A Nation of Change: Mapping Race and Poverty in the United States By: Gabriel Augusto Sanchez (UCLA) Faculty Adviser: Professor Matthew Snipp, Sociology Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality (CPI) Research Question: Research Question How have the economic circumstances for ethnic and racial groups in the United States. changed from 2000 to 2010? Analysis Initial Analysis Findings 2000 Decennial Census 2011 ACS 5-Year Estimates White Population Background: With the election of President Barack Obama, many have argued that the U.S. has become a post-racial society, implying race has become an unimportant factor in determining opportunity in the country. However, major disparities between Whites and racial minorities continue to exist in areas such as socioeconomic status and education attainment (Bonilla-Silva 2008). In 2011, Professors Snipp and Cheung examined changes in racial and gender inequality since 1970. By observing the income differences between Whites, Blacks, American Indians, Latinos, Filipinos, Chinese and Japanese and found the income disparity between White men and Latinos and American Indians increased. Percent Below Poverty Line Percent Below Poverty Line 0.000000 - 6.740000 0.000000 - 7.250000 7.250001 - 10.630000 10.630001 - 14.000000 14.000001 - 18.050000 18.050001 - 24.910000 24.910001 - 42.210000 6.740001 - 9.850000 9.850001 - 13.050000 13.050001 - 17.240000 17.240001 - 24.950000 24.950001 - 47.910000 Black Population Percent Below Poverty Line Percent Below Poverty Line Based on initial observation, poverty status for each racial group has diminished in some regions while emerging in others. 0.000000 - 8.250000 10.190001 - 23.830000 23.830001 - 36.190000 36.190001 - 51.700000 51.700001 - 77.420000 77.420001 - 100.000000 8.250001 - 21.070000 21.070001 - 32.780000 32.780001 - 47.540000 47.540001 - 75.000000 75.000001 - 100.000000 Moving Forward: Latino Population Whether poverty status has increased for each particular racial group remains unclear since many factors must be considered. Percent Below Poverty Line 0.000000 - 8.580000 8.580001 - 18.030000 18.030001 - 27.030000 27.030001 - 38.540000 38.540001 - 57.950000 Percent Below Poverty Line 0.000000 - 11.430000 11.430001 - 23.460000 23.460001 - 34.760000 34.760001 - 49.440000 49.440001 - 71.430000 57.950001 - 100.000000 71.430001 - 100.000000 Asian Population The racial groups include: White, Black, Latino, American Indian, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Some Other Race, Two or More Races. The data was then translated into maps illustrating concentrations of poverty for each racial group using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The white spaces in some of the maps indicate that there is no member of that particular racial group within the specific county living in poverty, or that little to no one from the racial group lives in the region. Also, more white squares appear on the maps with the 2011 ACS 5-year estimates than the maps with the 2000 Decennial Census data since the former is a sample estimate. 0.000000 - 10.190000 Method: Data regarding population size and poverty status by race throughout each U.S. county was pulled from the 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census and 2011 American Community Survey (ACS) 5year estimates. The illustrations (center) displayed are eight of the various maps created that depict the percentage of persons living at or below the poverty line for White, Black, Latino and Asian populations throughout each U.S. county. Percent Below Poverty Line Percent Below Poverty Line 0.000000 - 5.320000 0.000000 - 5.480000 5.320001 - 14.950000 14.950001 - 27.180000 27.180001 - 44.440000 44.440001 - 73.330000 73.330001 - 100.000000 5.480001 - 15.960000 15.960001 - 29.830000 29.830001 - 49.040000 49.040001 - 77.780000 77.780001 - 100.000000 The population size of each racial group and their overall percentage in poverty must be calculated in order to assess whether or not poverty status has increased. Data on each racial group’s population has been pulled from the 2010 Decennial Census and translated into maps to continue this analysis. Additionally, an examination of how the economic and political climate at the time affected poverty status would help to provide better context for these results. The recent recession and legislation passed during this period are examples of key events that might have affected poverty status.