the rise of american business, industry, and labor: 1865*1920.

Report
The US develops a prosperous new economy
based on the mass production of goods.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Transcontinental Railroad: effort to link the railroads
across the US to increase trade and ease of movement.
Sharecropper: Former slaves who worked the
plantation land & turned over crop and profit.
Monopoly: When one business has complete control of
a field of business.
Trust: Group of corporations agreeing to act under one
board of directors. Illegal.
Andrew Carnegie: Steel Industry, Pittsburgh.
John D. Rockefeller: Standard Oil
JP Morgan: Banking, loans. US Steel.
Henry Ford: moving assembly line production of
automobiles.
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12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Laissez Faire: “Hands Off”. Supported by Adam Smith.
Government stays away from involvement with
business.
Robber Baron: gain wealth by ruthless means
Munn v. Illinois:
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific v. Illinois:
Sherman Anti-Trust Act: 1890, prohibits monopolies by
declaring trusts “in restraint of commerce”
US v E.C. Knight Company:
Unions: Workers acting together to gain advances in
hours, wages, benefits.
Knights of Labor: Terrence Powderly, skilled / unskilled
workers.
17. AFL: American Federation of Labor, unions of skilled
workers.
18. International Ladies’ Garment Workers union:
Response to the Triangle Shirtwaist Tragedy, fight for
working conditions in garment industry.
19. Haymarket Riot: 1886 bombing blamed on Knights of
Labor, killed 7 police officers in Chicago.
20. Homestead Strike: Carnegie Workers protest wage
cuts, violence leads to 16 deaths.
 Munn v. Illinois (1877): grain elevator rates.
State can regulate property that affects “public
interest”.
 Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway v. Illinois
(1886): States cannot regulate interstate
railroads.
 United States v. E.C. Knight Company (1895):
Gov. has the right to restrict monopolies.
 In re Debs (1895): People, property, mail.
Congress can intervene in Monopolies.
 Industrialization
accelerates after
the Civil War.
 Improvements in
Railroads, steel,
mines.
 Transcontinental
Railroad
completed 1869.
 War ruins Southern
economy.
 Ends slavery, kills
plantation system.
 New South:
Railroads, textiles,
mills.
 Sharecropping.
 Mass migration of
blacks to the
North.
 Rise of CORPORATIONS due to increased
capital, stocks, dividends, investment.
Involved risk, but possibility of tremendous
gains. CAPITALISM
RAILROAD, STEEL, COAL, OIL, ELECTRICITY
 Monopoly: Complete control over a particular
field of business. (EC Knight Sugar Company)
 Vertical
Control all of the aspects of
the product.
-Meat
industry controls
cattle, slaughterhouses,
packing plants, delivery
wagons.
-Purchase companies at
all levels of production…
Oil Company #1
+
Oil Company #2
+
Oil Company #3
=
GIANT OIL COMPANY WHICH CONTROLS
THE MARKET.
-Prices, Jobs, supply
Pools, Trusts, Holding Companies. All ways of
keeping owners in control and fixing
prices/competition.
Andrew Carnegie: Steel Industry, Pittsburgh.
Carnegie Steel
John D. Rockefeller: Oil Refining Business.
Standard Oil (1882) owns 90% American refining
$815,647,796.89 at death…40 million / year salary.
JP Morgan: Financier & US Steel (1901) World’s
largest Steel Company.
Henry Ford: Assembly Line, mass production
Captains of Industry???
OR…..Robber Barons?
Andrew Carnegie
JD Rockefeller
J.P. Morgan
Cornelius Vanderbilt
 Laissez-Faire: “Hands
off” Government has no
right to interfere in
Business.
 FREE ENTERPRISE
SYSTEM. (Adam Smith,
invisible hand theory)
 SOCIAL DARWINISM
 Fair? Unfair?
 Prohibits Monopolies.
 Response to Standard Oil
 Any combination which
“is in restraint of trade or
commerce”
 Circumvented by EC
Knight, and “holding
companies”
 Over 100 women die in 1911 fire.
 Leads to safety reforms in the private industry.
 Triangle Fire
 Due to power of owners, Unions are formed to
protect workers.
 Knights of Labor (1869): Terrence Powderly.
Haymarket Riot leads to decline. 7 policeman
killed.
 1886: Samuel Gompers,
skilled workers. By 1900,
most powerful Union in the
USA.
 1900: ILGWU to protect
sweatshop workers.
 Strikes, violence.
 Great Railway Strike 1877.
 Haymarket Riot 1886.
 Homestead Strike 1892: Carnegie Steel, 16
people killed.
 Pullman Strike 1894: President Cleveland
sends in Federal Troops to end strike. (In re
Debs)
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7.
Tenements: multifamily housing, poorly maintained.
Political Machines: gain support of immigrants,
leads to political corrpution in cities.
Urbanization: Development of modern cities. Many
positives and negatives.
Immigration: People entering your country from
another.
Old Immigration: colonies-1850. (N/W Europe,
Ireland, Germany)
New Immigration: S/E Europe. Italy, Poland, Russia.
1870-1924.
Nativism: native born Americans were superior to
immigrants.
Melting Pot Theory: People from various cultures
meet in US to form a New Culture. Old cultures are
surrendered to form a “new” culture.
9. Assimilation: Immigrants give up native language,
traditions. “Americanize”
10. Cultural Pluralism: (Salad Bowl) Groups do not
lose their distinctive cultures.
8.
 OLD:(until 1850)
Northern and
Western Europe
(Britain, Ireland,
Germany)
 NEW:(1850-1924)
South/East Europe
(Italy, Poland,
Russia)
 “Melting
Pot”
Assimilation: become “Americanized”
Cultural Pluralism: Salad Bowl Theory
“Know Nothing” Party: exlude immigrants
Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882
“Gentleman’s Agreement”: Ends Japanese
immigration in 1907.
National Origins Act 1924: favors N/W
immigrants.
Labor unions: NATIVISTS….WHY???
Gangs of NY
GW Plunkitt
 RECONSTRUCTION (13,14,15 amendments)
 Lincoln, Johnson, Republicans
 Due Process, Jim Crow, Plessy v. Ferguson
 THE MOVE WEST
 Homestead, Natives, Indian Wars,
 INDUSTRIALIZATION
 Why? Where? Effects? Robber Barron/C.O.I.
 Carnegie, Rockefeller, Morgan
 Monopolies, Trusts, Pools, Sherman
 Unions, conditions, strikes
 IMMIGRATION
 New/Old
 Challenges, TERMS
 http://www.phschool.com/curriculum_support/brief_
review/us_history/tests.html?unit=3&number=35

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