Chapter 14 part one

Report
Chapter 14
Part One
Chapter 14
•Performance enhancement: nutrition, diet and
considerations
Text Sources
1.
Nelson Physical
Education VCE Units
3&4: 4th Edition –
Malpeli, Horton, Davey
and Telford 2006.
2. Live It Up 2: 2nd Edition –
Smyth, Brown, Judge,
McCallum and Pritchard
2006.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Performance Enhancing Substances
An erogenic aid is any substance or
technique that improves or is
thought to improve physical
performance.
Often called ‘doping’ however not
all aids are illegal.
The word doping is probably
derived from the Dutch word dop,
the name of an alcoholic beverage
made of grape skins used by Zulu
warriors in order to enhance their
prowess in battle.
Ergogenic means ‘work-producing’.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Anti-Doping Initiatives
•Drugs have been used as early as 400BC in
the ancient Greek games.
•The Romans used mixtures of plant
extracts and herbs in gladiators and chariot
horses.
•Athlete commonly used drugs until drug
testing was introduced in the late 1960’s.
•Modern doping began in 1935 when the
Nazi’s used testosterone injections in their
athlete’s 1936 team. Later used by the
Soviets.
•Those involved has ‘turned a blind eye’ to
the side effects and ethical implications of
taking drugs.
•After drug use was wide spread at the
1952 and 1956 Olympics, countries spoke
out against performance aids and their side
effects
•Anti-doping development took place in
1960 in Europe.
•The televised death of drug taker Tommy
Simpson in 1967 (below) shook the
athletics world.
•The IOC then become actively involved.
•First drug tests
were conducted
at the 1968
Olympics
•A list of banned
substances was
constructed by the
IOC.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Anti-Doping Initiatives (2)
•The USA developed a synthetic form of
testosterone called anabolic steroids in
1955.
•Athletes continued to take drugs during
the 1960s and 70s.
•The East Germans had a heavy drop taking
protocol and were very ‘successful’ at
international competitions (See Heidi
Krieger).
•Coaches and athletes worked out methods
of ‘beating’ the drug tests
•The 1980’s saw the introduction of human
growth hormones (GBH) and synthetic
GBH. Both were undetectable
•In the 1990’s, erythropoietin (EPO)
became the drug of choice. It is very hard
to detect as it is a naturally occurring
hormone. Sydney 2000 was the first
accurate EPO test.
•Analytical measures such as gas
chromatography and mass spectrometry
where therefore introduced.
•Ben Johnson was famously stripped of his
1988 100m gold medal for steroid use.
•Procedures and standards for laboratories
were set up by the IOC
•In 1999 the World Anti-Doping Agency
(WADA) was established after the drug
taking in the tour de France scandal.
•In 2003 all major federations and
governments signed a Anti-doping code.
•In the 2004 Olympic games: 3000 drug
tests were conducted with 23 athletes
being found positive of banned drugs.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Why do Athletes take Drugs?
•Self – Ego compels them to be
successful
•Coach, family, peers, spectators –
Pressure to succeed
•Media – Wanting to be successful
sports ‘star’.
•Promotion/financial rewards –
Cutting corners to succeed
•Social – To stand out from other
competitors
•National Recognition – Wanting to
represent country; highest level of
sport.
•Physical advantage – Strength and
muscle mass (Steroids, anabolic
agents)
•Counteract undesirable side
effects (Hormones)
•Mask the presence of banned
substances (Diuretics)
•Increase alertness and/or
aggressiveness (Caffeine/
Amphetamines)
•Reduce pain (Narcotics)
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Drug Testing
Conducted by ‘Australian Sports
Drug Agency’ ASDA.
•Urine tests are conducted either
at competitions or training.
•No notice is given to athletes
prior to the testing who are
selected at random.
•Two samples are taken to verify
the initial testing procedure.
No reliable blood tests are used to
detect banned drugs.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Ethical Considerations
A footballer hurts his knee in the
third quarter of the grand final. A
local anaesthetic would numb the
pain – however the footballer runs
the risk of permanent knee
damage if he plays on.
Does winning over-rule the
athletes health?
Who makes the decision to give
the injection?
This is an example of ethical and
morale decisions which are made
regularly in sport.
Morality – Standards of conduct
Ethics – Formal study of these
standards. ‘The practice of making
principle choices between right
and wrong’.
Moral standards – Principles
against which we compare what
we see in order to form a
judgement.
Judgements are often made about
an athlete/coaches conduct, an
athlete’s on/off field actions, an
athlete’s character, beliefs and
values.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Ethical Frameworks
Transparency
Respect
Trustworthy
and honesty
Justice and
fairness
Harm prevention
Enjoy and
Flourish
Avoiding conflict
Diligence
Duty of Care
Impartiality and
objectivity
Refusing to take
unfair advantage
Follow sporting rule
and laws
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Ethical Issues
•Sexual abuse, harassment, bullying
•Discrimination and racism
•Corruption, gambling, cheating, bribery,
match-fixing
•Unethical corporate involvement
•Unfair team selection
•Abuse of officials and referees
•Victimisation of those who speak out
against unethical practices
•‘Win at all costs’ ethos
•Poor behaviour on and off field
•Performance enhancing practices
•Spectator violence and abuse
•Sexual discrimination and homophobia
•Transgender participation in elite sport
•Genetic therapy and manipulation
•Increasing use of science and technology
•Use of pain killers
•Exploitation (sexualisation) of athletes
•Pregnant athletes and participation
•Sex-testing of athletes
•Influence of the media
•Child abuse
•‘Ugly parent syndrome’
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Ethical Dilemmas in Sport
Ethical dilemma – Situations where the
course of action or behaviour is
unclear, or where reasonable people
can’t agree on what ought to be done.
Eg. Crickets that do or don’t ‘walk’
when caught behind
Our reaction to a dilemma is based on
our own individual values
Dilemmas such as; IV drips, pain killer
usage, vitamin supplements,
performance enhancing drugs and
genetic therapy are continually
debated over their ethical use.
Eg. Performance enhancing drugs.
Similar effects gain be gained from
both illegal and legal practices.
Athletes who eat and train well can get
the same effect as an athlete who
does less training but takes drugs –
therefore both are at an equal playing
field.
Illegal drugs are banned due to safety
and ethical reasons.
Eg. Justin Charles (AFL) took steroids
to strengthen his knee after a knee
reconstruction. The steroids did not
‘enhance’ his performance but merely
brought him back to his original
physical state prior to injury.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Intravenous Fluid Use
IV drips – used to reverse the effects
of dehydration.
•Famous cases include Justine HeninHardenne (2003 US open) and the
Brisbane Lions in 2001. It is commonly
used in the NFL. Pat Rafter also used
the technique.
•It is considered controversial and
unethical.
•The AFL banned the use of IV drips
due to health and hygiene issues. It
was concerned with the negative press
and its impact on the game.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Intravenous Fluid Use (2)
•Standard IV drips contain a saline
solution with low levels of glucose.
•This corrects the bodies hydration
levels of fluids, electrolytes and
carbohydrates.
•Athletes use IV drips to decrease
recovery time
•However, athletes are required to
lie still for up to 2 hours while
receiving the drip
•Findings have found little
difference between IV drips and
oral hydration
•The Australian Medical
Association (AMA) where
concerned with the Brisbane Lions
using the drips at half time outside
of a sterile environment.
•IV drips are an invasive procedure
which runs the risk of disease and
infection.
•Strict medication supervision is
required.
Coursework 14.2 Case Study p.337
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Local Anaesthetic Injections
Painkillers are substances that
mask the effects of pain.
•Painkillers are a widespread
practice worldwide.
•They are used to enable the
athlete the keep playing
•They can be creams, tablets,
ointments or injections.
•The use of painkillers is governed
by the WADA.
Eg. Brisbane Lions in 2003 grand
final – Up to 18 of the players
where injected with pain killers
prior to the game.
Coursework 14.3 Case Study p.339
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Local Anaesthetic Injections 2
Special conditions must be adhered to
as set by WADA.
•Clubs only gave the players injections
if they gave their consent, were told of
side effects and that there is no risk of
further harm.
•AFL use; Finger joints, AC joint, scar
tissue regions, joint inflammation.
Risks;
•Further agreviation of the injury,
•Athletes training and competiting
while injured without knowing the
severity of the injury,
Ethical issues;
•Dr Peter Larkins ‘Injections should be
used to allow player to perform at his
normal ability without causing
permanent harm or injury’.
•Local anaesthetics are not
performance enhancers
•However, the underlining question is
how can the sports doctor make such
an important decision for an athlete
which could possibly ruin their
sporting career.
Eg. Craig Whitehead sued Carlton for
having him play under pain killers
while injured.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Injection of Vitamin Supplements to aid
Performance
Practice is not illegal or banned – its
use is widespread.
Eg. Australian cycling team, including
Jobie Daika, mislead an investigation
into allegated drug use. Jobie originally
denied using vitamin injections
because they weren’t authorised by
the AIS.
•Lance Armstrong openly admits the
use of vitamin injections.
Ethical issues; It’s unnecessary, it’s
potentially dangerous and damages the
image of the sport eg. Cycling.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Genetic Manipulation
Gene therapy – Nontherapeutic use of genes,
genetic elements and/or
cells that have the capacity
to enhance athletic
performance (WADA).
Eg. Use of synthetic genes to
enhance performance.
Practice is banned under the
WADA anti-doping policy. Its
side effects are unknown
However, it will be
undetectable in athletes.
In the future, athletes will be
modified at a young age,
undergoing genetic
modification to be the ‘next
big star’.
Coursework 14.4 Case Study
p.340
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Illegal Performance Enhancers
Illegal Group
Substances
Used for
Side Effects
Stimulants
Ephedrine, amphetamines, cocaine
and caffeine
Mask intolerance to lactic acid.
Increase alertness, competitiveness and
aggression.
Anxiety, increased HR,
irregular heart beat,
dependence, depression,
sleep disorders.
Narcotics
Codeine, morphine and opiates
Used to reduced moderate to severe pain
so that athletes can continue to play while
injured.
Dependence, respiratory
failure.
Anabolic
Agents
1. Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Synthetic protein building chemicals.
2. Beta 2 Agonists
Increase muscle bulk, power and
strength. Training recovery is quicker and
training intensity levels can also be
higher.
‘Steroid rage’, acne, sudden
death, tumours, liver damage,
reproductive problems in
females.
Beta-Blockers
Heart and blood pressure prescription
drugs.
Used to reduce blood pressure and precompetition stress – relaxation.
Hypotension, hypoglycemia,
cardiac failure, asthma
severity.
Diuretics
Kidney and liver prescription drugs.
Weight reduction (water and electrolyte
loss). Can be used to dilute illegal
substances.
Dehydration, cramps, muscle
strains, irregular heart beat.
Peptide and
Polypeptide
hormones
Peptide – HGH and corticosteroids.
Peptide –increase muscle and bone
development. Believed to offset the
effects of steroids.
Polypeptide – Increases RBC production.
Peptide – Diabetes,
hypotension, decreased
immune function, heart failure.
Polypeptide – Blood
transfusion risks.
Polypeptide – Erythroprotein (EPO)
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
Other Ergogenic Practices
•Alcohol, marijuana, local
anaesthetics, corticosteroids (antiinflammatory) and many
pharmacological drugs have
restricted use for athletes.
•Blood doping – Removal and reinjecting of blood prior to events.
Increases number of RBC in the
body – thus improving oxygen
delivery. However, considered
dangerous due to blood transfers.
•Over the last few years, the
greatest interest with regard to
erogenic aids has been focused on
the effects of performance
enhancing drugs.
•The media concentrate on high
profile athletes who have been
caught using banned drugs. Note.
Not all aids benefit everyone.
See table 14.1 p.333
Coursework 14.1 Laboratory p.335
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4
p.334
Legal Dietary Performance Enhancers
Sports Nutrition
•Carbohydrate loading
•Creatine Supplementation
•Colostrum and Amino acids
•Caffeine
•Fluid replacement and
carbonation (sports drinks).
•Vitamin/mineral supplements
•Glycerol, Iron and Bicarbonate
Athletes need to be careful as
some pharmaceutical products
may contain banned substances.
•Note. A balanced diet contains
most of our vitamin/mineral
needs.
•The use of legal performance
enhancing practices can cause side
effects.
•This is known as medico-legal
issue
•eg. Creatine supplements are
commonly used in US senior-high
school sporting teams. Litigation is
very against coaches who directed
the athlete to take the supplement
who suffers side effects.
VCE Physical Education - Unit 4

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