Bellringer (10/10/13)
Please write the question and the answer.
America is famous for its ability to manufacture
quality goods. Can you name some items
manufactured around the Unifour area that
were known around the world?
Please take a moment to consider your answer.
Key Terms/People to Know
Section 1: Bessemer process, Edwin L. Drake,
wildcatter, transcontinental railroad
Section 2: entrepreneur, capitalism, laissez-faire,
social Darwinism, monopoly, John D.
Rockefeller, vertical integration, horizontal
integration, Andrew Carnegie, Cornelius
Why Steel?
Steel was stronger than iron, less brittle (won’t
chip), can build taller buildings, bigger
bridges…but most importantly…
1877: $50/ton
1890s: $12/ton
Railroads loved it, and so did engineers in cities!
Making Steel
Watch this quick video on the Bessemer Process.
How long did it take to purify the iron into goodquality steel using a Bessemer converter?
Did this make steel production more efficient?
What do you see?
U.S. had been using whale oil for machine
lubrication from before the founding of the
As whales harder to find and industry increasing,
oil needed for machine lubrication and also
Edwin Drake hit oil while drilling in Pennsylvania,
starting the wildcatter craze.
The Transcontinental Railroad
Congress commissions the Union Pacific and the
Central Pacific Railroads in 1862 to create a
transcontinental railroad going from Omaha,
Nebraska to Sacramento, California.
Promontory Point, Utah, 1869
The Entrepreneurial Spirit
Look on page 467 to define Capitalism and
How do these two economic principles tie
Now let’s watch this short film about the
differences between capitalism and socialism.
Horatio Alger, Jr.
Wrote stories that
taught hard work and
determination would
lead to success.
Works intended for
Alger and Social Darwinism
On your own, look up social Darwinism. Use
your phone or look on page 467 of your book.
Could you say Horatio Alger’s stories taught
social Darwinism?
Please write the question and the answer.
How were industrial capitalists in the Gilded Age
similar to social Darwinists? Give an example of
how they had similar views.
Please take a few minutes to reflect on your
On your own…
Read page 468.
What are the a)good things and b)bad things
about proprietorships and corporations?
What is a monopoly?
What are the two types of monopoly?
Group Work: I’m rich!
Identify these tycoons,
tell what industry they were in,
what they are remembered for (their legacy):
a) John D. Rockefeller
b) Andrew Carnegie
c) Cornelius Vanderbilt
Key Terms/People to Know
Section 3: Sherman Antitrust Act, sweatshop,
Knights of Labor, Terence V. Powderly,
xenophobia, blacklist, Samuel Gompers,
American Federation of Labor, Eugene V. Debs
Section 4: mass transit, Orville and Wilbur
Wright, telegraph, Alexander Graham Bell,
Thomas Alva Edison
On your own…
Read through section 3 (pgs. 472-476) to find answers to
the following questions.
1. Why were business owners scared by the Sherman
Antitrust Act?
2. What did the act prohibit?
3. What effect did the growth of industry have on
4. What are some of the tools labor (workers) used to
make gains from industrialists?
5. List four strikes or work stoppages started by Unions.
What were the outcomes of each of these strikes?
You have 20 minutes.
Graphic Literacy
Take a look at the graph on page 476.
Why did union growth decrease between 1886
and 1895?
What years saw the largest increase in
membership for the unions?
On your own: Inventions
Look through pages 478-479.
What were 5 inventions mentioned in the section?
What did they do to improve the lives of common
You have 10 minutes.
Please write the question and the answer.
How did the Sherman Antitrust Act and labor
unions such as the Knights of Labor go against
the theory of laissez-faire capitalism believed by
industrial capitalists?
Please take a few minutes to reflect on your
Stop the Strikes!
Unions like Knights of Labor (first union in US)
and the AFL (most members towards end of 19th
century) used strikes effectively to gain
concessions from business.
Strikes like the Pullman Strike were ended by
court orders, or injunctions.
Injunctions, or a court orders to do or stop doing
something, were used by businesses when they
could find sympathetic judges.
These injunctions would effectively end organizing
efforts, a strike, or make workers go back to work.
Normally injunctions were granted based on
restoring the status quo, or to make whole again
someone whose rights had been violated.
Group Project: Thomas Edison and
Menlo Park
Thomas Edison filed for over 1,000 patents.
In a group of no more than 3, go to this website:
Choose one patent that Edison and his research lab
executed during their time at Menlo Park (1876-1931).
Create an advertisement for this invention! You have 30
Quick Break
Now for a fun little ditty about Thomas A. Edison and a
Serbian immigrant named Nikola Tesla (yes, like the car).
Tesla originally came to the United States to work for
Edison in 1884. He made a lot of money from his
inventions dealing with alternating current (the AC of
AC/DC), but spent it all on experiments which were
thought to be ridiculous by the scientific community. A lot
of his inventions were far ahead of their time.
He died as a recluse in a New York hotel.
Key Terms/ People to Know
Section 1: Ellis Island, Angel Island, benevolent
society, Denis Kearney, Chinese Exclusion Act,
Gentlemen’s Agreement, literacy test
Section 2: Elisha Otis, Frederick Law Olmstead,
settlement house, Jane Addams, Lillian Wald,
Social Gospel
Small Group: Coming to America
Skim through pages 488-492.
How were immigrants at the end of the 19th and the
beginning of the 20th centuries different? How were they
similar? Give two examples for each.
Where did immigrants on the East Coast go first? Where
did immigrants on the West Coast go? What type of
things did they undergo upon arriving at these locations?
You have 20 minutes.
On your own…Ausländer Raus!
How did Americans react to the wave of new
immigrants? Skim through pgs. 493-494 and
describe the following three things and how they
impacted immigration:
Chinese Exclusion Act
Gentlemen’s Agreement
literacy test
You have 10 minutes.
Please write the question and the answer.
Where did many immigrants come from during
the early 20th century? What are two ways they
were different from other, earlier immigrants?
Please take a few minutes to consider your
On your own…Ausländer Raus!
How did Americans react to the wave of new
immigrants? Skim through pgs. 493-494 and
describe the following three things and how they
impacted immigration:
Chinese Exclusion Act
Gentlemen’s Agreement
literacy test
You have 10 minutes.
Skim through page 497. How did the different
classes live in the changing cities?
The upper class
The middle class
The working class
From page 498: What was a settlement house, and
what role did religion play for workers there?
You have 10 minutes.
Keeping Cities Green
Frederick Law Olmstead’s Park Systems
Boston’s Emerald Necklace
and most famously…
Central Park in New York City
Let’s take a tour!
Small Group: Politics in the Gilded Age
With a small group, identify the following:
1. Political machines
2. Tammany Hall
3. Boss Tweed
4. Union Pacific Railroad
5. Crédit Mobilier
6. The Whiskey Ring
What did all of these things have to do with in the
political setting of the time?
You have 20 minutes.
Waiting for Guiteau…
Using page 502, answer the following questions.
1. What are some ways that Hayes, Garfield,
and Arthur tried to take on corruption at the
federal level?
2. Did Guiteau’s actions help or hinder his
3. What law eventually helped reduce
You have 10 minutes.
Please write the question and the answer.
What is a word you could you describe politics in
the Gilded Age? Please provide two examples
that helped you come to your description.
Please take a minute to consider your answer.
Partner Work: Regulation
Tie these things together. Use pages 503-506 to help:
1. Railroad fees:: farmers
2. National Grange::interests of farmers
3. Wabash v. Illinois::regulation
4. Interstate Commerce Act::Interstate
Commerce Commission
5. Farmers’ Alliance::Colored Farmers’ Alliance
6. Gold Standard::inflation
7. Sherman Silver Purchase Act::Panic of 1893
8. William McKinley::William Jennings Bryan
You have 30 minutes.
Gilded Age Dicrimination
Despite being free from slavery, African-Americans
still dealt with legal forms of discrimination:
poll taxes and literacy tests
the grandfather clause (1/1/1867)
Jim Crow laws
Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal)
Trying to Overcome
Booker T. Washington:
• best prospects for success were through farming
and learning a trade
• founded Tuskegee
W.E.B. Du Bois:
• full equality immediately
• should be assisted by “talented tenth,” educated
and already successful African-Americans
• founded NAACP
Other Groups
Mexican Americans
– mainly farmers, tied to land through debt peonage
• Couldn’t stop working until all debts paid to employers
– Outlawed in 1911
Native Americans
– Still not citizens (until 1924)
– Continued policy of Americanization

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