DJ Dorum 5/16/2013 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Functions Supply body with Oxygen Removing excess Carbon Dioxide Filter incoming air Regulate temp of air & water content of air Produce sounds Smell Blood pH Structures Upper Respiratory Tract Nose Nasal Cavity Paranasal sinuses Pharynx Lower Respiratory Tract Larynx Trachea Bronchial Tree Lungs Nose & Nasal Cavity Nasal Cavity Nose Bones and cartilage support internally Two nostrils Hairs for guarding •Hollow space behind nose •Septum separates nostrils •Nasal conchae on each side •Many mucous cells •Heats incoming air •Mucus traps large particles •Cilia push particle towards pharynx Paranasal Sinuses Air-filled gaps Reduce weight Affect voice Located: Maxillary Frontal Ethmoid Sphenoid Pharynx Aka: Throat Passage way for food and air 3 parts: Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Larynx Moves air in & out of trachea Prevents foreign intrusion of trachea Houses vocal cords Made of cartilage & muscles 3 portions of cartilage: Thyroid Cricoid Epiglottic 2 folds: Upper: False vocal Lower: True vocal Glottis opens during breathing Epiglottis covers glottis during swallowing Trachea A.k.a. windpipe Anterior to esophagus Splits into bronchi About 20 C-shaped cartilage pieces in wall Posterior made of smooth muscle Used to prevent collapse Cilia line inner wall Helps with filtering Bronchial tree Airways within lungs Begin with primary bronchi Branch into smaller bronchioles Into terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles after Alveolar ducts are smallest tubes Ducts lead to Alveolar sacs Sacs divided into Alveoli Diffusion takes place here Lungs Soft and spongy Within Thoracic cavity Serous membrane Viscera Pleura, turns into Parietal Pleura Space between them is pleural cavity http://www.goldiesroom.org/Multimedia/Bio_Image s/13%20Human%20Other/01%20Respiratory%20Sy stem.jpg Mechanics Inspiration •Diaphragm contracts, pressure in cavity drops •Diaphragm relaxes, pressure in cavity rises •Attraction of water in lungs can cause collapse •Substance surfactant synthesized to prevent collapse Expiration •Forces come from elastic recoil of cavity •Pectoralis minor and sternocleidomastoid help both Ventilation= breathing. Moving air in and out Lung Capacity Respiratory cycle = one inspiration plus following expiration Tidal volume: amount of air moving during normal inspiration/ expiration. Inspiratory reserve volume: Large breath in Expiratory reserve volume: Large breath out Residual volume: Amount of air after forced expiration Avg volumes: •Tidal: 500 ml •I.R: 3,000 ml •E.R:1,100 ml of expelled air •Residual: 1,200 ml Respiratory Center Medulla Oblongata and Pons Two special areas: Rhythmicity in Medulla Pneumotaxic in Pons http://www.physioweb.org/IMAG ES/resp_center.jpg Medullary Rhythmicity Area Two neuron groups dorsal respiratory group ventral respiratory group Dorsal controls inspiration Impulses tell diaphragm to contract Ventral used only during forceful breathing Pneumotaxic area Continuosly emits bursts originating from dorsal group Controls breathing rate Strong pneumotaxic inhibition= faster breathing rate Weak pneumotaxic inhibition= slower rate Insane in the Membrane! •Walls of alveoli and capillaries are simple squamos •Wall of capillaries and alveoli create respiratory membrane http://webs.ashlandctc.org/mflath/KEYRESPIRATOR YOBJECTIVES_files/image017.jpg Diffusion of gases Gases diffuse into blood Concentration proportional to partial pressure Amount of pressure contributed by proportion If capillary pressure is higher than alveolar, CO2 diffuses into lungs If capillary pressure is lower than alveolar, O2 diffuses into bloodstream http://faculty.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/imagesAP2/respiration/alvexch.jpg Transport Gases dissolve into Oxygen Transport More O2 released if: plasma or blood CO2 concentration rises compounds pH rises Temp increases Most O2 transported by hemoglobin in red blood O2 deficiency called cells hypoxia Product of combination is Hypoxia possible causes: oxyhemoglobin Unstable compound Quick to release into surrounding O2 deprived cells Decreased arterial Po2 Lack of ability of blood to transport O2 Inadequate blood flow Cyanide poisoning Transport Cont’d •Carbon Dioxide transported 3 forms: •Dissolved in Plasma (least amount transported) •Part of hemoglobin compound (mid amount) •Bicarbonate ion (highest amount) •Amount in plasma determined by partial pressure •CO2 binds to “globin” part of molecule •Does not compete with O2 for binding sites •Bonds form carbaminohemoglobin •CO2 reacts with water: CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 •Occurs slowly in plasma •Diffuses into red blood cells •Cells have enzyme carbonic anhydrase X-factors of breathing Inflation relfex regulates depth of breath Prevents over inflation of lung Chemosensitive areas sense CO2 and pH changes in spinal fluid Rise in chemicals increases tidal volume and faster breathing rate Drop in chemicals triggers opposite response Carotid & Aortic bodies detect O2 levels Found in Carotid arteries and Aorta Low O2 levels trigger increased breathing rate Hyperventilation increases capacity Smoking Physical fitness Works Cited "Body Systems: Respiratory System - The Human Heart: An Online Exploration from The Franklin Institute, made possible by Unisys." The Franklin Institute - Home - 215.448.1200 . N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/systems/respiration.html>. "Hiccups - MayoClinic.com." Mayo Clinic. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hiccups/DS00975>. "Inspiration and Expiration." STCC Faculty Webpages. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2013. <http://faculty.stcc.edu/AandP/AP/AP2pages/Units21to23/respiration/inspir at.htm>. "Lung Disease - American Lung Association." Homepage - American Lung Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May 2013. <http://www.lung.org/lungdisease/?gclid=CNai74LP-bYCFWQ6Qgodvw0AYA>. Shier, David. "Respiratory System." Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 1983. Reprint. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2006. 428-452. Print.