Promoting assessment as learning

Report
New Senior Secondary (NSS)
Understanding and Interpreting the Curriculum Series:
English Language for English Teachers (Refreshed) –
Promoting Assessment FOR and AS Learning
English Language Education Section, CDI, EDB
1
What will you
associate the word
“Assessment” with?
Assessment
2
Programme objectives
By the end of the workshop, you will have:
discussed the role of assessment in English language
learning and teaching
examined the features of the assessment framework for
the HKDSE Exam
reviewed current assessment practices
explored effective strategies for implementing AfL and
AasL to enhance self-directed learning
participated in hand-on activities to design assessment
tasks and give quality feedback to students
3
HKDSE Examination
English Language
Component
Public
exam
SBA
Paper 1 Reading
Paper 2 Writing
Paper 3 Listening and
integrated skills
Paper 4 Speaking
Weighting
Duration
20%
25%
30%
1 hr 30 min
2 hrs
2 hrs
10%
20 min
15%
4
Features of the
HKDSE Assessment Framework
5
Standards-referenced Reporting: Rationale
 Make implicit levels of achievement explicit to
stakeholders and end-users
 Facilitate learning and teaching because
teachers and students know what is required to
achieve a desired level
 Help monitor the standards of students from
year to year with the defined requirements
maintained over time
HKDSE
6
5*
*
Level 5
5*
e.g.
Level 4
Level 3
e.g.
Level 2
Level 1
e.g.
A typical candidate at Level 5 can:
- understand spoken English when delivered at near-normal speed in a
wide range of situations
- understand complex texts
- write in an interesting and organised way, using a wide range of
sentence structures and vocabulary accurately
- express a range of ideas fluently and clearly
A typical candidate at Level 3 can:
- understand spoken English when delivered at moderate speed in
familiar situations
- understand simple texts, especially if the topic is familiar
- write in a relevant and organised way when the context is familiar
- use a range of simple common expressions with fluency
A typical candidate at Level 1 can:
- understand simple spoken English in short spoken texts
- understand parts of simple texts if the topic and vocabulary is familiar
- make one or two relevant points in writing with a few simple
comprehensible sentences
- use a few short and simple common expressions
 Complete set of Level Descriptors for all skills
Unclassified
7
http://www.hkeaa.edu.hk/DocLibrary/HKDSE/Subject_Information/eng_lang/eng-lang-level-descriptors.pdf
School-based Assessment (SBA)
 Assessment administered in schools and marked by the students’ own
teachers
 Assessment of students’ speaking skills based on their performance in
individual presentation and group interaction
Rationale
Beneficial
backwash on
learning and
teaching
Improved
reliability and
validity of oral
English
assessment
Less reliance on
a “one-off” public
oral exam
Professional
development for
teachers which
empowers them
to become part of
the assessment
process
8
SBA for HKDSE
Requirements
Number and type of texts
to be read/viewed
S4
One or
Two
texts
S5
One or Two texts
S6
One or Two texts
Total
Four texts, one each from
the following four
categories (print fiction,
print non-fiction, non-print
fiction, non-print nonfiction) in the course of
three years
Number, % and timing of
assessment tasks to be
undertaken for Part A
*One task, group interaction or
individual presentation, to be
undertaken during the second term of
S5 or anytime during S6; (7.5%)
One tasks, based on the
reading and viewing
programme; (7.5%)
Number, % and timing of
assessment tasks to be
undertaken for Part B
*One task, group interaction or
individual presentation, to be
undertaken during the second term of
S5 or anytime during S6; (7.5%)
†One task, based on the
Elective Module(s) taught;
Number, % and timing of
marks to be reported
(7.5%)
Two marks, 15% of total
English mark, reported at
the end of S6
9
Assessment Criteria for SBA
(Areas that students are assessed on at HKCEE and HKDSE)
 Pronunciation & Delivery
phonology & intonation, voice projection & fluency
 Communicative Strategies
body language, timing, asking/responding to questions
 Vocabulary & Language Patterns
vocabulary, language patterns, & self-correction / reformulation
 Ideas & Organisation
expressing information and ideas, elaboration on appropriate
aspects of topic, organisation, questioning & responding to
questions
10
When conducting SBA in schools,
Teachers will:
 conduct self and peer assessment whenever appropriate so
that students can reflect on their performance
 create a supportive and low-stress environment
 provide feedback to students and identify their strengths and
weaknesses
 advise on how improvements can be made
 to promote assessment for learning
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Implications of
HKDSE assessment framework
What principles are reflected in the design of the
HKDSE assessment framework?
 Alignment between curriculum and assessment
 Catering to the full spectrum of students’ aptitude
and ability
 Opportunities for promoting assessment for learning
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Comparison between AoL and AfL
Assessment of Learning
Assessment for Learning
Roles of Teacher
and Student
•
Teachers dominate the
assessment process
•
Teachers play a major role but
students participate actively in the
assessment process
Time
•
At the end of an
instructional unit
(summative in nature)
•
During a unit of instruction (formative
in nature)
Purpose
•
•
•
To monitor and support learning; and
To inform learning and teaching
•
To measure students’
knowledge and skills; and
To report students’
attainment of learning
outcomes
Form of
assessment
•
Tests or examinations
•
Various forms of assessment
Feedback
•
Marks or grades
•
Comments on students’ performance
and suggestions for improvement
13
Reflection on assessment practices
at classroom and school levels
 What modes of assessments do you conduct with your
SS students?
 What kinds of assignments and assessment tasks do
you give your students?
 How do you mark students’ work? What kind of
feedback do you provide?
 How are tests and examination papers designed and set
in your school?
 What follow-up work would you do at the classroom and
school levels after each test/examination?
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Promoting Assessment for Learning
Harris, Linda (2007) “Employing formative assessment in the classroom”. Improving Schools,
10 (3). pp. 249-260.
AfL in Action
An example focusing on the development of writing skills
Related Module/
Elective Modules:
 Study, School Life and Work
 Learning English through Social
Issues
 Learning English through Debating
Student Level:
Senior Secondary S4
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Pre-writing: Establishing success criteria with reference to the
question:
Some experts in education have observed that Hong Kong teenagers
are too pampered and spoilt by their parents, resulting in their lack
of self-management and problem-solving skills. One proposed
solution to this problem is requiring students to undertake 50 hours
of community service, in addition to the community services
organised by the schools for the Other Learning Experiences (OLE),
before they are allowed to graduate from secondary school. Write an
article to the school newspaper to express whether you agree with
this proposal and give at least three reasons for your view.
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Topic
Text-type
Analysis of the topic
Compulsory community service
An article for the school magazine
Role of the Writer A student
Target Readers Students and teachers in a
school
To express and justify views, to
Purposes
persuade
Tone & Register Semi-formal
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Content
Language
Organisation
• Fulfilment of
requirements of
question
• Relevance of content
• Development of ideas
• Creativity/imagination
• Ability to engage
readers (i.e. interest)
& audience
awareness
• Accuracy, range &
complexity of
sentence structures
• Grammar accuracy
• Word choice
• Accuracy of spelling
& punctuation
• Appropriateness of
register, tone &
style
• Effectiveness of text
organisation &
logical development
of ideas
• Substantiality of
supporting details
• Cohesion of text (i.e.
appropriate use of
cohesive ties)
• Coherence of overall
writing
1. What are the task requirements?
2. What am I expected to demonstrate in the following
aspects of my writing to successfully complete the
task?
Content
Language & Style
Organisation
20
21
Sample Teachers’ Assessment
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Sample Teachers’ Assessment
23
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Activity 1: Developing Success Criteria
In groups,
1. Read the two writing topics;
2. Discuss the text-type, role of the writer, target
reader(s), purposes, tone and register; and
3. Draft the specific assessment criteria for this task
in terms of content, language and style, and
organisation in the template provided.
25
Activity 1: Developing Success Criteria
Writing topic A
You are taking a creative writing workshop and you have to submit the
following assignment:
Imagine you are a university student living in a student
hall. Your roommate has suddenly decided to leave.
Write a short story describing the events that led up to
your roommate’s sudden departure.
(HKDSE 2014 Paper 2 Part B Question No. 9
Learning English through Short Stories)
Writing topic B
You are a human resources assistant. Your boss has observed that
many people are leaving the office very late. He has asked you to write
an article for the company newsletter describing the situation and
discussing the negative effects. You have also been asked to give two
suggestions to improve the situation. Provide a suitable title for your
article.
(HKDSE 2013 Paper 2 Part B Question No. 6
Learning English through Workplace Communication)
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• aligns with the learning objectives / goals and
assessment criteria (shared with students before they
work on the task);
• informs students their strengths and weaknesses, and
provides concrete suggestions for improvement;
• builds students’ confidence in learning and increases
motivation, engagement in learning; and
• helps to promote self-reflection and equip students with
metacognitive skills essential for implementing
Assessment as Learning.
27
Formative
•
•
For helping students to improve their •
drafts
Focusing on providing directions and •
recommendations for revising drafts,
e.g. in process writing
Selective/focused
•
•
For evaluating the quality of a final
product
Focusing on describing the strengths
and weaknesses of the work and
explaining the final grade/marks in
connection to the success criteria
Comprehensive/detailed
Focusing mainly on high-order/macro- •
level issues or key objectives of the
assessment tasks
•
Identifying the most important issues
students should focus on for
improvement
To respond as a reader
•
Summative
Focusing on all aspects of the writing
by correcting each and every error
May not be conducive to helping
students develop self-correction skills
and identify priorities for improvement
To respond as an assessor
Adopting a less threatening tone by •
using more ‘I’ statements instead of
‘You’ statements to provide personal
comments
Adopting a more authoritative tone by
using more ‘You’ or ‘Your work’
statements to give diagnostic and
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corrective comments
Direct
•
•
Providing written corrections explicitly •
or rewriting problematic parts for
students
•
Helping less able students who may
be unable to self-correct their errors or
helping students with errors that •
cannot be easily fixed through selfcorrection
Comments in the margins
•
•
•
Indirect
Providing an immediate and proximate
index of strengths and weaknesses
Providing praise, criticism and
questions on a particular part of the
writing
Providing concrete evidence to
support the final/overall comments
Providing prompts, guidance and
opportunities for self-correction
Indicating errors through underlining,
circling, and using codes and open
questions to provoke thoughts
Encouraging students to reflect on
their errors and come up with
solutions
Final/overall comments
•
•
•
Providing a big picture and a more
general overview of the strengths and
weaknesses of the work
Prioritising points for revision and
future improvement
Making references to the specific
examples and points raised in the
marginal comments
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Before the assessment
• Develop clear assessment criteria to ensure that learners know
how their work will be evaluated
When giving feedback
• Read the entire work before giving feedback
• Adopt a compassionate and encouraging tone
• Adopt constructive criticism and use a descriptive tone
• Use mitigated commentary or sandwiching
• Be specific and avoid vague comments
• Focus on the important issues
After learners’ receipt of feedback
• Arrange conferencing sessions or small-group tutorials
• Encourage learners to ask questions and seek clarification
30
Sample Feedback
31
32
33
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D. Teachers’ Comments
Chris,
You have presented your view clearly and made a good attempt to
support your stance with three reasons.
Your third reason may not be solid enough. I suggest you strengthen
it with more supporting details (e.g. examples, statistical data, a
quotation from an expert) or replace it with a more convincing reason.
While thinking about stronger points to replace your third reason, try
to approach the issue from a wider perspective. You have been
focussing mainly on students so far, but the impacts of the proposal
on other parties (e.g. schools/teachers, parents, the Government, or the
community/society) are also worth considering.
Read through my comments in the margin and try to address them
in your revision. Let me know if you need more advice. Keep up with
the good efforts.
35
Activity 2: Providing quality feedback
In groups,
• read the two sample students’ writing;
• comment on the students’ performance with
reference to the success criteria; and
• discuss appropriate feedback to be given to the
students.
36
Students’ Reflection
A for L
A as L
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Assessment as Learning
•
•
•
Building on the
strengths and
benefits of
assessment for
learning
Serving as an
extension and
reinforcement of
assessment for
learning
Setting
personalised
learning goals
Assessing
personal
strengths and
areas for
improvement
•
Addressing
learner’s diverse
language abilities,
learning needs and
interests
•
Guiding learners to
progress and attain
personalised
learning goals
•
Allowing learners to
apply a range of
self-reflection and
monitoring skills
Monitoring
one’s learning
progress
Enabling learners
to take ownership
and responsibility
in learning
Self-directed Learning
38
Teacher’s Role
sharing the
learning
objectives and
success criteria
providing
guidance in
reviewing one’s
strengths and
weaknesses
providing
descriptive and
constructive
feedback
creating a
supportive
learning
environment
Teachers’
role
assisting
students to
keep a good
record of the
learning
process
teaching the
skills for goalsetting, selfmonitoring of
actions and
self-evaluation
providing
samples of
good practice
and quality
sample work
39
Engaging Students in Self-assessment
40
Engaging Students in Goal-Setting & On-going Review
41
Self-reflection & Self-monitoring
42
Self-reflection and Goal-setting
43
Goal Revision
44
Self-evaluation
45
Self-evaluation
46
Self-evaluation and Feedback from Teachers
47
Assessment of, for and as Learning
48
Public Examinations
Before 2007 HKCEE
• Comprehension assessed
through MC questions
• Grammar explicitly assessed
• Limited text-types
• Assessment based on
general impression (normreferenced)
2007-2011 HKCEE
2012 HKDSE
• Assessment of a range of
reading skills through a
mixture of question types
• Grammar assessed in
context
• Coverage of a range of
text-types
• Assessment based on
criteria (standardsreferenced)
• Assessment of a wide range
of reading skills through a
mixture of question types
• Grammar assessed in
context
• Coverage of a wide range of
text-types
• Assessment based on
criteria (standardsreferenced)
• Inclusion of SBA to promote
assessment for learning
• Graded Approach and a
wider choice of questions to
cater for learner diversity
• Inclusion of SBA to promote
assessment for learning
• Syllabus A and Syllabus B to
cater for learner diversity
49
Useful Resources
Resources from the EDB

One-stop Portal
(Assessment Task Bank)
Assessment of, for and as Learning





Dann, R. (2002). Promoting assessment as learning: improving the learning process. London; New
York: Routledge Falmer.
Davies, A. (2011). Leading the way to assessment for learning: a practical guide. Bloomington, IN:
Solution Tree Press.
Earl, Lorna M. (2003). Assessment as learning: using classroom assessment to maximize student
learning. California.:Corwin Press.
Earl, Lorna M. (2006). Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind: Assessment for
Learning, Assessment As learning, Assessment of Learning. Manitoba: Government of Manitoba.
Pang, S. (2008). The practice of assessment for learning and metacognitive teaching in Hong Kong
classrooms. Hong Kong: Faculty of Education, Hong Kong Institute of Education Research.

Ministry of Education, Ontario, Canada
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/curriculum/secondary/english.html

The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat (Ontario, Canada)
http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/literacynumeracy/inspire/research/studentselfassessment.pdf
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One-stop Portal
English Language Education
51
Assessment Tasks Bank
Login with HKEdCity login ID
One-stop Portal
Search by ‘KS4’ and ‘Reading’
52

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