Industrialization in America Chapter 9 Review America’s industrialization depended on an abundance natural resources. Identify three of these resources What is Water, Timber, Coal, Iron, and Copper? This resource became important because it could be turned into kerosene. What is Petroleum? Where did the American oil industry begin? A. Cleveland B. Boston C. Texas D. Pennsylvania Answer: D Pennsylavania What were two reasons for the population growth in the U.S. between 1860 and 1910? Large families and immigration What type of economic system does the U.S. have? A. Free Enterprise B. Communist C. Socialist D. Democracy Answer: A; Free Enterprise What French term means to “let do”? What is laissez-faire? What are people called who risk their capital in organizing and running a business? What is an entrepreneur? Laissez faire relies on __to regulate prices and wages. A. Business B. Government C. GNP D. Supply and Demand Answer: D; Supply and Demand During the early days of industrialization, many members of Congress believed that tariffs were necessary to A. Raise money to operate the government. B. Help new American industries compete with large established European factories. C. Raise the prices that Europeans would have to pay for American products. D. Entice European consumers to buy American products. Answer: B; to compete with European factories. Name Five new inventions that helped to increase the nation’s productive capacity. Cotton gin, telegraph, telephone phonograph, Bessemer process, incandescent lamp (light bulb), sewing machine, Steam boat, steam engine, Who was the most famous inventor of the late 1800s? Who is Thomas Edison? What two railroads built the Transcontinental Railroad? What is the Union Pacific and Central Pacific? What act passed by Congress provided for the construction of the Transcontinental railroad? What is the Pacific Railway Act? Because of the shortage of workers in California, the Pacific RR hired workers from a. China b. Japan c. Ireland d. Mexico Answer: A; China Who was one of the most successful railroad consolidators? Who was Cornelius Vanderbilt? The government offered each railroad company building the transcontinental railroad land along the right-of-way to A. Give railroad workers a place to live. B. Encourage rapid construction of the tracks. C. Allow the companies to build stations at important points along the way. D. Encourage the growth of towns along the tracks. Answer: B; encourage rapid construction of the tracks. To mail rail service safer and more reliable, the American Railway Association divided the country into these. What are time zones? What name was given for many entrepreneurs who were accused of acquiring their fortunes by swindling taxpayers, bribing government officials, and cheating on their contracts? What are robber barons? This scandal involved a company that was set up by several stockholders of the Union Pacific who overcharged the Union Pacific for the work it did. What is the Credit Mobilier Scandal? What is an organization owned by many people? What is a corporation? What are the people called who own the corporation? What are stockholders? What are shares of ownership called? What is stock? This is achieved when corporations make goods more cheaply because they produce so much so quickly using large manufacturing facilities. What are economies of scale? These are costs a company has to pay, whether or not it is operating. For example, loans, and taxes. What are fixed costs? These were agreements between corporations to maintain prices at a certain level. What are pools? He built U.S. Steel. Who is Andrew Carnegie? This process allowed steel to be produced more cheaply. What is the Bessemer process? Costs, such as paying wages, that occur when running a company. What are operating costs? Control of an entire market. What is a monopoly? A company would be using this kind of combination if the different businesses on which it depends are under its control. What is vertical integration? These stores first appeared in the mid-1800s. What are chain stores? Rise in the value of money. What is deflation? What were the two basic types of industrial workers in the 1800s? What are craft workers and common laborers? This type of union was limited to people with specific skills? What are trade unions? Owners of large corporations especially disliked this type of union because it united craft workers and common laborers. What are industrial unions? His ideas about class struggle had become very influential in Europe. He believed that workers would eventually seize control of the factories and overthrow the government. Who is Karl Marx? Anti-Immigrant feelings. What is Nativism? The first nationwide industrial union. What are the Knights of Labor? This was the first nationwide labor protest. The cause was wage cuts during the 1877 recession. What is the Great Railroad Strike? A process in which an impartial third party helps workers and management reach an agreement. What is arbitration? This riot started when someone threw a bomb into a crowd during a protest involving a killed striker. What is the Haymarket Square Riot? He was the leader of the American Railway Union. Who is Eugene V. Debs? A list of “troublemakers”. What is a blacklist? Replacement workers What are scabs? People who believe that society doesn’t need any government? What are anarchists? Leader of the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Who is Samuel Gompers? Companies should only hire union members. What is a closed shop?