Chapter 9 Test Review

Industrialization in
Chapter 9 Review
America’s industrialization
depended on an abundance
natural resources. Identify three
of these resources
What is Water, Timber, Coal, Iron,
and Copper?
This resource became important
because it could be turned into
What is Petroleum?
Where did the American oil
industry begin?
A. Cleveland
B. Boston
C. Texas
D. Pennsylvania
Answer: D Pennsylavania
What were two reasons for the
population growth in the U.S.
between 1860 and 1910?
Large families and immigration
What type of economic system
does the U.S. have?
A. Free Enterprise
B. Communist
C. Socialist
D. Democracy
Answer: A; Free Enterprise
What French term means to “let
What is laissez-faire?
What are people called who risk
their capital in organizing and
running a business?
What is an entrepreneur?
Laissez faire relies on __to
regulate prices and wages.
A. Business
B. Government
D. Supply and Demand
Answer: D; Supply and Demand
During the early days of industrialization,
many members of Congress believed that
tariffs were necessary to
A. Raise money to operate the government.
B. Help new American industries compete with large
established European factories.
C. Raise the prices that Europeans would have to
pay for American products.
D. Entice European consumers to buy American
Answer: B; to compete with
European factories.
Name Five new inventions that
helped to increase the nation’s
productive capacity.
Cotton gin,
Bessemer process,
incandescent lamp (light bulb),
sewing machine,
Steam boat,
steam engine,
Who was the most famous
inventor of the late 1800s?
Who is Thomas Edison?
What two railroads built the
Transcontinental Railroad?
What is the Union Pacific and
Central Pacific?
What act passed by Congress
provided for the construction of
the Transcontinental railroad?
What is the Pacific Railway Act?
Because of the shortage of
workers in California, the Pacific
RR hired workers from
a. China
b. Japan
c. Ireland
d. Mexico
Answer: A; China
Who was one of the most
successful railroad consolidators?
Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt?
The government offered each railroad
company building the transcontinental
railroad land along the right-of-way to
A. Give railroad workers a place to live.
B. Encourage rapid construction of the
C. Allow the companies to build stations at
important points along the way.
D. Encourage the growth of towns along the
Answer: B; encourage rapid
construction of the tracks.
To mail rail service safer and more
reliable, the American Railway
Association divided the country
into these.
What are time zones?
What name was given for many
entrepreneurs who were accused
of acquiring their fortunes by
swindling taxpayers, bribing
government officials, and cheating
on their contracts?
What are robber barons?
This scandal involved a company
that was set up by several
stockholders of the Union Pacific
who overcharged the Union Pacific
for the work it did.
What is the Credit Mobilier
What is an organization owned by
many people?
What is a corporation?
What are the people called who
own the corporation?
What are stockholders?
What are shares of ownership
What is stock?
This is achieved when
corporations make goods more
cheaply because they produce so
much so quickly using large
manufacturing facilities.
What are economies of scale?
These are costs a company has to
pay, whether or not it is
operating. For example, loans,
and taxes.
What are fixed costs?
These were agreements between
corporations to maintain prices at
a certain level.
What are pools?
He built U.S. Steel.
Who is Andrew Carnegie?
This process allowed steel to be
produced more cheaply.
What is the Bessemer process?
Costs, such as paying wages, that
occur when running a company.
What are operating costs?
Control of an entire market.
What is a monopoly?
A company would be using this
kind of combination if the different
businesses on which it depends
are under its control.
What is vertical integration?
These stores first appeared in the
What are chain stores?
Rise in the value of money.
What is deflation?
What were the two basic types of
industrial workers in the 1800s?
What are craft workers and
common laborers?
This type of union was limited to
people with specific skills?
What are trade unions?
Owners of large corporations
especially disliked this type of
union because it united craft
workers and common laborers.
What are industrial unions?
His ideas about class struggle had
become very influential in Europe.
He believed that workers would
eventually seize control of the
factories and overthrow the
Who is Karl Marx?
Anti-Immigrant feelings.
What is Nativism?
The first nationwide industrial
What are the Knights of Labor?
This was the first nationwide labor
protest. The cause was wage cuts
during the 1877 recession.
What is the Great Railroad Strike?
A process in which an impartial
third party helps workers and
management reach an agreement.
What is arbitration?
This riot started when someone
threw a bomb into a crowd during
a protest involving a killed striker.
What is the Haymarket Square
He was the leader of the American
Railway Union.
Who is Eugene V. Debs?
A list of “troublemakers”.
What is a blacklist?
Replacement workers
What are scabs?
People who believe that society
doesn’t need any government?
What are anarchists?
Leader of the American Federation
of Labor (AFL).
Who is Samuel Gompers?
Companies should only hire union
What is a closed shop?

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