The “Algebra for All” Movement: A Progress Report Tom Loveless November 28, 2012 Outline of Talk I. Background II. Trends in 8th Grade Algebra Enrollment III. Previous Policy Research: Cause for Optimism IV. Recent Policy Research: Cautionary Flags V. My Own Study (2008) VI. Implications for the Future Note: Bibliography of all cited publications at the end of the presentation. The Algebra for All Movement 1982 Robert Moses calls algebra “The New Civil Right.” Uses McArthur Fellowship money to start The Algebra Project, promoting algebra courses in middle schools in underserved communities. 1997 U.S. Secretary of Education Richard Riley urges, “Take algebra beginning in the eighth grade and build from there.” 1998 President Bill Clinton laments, “Around the world, middle students are learning algebra and geometry. Here at home, just a quarter of all students take algebra before high school.” 2007 Minnesota makes 8th grade algebra a requirement for high school graduation (beginning with the Class of 2015). 2008 California adopts algebra test as 8th grade math assessment for NCLB purposes. 8th Grade NAEP Enrollment in Advanced Mathematics (Algebra, Geometry, Algebra II) 2011 2009 2007 2005 47% 44% 43% 42% 2003 2000 33% 27% 1996 1992 1990 25% 20% 16% Note: Spaces indicate when response categories changed. Source: NAEP Data Explorer Previous Policy Research Cause for Optimism •Stevenson, Schiller, and Schneider (1994), Smith (1996), Gamoran and Hannigan (2000). •Analyzed large, national data sets (HSB or NELS). •All found gains in math achievement for students taking algebra earlier rather than later, including low performing students taking algebra in 8th or 9th grade. •Clear implications for equity. Algebra as a “gatekeeper” course. Persistent, wide gaps in 8th grade algebra enrollment among SES groups (race, ethnicity, class). More Recent Research: Cautionary Flags Authors Study Site Caution Liang, Heckman, Abedi What Do the California (2012) Standards Test Results Reveal About the Movement Toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All? CA 9th graders passing General Math CST in 8th grade have 69% better chance of passing Algebra CST than those who failed Algebra CST in 8th Grade. Clotfelter, Ladd, Vigdor The Aftermath of Accelerating (2012) Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative CharlotteMecklenburg Lower scores on Alg I test and lower pass rates in Geometry and Alg II. Taylor, Kurlaender, and Outcomes of Placing Low Rose (2012) Performing Eighth Grade Students in Algebra Content Courses A large CA district Algebra reduces 8th grade GPA by 7% More Recent Research: Cautionary Flags (cont.) Authors Study Site Caution Williams, Haertel, Kirst, Rosin, and Perry (2011) Improving Middle Grade Math Performance (and others from EdSource) CA “Placing all 8th graders into Algebra I, regardless of their preparation, sets up many students to fail.” Allensworth, Nomi, Montgomery, and Lee (2009) College Preparatory Curriculum Chicago for All: Academic Consequences of Requiring Algebra and English I for Ninth Graders in Chicago “Although more students completed ninth grade with credits in algebra and English I, failure rates increased, grades slightly declined, test scores did not improve, and students were no more likely to enter college. Why the Difference? “The contrast between these results and prior correlational research reflects the severe selection bias plaguing those previous studies. It is undeniable that students who take algebra early tend to do better in subsequent math courses, but this correlation arises because it is usually the best students who are selected to take algebra early. Once this selection bias is eliminated, the remaining causal effect of accelerating the conventional first course of algebra into earlier grades, in the absence of other changes in the math curriculum, is for most students decidedly harmful.” (Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor, 2012, p. 12) Implications 1. Algebra for All policies involve trade-offs: Access improves—more students take Algebra—but achievement does not. Number of students passing Algebra in 8th grade rises. And so does the number of students failing. 2. Double-dose Algebra as a possible support. Some encouraging findings (Cortes, Goodman, Nomi, 2012) in Chicago, with both short and long term positive results. 3. Better preparation. (Siegler et al, 2012): “Longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students’ knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students’ knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education (p. 691).” Implications (cont.) 4. What will be the impact of the Common Core? Evers and Wurman oppose CC in CA for not promoting Algebra for All in 8th grade. 5. Teachers—many middle school teachers are unprepared to teach algebra. Clotfelter, Ladd, and Vigdor found that even the least effective teachers were enlisted to teach algebra when CMS expanded access to the course. One-third of CA algebra 8th grade teachers do not have math authorization. Bibliography D. L. Stevenson, Schiller K. S., & Schneider, B. (1994). Sequences of Opportunities for Learning. Sociology of Education, 67, 184-198. Elaine Allensworth, et al. (2009). College Preparatory Curriculum for All: Academic Consequences of Requiring Algebra and English I for Ninth Graders in Chicago. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 31, 367. Gamoran, A. and Hannigan, E. (2000). Algebra for Everyone? Benefits of College Preparatory Mathematics for Students with Diverse Abilities in Early Secondary School. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 22, 241-254. Jian-Hua Liang, et al. (2012). What Do the California Standards Test Results Reveal About the Movement Toward Eighth-Grade Algebra for All? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 34 (3), 328-343. Kriegler, S. and Lee, T. (2012). Using Standardized Test Data as Guidance for Placement into 8th Grade Algebra. Retrieved from Department of Mathematics, University of California, Los Angeles: www.introtoalg.org/resources.htm Loveless, T. (2008). “The Misplaced Math Student.,” 2008 Brown Center Report on American Education. Washington, D.C.: Brookings. Robert S. Siegler, et al. (2012). “Early Predictors of High School Mathematics Achievement,” Psychological Sciences , 23 (7), 691-697. Smith, J. (1996). Does an Extra Year Make Any Difference? The Impact of Early Access to Algebra on Longterm Gains in Mathematics Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis , 18, 141-153. Spielhagen, F. R. (2006). Closing the Achievement Gap in Math: The LongTerm Effects of Eighth-Grade Algebra. Journal of Advanced Academics , 18, 34-59. T. Williams, et al. (2011a). Improving Middle Grades Math Performance: A Closer Look at District and School Policies and Practices, Course Placements, and Student Outcomes in California. Mountain View: EdSource. T. Williams, et al. (2011b). Preparation, Placement, Proficiency: Improving Middle Grades Math Performance [Policy and Practice Brief]. Moutain View: EdSource. Taylor, D., Kurlaender, M., & Rose, H. (2012). Outcomes of Placing Low Performing Eighth Grade Students in Algebra Content Courses. University of California, Davis.