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Structure & Culture Concepts
Break into Groups
Summarize the Lecture along the lines of:
1. What concepts were presented?
2. Why these concepts were presented?
3. How can the concepts to used in EA work?
Tutorial Agenda
Deeper Understanding of
1. EA as a Complex System Model
2. Defining Structure
3. Types of organisation structures
4. Defining culture
5. Interplay between structure & culture
6. Clarifying the difference between Organisation & Enterprise
7. EA Toolkits
• EA standards
• EA Management processes
• EA Models
• EA in Corporate Governance
8. Tutorial Questions
9. Case Study
Why is EA a Complex System?
Can’t
predict
system
behaviour
Source: Richard Zippel, http://www.cs.cornell.edu/rz/ISAT/7March97/ppframe.htm
Terminology: Organisation Vs Enterprise
It’s a matter of personal contextual interpretation.
Hence, Bernard’s interpreted contexts are:
Organisation
Has
Enterprise
Is
Operating View
Operating
Views
within
& across
Operating
Views
Operating
Views
BUs, locations,
functions, etc
An Enterprise is a System of System
hence
Like a Meta (Above) “Enterprise System”
1. EA Management Program governance
activities apply at this corporate level view
2. The upper layers of EA analysis and design
modelling apply at this corporate level view
Organisation
Has many
“Enterprise”
Is
1. Compliance EA Management Program
spec at these system levels’ views
2. All layers of EA analysis and design work
also apply at these system levels’ views
Operating View
Operating
Views
within
& across
Operating
Views
Operating
Views
BUs, locations,
functions, etc
Various
enterprise
systems
Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #1
Because meta means above a discipline, a meta discipline
can also be regarded as system of system, where a “system
is a set elements, connected together, which form a whole;
this showing properties which are properties of the whole
rather than of its component parts”
(Checkland in Really Learning, 2014)
EA is a meta discipline because:
1.
2.
As a system of system, it is regarded as a corporate
level system of different enterprise views of how an
organisation integrates its strategic, business and
technology resources in providing its service
oriented capabilities and market driven products
More specifically, EA, as a meta system gives the metacontexts and standards for implementing all (strategic
and operating) management and technology best
practices for organisations
Why is EA a Complex System?
Concepts &
Theories
Non Linear
Business System
Components
Behaviours
& Practices
Concepts &
Theories
EA
Non Linear
ICT System
Components
Behaviours
& Practices
Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #2
A meta discipline is
“discipline based on the integration of other
disciplinary knowledge into a new ‘whole”
(Lantz, 2009)
Examples: Science, technology, engineering
and mathematics disciplines
EA is a meta discipline because:
1.
Is based on an integration of concepts
from the business (organisation theories)
and ICT (system theories) domains
Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #3
So can you find other
definitions of meta
disciplines & apply the
definitions to say why EA is
a meta discipline?
EA is a meta discipline because:
1.
Application of your “Meta discipline” definition
Maybe further
elaborations
2.
Maybe more literature based concepts to elaborate /
illustrate your inferred application of “Meta discipline”
definition
Don’t forget to
quote references to
your reasons why
EA is considered a
meta discipline
What are the impact differences of org & system theories on
small and large enterprises’ EA development?
People & Politics factors
Organisation factors
Competition factors
ICT Mgt factors
SDLC Methods
SE Methods
An approach is to look at the various papers about the influences of organisation and system
theories on EA or enterprise systems, and use their underlying concepts as comparison criteria
Influencing Factors’ Comparison
Identify what people factors you can compare
Identify what org factors you can compare
Identify what competition factors you can
compare
Identify what ICT Mgt factors you can compare
Identity what SDLC , SE and other ICT dev
competencies you can compare
SME
Large Enterprises
Defining Organisational Structure
from
..... and there are others not mentioned
Definition from the Leavitt Diamond Model (1965)
Why is EA Complex?
Structure
Technology
Process
People
Business Activities & Information Flows
Open System Social Technical Useability
Chain of Command Configuration
Leadership & Culture
Any changes in one will affect the Other
Types of Organisation Structures
Bottom Up
Top Down
Network
Collaborative
Organisational & System Theories have influenced the
development of EA Concepts & Practices
People & Politics factors
Organisation factors
Competition factors
ICT Mgt factors
SDLC Methods
SE Methods
+
Leadership
What is Culture ?
Family, education, belief & expectation systems, experiences.....
 People attitudes in different situations

Shape behaviours
 Situation Outcomes
at home/work/etc
Explore 2 EA Components today
Example:
Part of ANZ Bank’s Org
Example
Cloud not suited to ANZ Bank: Weatherston
Chief information officer, Anne Weatherston,
says it will be five years before Cloud is mature
enough for the financial sector
http://www.cio.com.au/article/403267/cloud_suited_anz_bank_weatherston/
Structure
Understanding the Interplays of Org Culture &
Structure
Structure & Culture Interplay
Top Down
Bottom Up
Behaviours
Behaviours
Consensus Agreed Directives
Grass Roots Influenced Decision Making
Instructional directives
Exclusive Decision Making
You tell we do
You don’t tell, we don’t do
We tell we do
Structure & Culture Interplay
Network
Collaborative
Behaviours
Top Down/Bottom Up (Competence Based) Directives
Exclusive/Inclusive (Competence Based) Decision Making
You tell we do
You don’t tell, we don’t do
We tell we do
Do it / Can Do
AND we all support One or All
Adaptive = Agile Capacity
Strategy & Leadership Interplay
Influences
Influenced by
Makes or
Breaks
Enables
(Efficacy
of chain of
command
execution
Makes or
Breaks
(Efficacy of chain of
command execution)
enabled by
influences
When organisation culture is operational
Influences
Influenced by
Org becomes
operationally
tactical , not
strategic
Enables
(Efficacy
of chain of
command
execution
What happens?
(Efficacy of chain of
command execution)
enabled by
Makes or
Breaks
influences
Structure & Culture Interplay
Present EA contexts based on (a) the Culture of Organisation
And (b) who presenters report to (structure)
Organisational & System Theories have influenced the
development of EA Concepts & Practices
People & Politics factors
Organisation factors
Competition factors
The Parsons/Thompson Model
which explains the corporate
level, management & technical
perspectives of org structures &
functional activity foci
Leavitt Diamond Org Model
ICT Mgt factors
SDLC Methods
SE Methods
How Bernard used the
Parsons/Thompson
Model to structure the
EA3 work groupings
EA Toolkits
•
•
•
•
Standards
EA management Processes
EA Models
EA in Corporate Governance
What are Standards?
Lay Language: is a level of quality attainment that is
used as measure, norm or model in comparison evaluations
(Standards Australia, 2014)
What are Best Practices?
(Technopedia, 2014)
EA Standards
Proprietary or Community Shared Standards
Eg Zackman EA, TOGAF, etc
Process Standards
Modelling Standards
Methods
Digitalised as ICT enabled EA
modelling Tools eg IBM’s
Rational Rose, MS Visio
Spec-Formats
At Different EA Perspectives
EA Management Program Processes
Example:
The Open Group Architecture Framework Standard (TOGAF)
EA Processes
BUT What do the Actual Architecture Models Look Like?
Eg using ITIL to
frame ICT methods
& artefacts
Eg using UML
notations for
modelling artefacts
EA (analysis & design) Models
What to They Look Like?
Multimedia Specs
Text Specs
Visual Specs
Documentation of EA Models
What to They Look Like?
Rich Pictures
UML Notations
EA (analysis & design) Models
What to They Look Like?
Rich Pictures
Use standards like
UML Notations
EA in Corporate Governance
EA
EA as Part of Corporate Governance Framework
EA Culture fostered by:
• Corporate Governance Roles &
responsibilities + performance appraisal
• Training & career paths
Applies to all ICT
org. projects*
* Are:
• Portfolios
• Programs
• Projects
Corporate Governance (CG) 101
Where CG applies?
What is Involved in CG work?
7) Tutorial Tasks
Break into Groups and Develop
and Present Answers to
Allocated Q
1. Why is it important to understand the “people side” of EA?
2. Compare and contrast an organisation and an enterprise.
3. What are some of the academic fields that influence the field of EA?
4. Describe the purpose of each level of the Parson/Thompson Model.
5. How is the Organisation Network Model different from the Parsons/Thompson Model
of organisations?
6. Who are stakeholders in the EA program and associated activities and might they want
to resist the EA program and associated activities?
7. What are four ways to manage change with stakeholders?
8. Select a large or mid-size enterprise from business or government and describe the
following:
a. What structural and cultural aspects should be captured by EA?
b. Who are the potential stakeholders in an EA program?
c. What strategies for gaining stakeholder buy-in could be used?
d. Relate Strategies for managing change to various stakeholders.
Case Study
Break up into Groups
(1) Conceptualise the key conversations
(2) What is
Q8 Do you agree with the need for an EA program in the case study?
Sales & Inventory Tracking System
(SITS) – ~2 years RoI, $3mio++
Kate Jarvis
Capacity to compete with competitor
Mitigate production inefficiency
Integrate info across
• Sales
• Inventory
• Production
(COO)
Rob Danforth
Gerald Montes
(CEO)
(Chief Council)
Decision Options: Buy 1, Buy 2?
Improve cost management
Jim Gorman
Cost Accounting Module
WELLCO ERP System
18 months RoI, <$600K
(CFO)
Sam Young
(CIO)
What’s this week Conversation About?
Split into groups
Use Visual Graphics to Summarize
Lily Jefferson
EA will align each current &
future departments,
increase cost savings into
the future, BUT will cost
additionally $121,600 & 2
months ......
System Analyst
What is the value in terms of
cost savings & scalability of
solution?
Vince
The Albright
Architect
1
What is DMC
organisation culture?
2
Can you describe
DMC organisation
structure?
Infer DMC’s Strategic Goals
Eg New Custom Order Line of
Business for Next Year
Analyse Kate & Jim’s System
Requirements
Sales & Production
Department
Finance
Department
3
Discuss the
merits and
limitations of
the CIO’s (Sam)
EA Plan for
Financial and
Production
Segments?

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