by dividing the f for that class by the total number of observations Frequency Distributions • Ex: Ungrouped Frequency Table w/ Relative Frequency and Percentage Frequency Distributions • Sometimes, the researcher will also display the cumulative frequencies and the cumulative relative frequencies – cumulative frequencies • for any specific value, the sum of the f for all values at or below the given value – cumulative relative frequencies • for any specific value, the sum of the relative frequencies for all values at or below the given value Frequency Distributions • Ex: Ungrouped Frequency Table w/ Cumulative Frequency and Cumulative Relative Frequency Frequency Distributions • Grouped – obtained by constructing intervals of the values for the data and then listing the corresponding f in each interval. • Ex: Frequency Distributions • Ex: Ungrouped Frequency Table w/ Cumulative Frequency and Cumulative Relative Frequency