Structure & Culture Concepts Break into Groups Summarize the Lecture along the lines of: 1. What concepts were presented? 2. Why these concepts were presented? 3. How can the concepts to used in EA work? Tutorial Agenda Deeper Understanding of 1. EA as a Complex System Model 2. Defining Structure 3. Types of organisation structures 4. Defining culture 5. Interplay between structure & culture 6. Clarifying the difference between Organisation & Enterprise 7. EA Toolkits • EA standards • EA Management processes • EA Models • EA in Corporate Governance 8. Tutorial Questions 9. Case Study Why is EA a Complex System? Can’t predict system behaviour Source: Richard Zippel, http://www.cs.cornell.edu/rz/ISAT/7March97/ppframe.htm Terminology: Organisation Vs Enterprise It’s a matter of personal contextual interpretation. Hence, Bernard’s interpreted contexts are: Organisation Has Enterprise Is Operating View Operating Views within & across Operating Views Operating Views BUs, locations, functions, etc An Enterprise is a System of System hence Like a Meta (Above) “Enterprise System” 1. EA Management Program governance activities apply at this corporate level view 2. The upper layers of EA analysis and design modelling apply at this corporate level view Organisation Has many “Enterprise” Is 1. Compliance EA Management Program spec at these system levels’ views 2. All layers of EA analysis and design work also apply at these system levels’ views Operating View Operating Views within & across Operating Views Operating Views BUs, locations, functions, etc Various enterprise systems Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #1 Because meta means above a discipline, a meta discipline can also be regarded as system of system, where a “system is a set elements, connected together, which form a whole; this showing properties which are properties of the whole rather than of its component parts” (Checkland in Really Learning, 2014) EA is a meta discipline because: 1. 2. As a system of system, it is regarded as a corporate level system of different enterprise views of how an organisation integrates its strategic, business and technology resources in providing its service oriented capabilities and market driven products More specifically, EA, as a meta system gives the metacontexts and standards for implementing all (strategic and operating) management and technology best practices for organisations Why is EA a Complex System? Concepts & Theories Non Linear Business System Components Behaviours & Practices Concepts & Theories EA Non Linear ICT System Components Behaviours & Practices Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #2 A meta discipline is “discipline based on the integration of other disciplinary knowledge into a new ‘whole” (Lantz, 2009) Examples: Science, technology, engineering and mathematics disciplines EA is a meta discipline because: 1. Is based on an integration of concepts from the business (organisation theories) and ICT (system theories) domains Hence EA as a Meta Discipline - #3 So can you find other definitions of meta disciplines & apply the definitions to say why EA is a meta discipline? EA is a meta discipline because: 1. Application of your “Meta discipline” definition Maybe further elaborations 2. Maybe more literature based concepts to elaborate / illustrate your inferred application of “Meta discipline” definition Don’t forget to quote references to your reasons why EA is considered a meta discipline What are the impact differences of org & system theories on small and large enterprises’ EA development? People & Politics factors Organisation factors Competition factors ICT Mgt factors SDLC Methods SE Methods An approach is to look at the various papers about the influences of organisation and system theories on EA or enterprise systems, and use their underlying concepts as comparison criteria Influencing Factors’ Comparison Identify what people factors you can compare Identify what org factors you can compare Identify what competition factors you can compare Identify what ICT Mgt factors you can compare Identity what SDLC , SE and other ICT dev competencies you can compare SME Large Enterprises Defining Organisational Structure from ..... and there are others not mentioned Definition from the Leavitt Diamond Model (1965) Why is EA Complex? Structure Technology Process People Business Activities & Information Flows Open System Social Technical Useability Chain of Command Configuration Leadership & Culture Any changes in one will affect the Other Types of Organisation Structures Bottom Up Top Down Network Collaborative Organisational & System Theories have influenced the development of EA Concepts & Practices People & Politics factors Organisation factors Competition factors ICT Mgt factors SDLC Methods SE Methods + Leadership What is Culture ? Family, education, belief & expectation systems, experiences..... People attitudes in different situations Shape behaviours Situation Outcomes at home/work/etc Explore 2 EA Components today Example: Part of ANZ Bank’s Org Example Cloud not suited to ANZ Bank: Weatherston Chief information officer, Anne Weatherston, says it will be five years before Cloud is mature enough for the financial sector http://www.cio.com.au/article/403267/cloud_suited_anz_bank_weatherston/ Structure Understanding the Interplays of Org Culture & Structure Structure & Culture Interplay Top Down Bottom Up Behaviours Behaviours Consensus Agreed Directives Grass Roots Influenced Decision Making Instructional directives Exclusive Decision Making You tell we do You don’t tell, we don’t do We tell we do Structure & Culture Interplay Network Collaborative Behaviours Top Down/Bottom Up (Competence Based) Directives Exclusive/Inclusive (Competence Based) Decision Making You tell we do You don’t tell, we don’t do We tell we do Do it / Can Do AND we all support One or All Adaptive = Agile Capacity Strategy & Leadership Interplay Influences Influenced by Makes or Breaks Enables (Efficacy of chain of command execution Makes or Breaks (Efficacy of chain of command execution) enabled by influences When organisation culture is operational Influences Influenced by Org becomes operationally tactical , not strategic Enables (Efficacy of chain of command execution What happens? (Efficacy of chain of command execution) enabled by Makes or Breaks influences Structure & Culture Interplay Present EA contexts based on (a) the Culture of Organisation And (b) who presenters report to (structure) Organisational & System Theories have influenced the development of EA Concepts & Practices People & Politics factors Organisation factors Competition factors The Parsons/Thompson Model which explains the corporate level, management & technical perspectives of org structures & functional activity foci Leavitt Diamond Org Model ICT Mgt factors SDLC Methods SE Methods How Bernard used the Parsons/Thompson Model to structure the EA3 work groupings EA Toolkits • • • • Standards EA management Processes EA Models EA in Corporate Governance What are Standards? Lay Language: is a level of quality attainment that is used as measure, norm or model in comparison evaluations (Standards Australia, 2014) What are Best Practices? (Technopedia, 2014) EA Standards Proprietary or Community Shared Standards Eg Zackman EA, TOGAF, etc Process Standards Modelling Standards Methods Digitalised as ICT enabled EA modelling Tools eg IBM’s Rational Rose, MS Visio Spec-Formats At Different EA Perspectives EA Management Program Processes Example: The Open Group Architecture Framework Standard (TOGAF) EA Processes BUT What do the Actual Architecture Models Look Like? Eg using ITIL to frame ICT methods & artefacts Eg using UML notations for modelling artefacts EA (analysis & design) Models What to They Look Like? Multimedia Specs Text Specs Visual Specs Documentation of EA Models What to They Look Like? Rich Pictures UML Notations EA (analysis & design) Models What to They Look Like? Rich Pictures Use standards like UML Notations EA in Corporate Governance EA EA as Part of Corporate Governance Framework EA Culture fostered by: • Corporate Governance Roles & responsibilities + performance appraisal • Training & career paths Applies to all ICT org. projects* * Are: • Portfolios • Programs • Projects Corporate Governance (CG) 101 Where CG applies? What is Involved in CG work? 7) Tutorial Tasks Break into Groups and Develop and Present Answers to Allocated Q 1. Why is it important to understand the “people side” of EA? 2. Compare and contrast an organisation and an enterprise. 3. What are some of the academic fields that influence the field of EA? 4. Describe the purpose of each level of the Parson/Thompson Model. 5. How is the Organisation Network Model different from the Parsons/Thompson Model of organisations? 6. Who are stakeholders in the EA program and associated activities and might they want to resist the EA program and associated activities? 7. What are four ways to manage change with stakeholders? 8. Select a large or mid-size enterprise from business or government and describe the following: a. What structural and cultural aspects should be captured by EA? b. Who are the potential stakeholders in an EA program? c. What strategies for gaining stakeholder buy-in could be used? d. Relate Strategies for managing change to various stakeholders. Case Study Break up into Groups (1) Conceptualise the key conversations (2) What is Q8 Do you agree with the need for an EA program in the case study? Sales & Inventory Tracking System (SITS) – ~2 years RoI, $3mio++ Kate Jarvis Capacity to compete with competitor Mitigate production inefficiency Integrate info across • Sales • Inventory • Production (COO) Rob Danforth Gerald Montes (CEO) (Chief Council) Decision Options: Buy 1, Buy 2? Improve cost management Jim Gorman Cost Accounting Module WELLCO ERP System 18 months RoI, <$600K (CFO) Sam Young (CIO) What’s this week Conversation About? Split into groups Use Visual Graphics to Summarize Lily Jefferson EA will align each current & future departments, increase cost savings into the future, BUT will cost additionally $121,600 & 2 months ...... System Analyst What is the value in terms of cost savings & scalability of solution? Vince The Albright Architect 1 What is DMC organisation culture? 2 Can you describe DMC organisation structure? Infer DMC’s Strategic Goals Eg New Custom Order Line of Business for Next Year Analyse Kate & Jim’s System Requirements Sales & Production Department Finance Department 3 Discuss the merits and limitations of the CIO’s (Sam) EA Plan for Financial and Production Segments?