Microscopic Image of Bone Cells: The Skeletal System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/techniques/phasegallery/images/humanpathology/humanbone.jpg The Skeletal System: Contains bones, the organs of this system The tissues of this system: bone tissue, cartilage, blood, connective tissue & nervous tissue Bones, no matter their location or size, have similar functions and structure http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/images/ency/fullsize/9065. jpg Functions of Bones: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Support: provide framework for the body and surround organs Protection: enclose soft organs Movement: Along with skeletal muscles and tendons, enable the body to move. Storage: Within the bone marrow (middle of the bone), Ca++ and P are stored. Blood Cell Formation: Within the bone marrow, blood cells are formed; a.k.a. hematopoiesis. Classification of Bones: There are 206 bones in an adult body. There are 2 types of bone: Compact Bone: dense Spongy Bone, a.k.a. Cancellous Bone: open spaces within the bone There are 4 groups of bones: Long Short Flat Irregular Types of Bones: http://www.google.com/imgres? Structure of the Bone: http://www.google.com/imgres? The diaphysis is the ‘shaft’ of the bone (bone length); mainly compact bone. The epiphysis are the ends (of long bones); mainly spongy bone. The periosteum is the bone covering, or membrane. Structure of the Bone: Red Marrow forms blood cells; this is found within the epiphysis of some long bones and in spongy bone of flat bones. Yellow marrow (fat) is found within the medullary cavity. http://www.google.com/imgres? Microscopic Structure of the Bone: Osteocytes are mature bone cells. These are found w/in lacunae (cavities) which form circles called lamellae. Lamellae form around Haversian (or osteonic) canals. Canaliculi allow a ‘transportation’ system for the bone cells (to receive blood and nutrients). Perforating (or Volkmann’s) canals allow communication to occur. http://www.google.com/imgres? http://www.web-books.com/eLibrary/Medicine/Physiology/Skeletal/compact_spongy_bone.jpg Bone Formation: Osteo means bone. Most bones form from hyaline cartilage. This process is called ossification. Bone forming cells are called osteoblasts. Skeletal Organization: Look up labeled diagram in text or online: KNOW THIS FIGURE! 2 major portions of the skeleton: axial skeleton (bones & cartilage of the head & trunk) and the appendicular skeleton (bones & cartilage of the limbs). There are 206 bones in the (adult) body. http://www.google.com/imgres? Axial Skeleton: The Skull: Cranium encloses the brain Includes: Frontal bone Parietal Bones (2) Temporal Bones (2) Occipital Bone Sphenoid Bone Ethmoid Bone http://www.google.com/imgres? Axial Skeleton: The Skull: Facial Bones, including: Mandible Nasal Bones Maxillary Bones Hyoid Bone: suspended in the midneck above the larynx. http://www.google.com/imgres? Axial Skeleton: The Vertebral Column (Spine): Contains 33 vertebrae 9 of these are fused (form 2 bones): Sacrum and Coccyx (tailbone) Cervical vertebrae are in the neck region (1st 7) Thoracic vertebrae are in the trunk (next 12) Lumbar vertebrae are in the lower back (the last 5) http://www.google.com/imgres? Axial Skeleton: Thoracic Cage: Protects the heart, lungs, and major BVs. Includes: 1. Sternum (breastbone) This is attached to the 1st 7 pairs of ribs. The heart is posterior to the sternum. Axial Skeleton: Thoracic Cage: 2. 12 pairs of Ribs: True ribs are attached to the sternum (1st 7) False ribs (next 5) Last 2 pair are a.k.a. ‘floating ribs’ b/c they lack attachment to sternum. ALL ribs are attached to vertebral column! http://www.google.com/imgres? Appendicular Skeleton: The Shoulder: Shoulder, or pectoral, girdle contains: Clavicle (collarbone) Scapula (shoulder blade) http://www.google.com/imgres? Appendicular Skeleton: The Upper Limbs: The bones of the upper limb are: Humerus (arm) Radius (thumb to forearm) Ulna (pinky finger to forearm) Hand: Carpels (wrist), metacarpels (palm), and phalanges (fingers) http://www.google.com/imgres? Appendicular Skeleton: The Pelvic Girdle: Contains: Coxal Bones (hip bones) which are composed of the ilium, ischium, and pubis http://www.google.com/imgres? Appendicular Skeleton: The Lower Limbs: http://www.google.com/imgres? The thigh bone is a.k.a. the femur. The leg bones are the tibia (shinbone; larger), fibula (thinner), and patella (kneecap). The foot contains the tarsal bones (ankle & heel), metatarsals (sole) and phalanges (toes) Joints: These are a.k.a. articulations. This is where 2 or more bones come together. There are 3 types of joints: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial Joints: Fibrous Joints: Between bones that are close together, united by fibrous tissue. Have limited movement, if any. Sometimes called immovable joints. Ex. Sutures of the skull Cartilaginous Joints: Are shock absorbers & equalize pressure; united by fibrocartilage. Limited movement. Ex. Vertebrate http://www.google.com/imgres? Synovial Joints: Must have: Articulating cartilage Articular capsule (there is a membrane) Joint cavity (synovial fluid) Ligaments Many have bursae (flattened sacs of fluid) and tendon sheaths (elongated bursae) Types of Synovial Joints: 1. 2. 3. Ball-and-socket joints allows the most movement: rotational movement, side-to-side, etc. Ex: shoulder or hip. Condylar joints allow many motions but not rotational. Ex: between phalanges & metacarpels. Plane joints allow sliding & twisting movements. Ex: wrist or ankle. Plane Joint: Ball & Socket Joint: Condylar Joint: http://www.shockfamily.net/skelet on/GLIDING.JPG http://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentIma ges/hip/hip_arthroplasty/hip_arthroplasty_anat 01.jpg http://pioneer.netserv.chula.ac.th/~bkritcha/figure/i mages/condyloid.jpg Types of Synovial Joints: 4. 5. 6. Hinge joints allows planar movement only. Ex: elbow. Pivot joints allow rotational movement around a central axis only. Ex: between radius & ulna. Saddle joints allow a variety of movements. Ex: between carpal & metacarpal of the thumb. Hinge Joint: http://www.eorthopod.com/images/ContentImag es/elbow/elbow_anatomy/elbow_anatomy02a.jpg Saddle Joint: Pivot Joint: http://www.shockfamily.net/skeleton/SADDLE.JP G http://www.dartmouth.edu/~anatomy/asse ts/bones/elbow/elbow-supination.jpg Look these up in text or online! Know the following diseases/imbalances: Rickets, fractures, herniated discs, scoliosis, kyphosis & lordosis, bursitis, sprain, arthritis, osteoarthritis, bone spurs, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosis, and gout, osteoporosis This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran, Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL. Used with her personal permission, adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting, Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.