HISTORY AS AOK IN TODAY’S LESSON, KEEP IN MIND: 1. How reliable is eyewitness testimony as a primary source for history? 2. To what extent is any certainty attainable in history? WHAT HAPPENED AT RECESS? An introduction to History as an Area of Knowledge in TOK Brendan Toohey WHAT DO WE KNOW HAPPENED, BUT IS MISSING? History is often the story of the extraordinary – great event/disaster/person? WHOSE PERSPECTIVE IS THIS FROM? History is elite: it is from the perspective of those who can write/publish/have their thoughts or opinions kept – thus royal families, governments, Church, large institutions, rich, educated History relies on the recorder/s of information: why did they see this event this way? What did they not see? What have they neglected to mention (either deliberately or through not noticing (cultural bias) – how many cooks / cleaners in your school?) HOW WAS RECESS THE SAME / DIFFERENT TO A RECESS FIVE OR TEN YEARS AGO? ‘Life’ undergoes subtle changes that may or may not be recorded: history is either a snapshot in time (On this day…) or a generalization (In this period…) HOW DO YOUR ACTIONS AT RECESS AFFECT THE WAY YOU TELL YOUR STORY? (DOES YOUR AUDIENCE AFFECT YOUR STORY?) The writers of history may also be key participants in the action they are describing. (Beware the desire for Historical Legacy: Politicians, Generals, even sports stars or musicians, telling their story, their way … how does an autobiography compare to an unauthorised biography?) ACTIVITY Take a sticky note about one event in history What is the ‘consensus’ view? (The usually told story) How does this story change if told from other perspectives? 20-30 min to research. 30-60 sec feedback HOMEWORK READ THE HANDOUT “What are the main challenges faced by historians in recovering the voices and perspectives of the subaltern?” Be prepared to discuss in small groups, “What are some problems with history?” and other knowledge issues which arise based on the extract and your wider knowledge. HISTORY Lesson 2 Discussion of Homework task History as Myth / Fiction / Fact SMALL GROUP DISCUSSIONS What knowledge issues arise in gathering historical knowledge? Should historians make moral judgments about the past? Be prepared to discuss in small groups, “What are some problems with history?” and other knowledge issues which arise based on the extract and your wider knowledge. (About 20 mins) HISTORY AS MYTH/FICTION/FACT Small Group task: Read your assigned article ‘All history is political’. To what extent is this evident in your example? Why? Report back: Brief overview of ‘myth’ Evaluation of ‘history as political’ HISTORY AS AOK Lesson 3: Oral history Film as history ORAL VS DOCUMENTARY HISTORY The Story of the Three Little Pigs FILM AS HISTORY (‘Is history fiction?’) What is the purpose of a film? What is the purpose of an historical film? A Knight’s Tale: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hi8IWqic0U 1. Historical Fact 2. Historical ‘Theme’ 3. Anachronism - is it historically useful? HISTORY & (SELECTED) WOKS Sense Perception Emotion Language Memory Imagination TOK ‘HISTORY’ IS NOT… The events of the past ‘It happened in the past, so that’s the AOK of History’ A nice long story about some event that may or may not be related to your RLS / Prescribed Title and you’re hoping the marker thinks it is History If you’ve studied it in History class, it is probably pointing towards TOK History… TOK HISTORY IS… A critical analysis of History as a source of knowledge An attempt to identify influences on our understanding of our world in its current form An appreciation of different perspectives in the recording and transmission of history Is ‘history written by the winners’? ASSESSMENT Take one example of an event or time period that you have studied in history at some stage of your schooling, and write it from a different perspective than you received it. Why was this perspective not part of the ‘story’ that you received?