Week 4 - Azusa Pacific University

Report
Enabling Others to Act
Introductory thoughts
► Leader
– Follower is a relationship
► This principle focuses on the follower
► “Foster
collaboration by promoting
cooperative goals and building trust”
► “Seeing
the magnificence in all people –
dedicated to their fullest success”
Module V
Themes
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
►
Collaboration
Trust
Connecting
Empowering
Environment for success
Coaching
Information
Accountability
Delegating
Power
Influence
Module V
Devotion - Daniel
Module V
Summary of Leadership Theory
► Trait
Theory
► Situational Theory
► Charismatic Theory
► Transformational Leadership
Module V
Trait Theory
► Personal
characteristics of a leader
► Bass (1990) – prior to WW II






Capacity (e.g. intelligence)
Achievement (e.g. Scholarship)
Responsibility (e.g. Self-confidence)
Participation (e.g. socialbility)
Status (e.g. economics)
Situation (e.g. skills)
Module V
Trait Theory
► Post
WW II (Stogdill, 1970)
 Skill (e.g. Intellectual)
 Relational behaviors (e.g. nurturing)
 Personal (e.g. able to communicate)
Module V
Power and influence Theories
► Power
is the capacity to take action or force
a desired outcome or behavior in others
(Janda, 1960)
► Influence is the subordinate’s perception of
a leader’s power to take action (Ziller, 1955)
Module V
Five types of Power (French &
Raven)
► Personal
power
 Personal
 Positional
► Positional
power
 Reward
 Coercive
 Legitimate
Module V
Behavioral Theories
► Style
approach of leaders
► Behavior and relationships
► McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
Module V
Situational Theories
► Leaders
behave differently according to
context
► Contingency Model (Fiedler, 1967)
► Situational Model (Hersey&Blanchard, 1969)
Module V
Situational Theory
► Golemans






model (2002)
Coaching leaders
Pacesetting leaders
Democratic leaders
Affiliative leaders
Authoritative leaders
Coercive leaders
Module V
Situational Theory
► Hersey
& Blanchard (1969)
Module V
Situational Approach Description
“Leaders match their style to the competence
and commitment of subordinates”
Perspective
►
►
►
Developed by Hersey
& Blanchard (1969);
based on Reddins
(1967) 3-D
Management Style
Leader-focused
perspective
Used extensively in
organizational
leadership training
and development
Definition
►
Comprised of:
 Directive dimension
 Supportive
dimension
► Each
Module V
dimension must be
applied appropriately in a
given situation
► Leaders evaluate
employees to assess their
competence and
commitment to perform a
given task
Leadership Styles
Definition
►
The behavior pattern
of an individual who
attempts to influence
others; includes:
 Directive (task)
behaviors
 Supportive
(relationship)
behaviors
Dimension Definitions
►
Directive behaviors - Help group
members in goal achievement via
one-way communication through:
 Giving directions
 Establishing goals & how to
achieve them
 Methods of evaluation & time lines
 Defining roles
►
Supportive behaviors - Assist
group members via two-way
communication in feeling
comfortable with themselves, coworkers, and situation
Module V
High
The Four Leadership Styles
S3
S2
High Supportive
Low Directive
High Directive
High Supportive
S4
S1
Low Supportive
Low Directive
Low
High Directive
Low Supportive
Directive Behavior
High
D4
Developed
High
Low
D1
Moderate
D3
D2
Module V
Developing
Developmental Level of Followers
S1 - Directing Style
► Leader
focuses
communication on goal
achievement
S1
► Spends LESS time using
supportive behaviors
High Directive
Low Supportive
Module V
S2 - Coaching Style
►
S2
High Directive
High Supportive
►
Leader focuses
communication on BOTH
goal achievement and
supporting subordinates’
socioemotional needs
Requires leader
involvement through
encouragement and
soliciting subordinate input
Module V
S3 - Supporting Style
►
S3
High Supportive
Low Directive
►
Leader does NOT focus
solely on goals; rather the
leader uses supportive
behaviors to bring out
employee skills in
accomplishing the task
Leader delegates day-today decision-making
control, but is available to
facilitate problem solving
Module V
S4 - Delegating Style
►
S4
►
Low Supportive
Low Directive
►
Leader offers LESS task input
and social support; facilitates
subordinates’ confidence and
motivation in relation to the
task
Leader lessens involvement in
planning, control of details,
and goal clarification
Gives subordinates control and
refrains from intervention and
unneeded social support
Module V
Development Levels
Definition
►
Dimension Definitions
The degree to which
subordinates have
the competence and
commitment
necessary to
accomplish a given
task or activity
High
D4
Developed
D1
D2
D3
D4
Low Competence
High Commitment
Some Competence
Low Commitment
Mod-High Competence
Low Commitment
High Competence
High Commitment
Moderate
D3
Low
D1
D2
Module V
Developing
Developmental Level Of Followers
How Does the
Situational
Approach Work?
►
►
►
►
Focus of Situational Approach
Strengths
Criticisms
Application
Situational Approach
Focus
Centered on the idea
subordinates vacillate
along the developmental
continuum of competence
and commitment
► Leader effectiveness
depends on assessing
subordinate’s
developmental position
and adapting his/her
leadership style to match
subordinate developmental
Module V
level
►
“The Situational
approach
requires leaders
to demonstrate
a strong degree
of flexibility.”
Strengths
►
►
►
►
►
Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is
perceived as providing a credible model for training
employees to become effective leaders.
Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward
approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety
of settings.
Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines
what you should and should not do in various settings.
Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that
effective leaders are those who can change their style
based on task requirements and subordinate needs.
Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based
on the premise that leaders
Module V need to treat each subordinate
according to his/her unique needs.
Criticisms
►
Lack of an empirical foundation raises theoretical
considerations regarding the validity of the approach
►
Further research is required to determine how
commitment and competence are conceptualized for
each developmental level
►
Conceptualization of commitment itself is very unclear
►
Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of
situational leadership model
►
Does not account for how particular demographics
influence the leader-subordinate prescriptions of the model
►
Fails to adequately address the issue of one-to-one versus
group leadership in an organizational setting
Module V
►
Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership
Application
► Often
used in consulting
because it’s easy to
conceptualize and apply
► Straightforward nature
makes it practical for
managers to apply
► Breadth of situational
approach facilitates its
applicability in virtually all
organizations
Module V
Leader-Member Exchange
Theory(LMX)
► “Special
Relationships”
► Not everyone is treated the same
► Relationships change over time
Module V
LMX Theory
Followers
Over time
Defined into
“in-group”
Leader-member
Exchange
Relationships
Followers
Over time
Defined into
“out-group”
Perceptions of
Followers
•Compatibility
•Competence
•Personality
“-”
“+”
Module V
Questions for discussion
► Do
the leadership style and follower
maturity/readiness match-ups in the
situational model make sense based on your
personal experiences?
► If you are in the “out-group” with a leader,
what could you do to move into the “ingroup”?
Module V
Charismatic Leader Theory
Charismatic leadership is leadership based on the leader's
ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach
followers on a basic, emotional way, to inspire and
motivate. We often speak of some sports and political
leaders as charismatic (or not) -- an example being John F.
Kennedy.
► It's difficult to identify the characteristics that make a
leader "charismatic", but they certainly include the ability
to communicate on a very powerful emotional level, and
probably include some personality traits.
► Developing "charisma" is difficult, if not impossible for
many people, but luckily charismatic leadership is not
essential to be an effective leader. Many other
characteristics are involved in leading effectively, and there
is significant evidence to indicate that it simply is not
necessary to have this elusive
Module Vcharisma to lead others well.
►
Charismatic Leader Theory
Relying on charisma to lead also can be problematic. For
example, there have been many charismatic leaders who
lack other leadership characteristics and skills (e.g.
integrity) and lead their followers into situations that turn
out horribly -- think political leaders such as Stalin, Hitler,
and even business leaders (Enron).
► Finally, in organizations lead by charismatic leaders, there
is a major problem regarding succession. What happens
when a leader who relies on charisma leaves? Often the
organization founders because the ability to lead rested
with one person's charisma.
►
Module V
Transformational Leaders
►
►
►
Transformational Leadership - More of a Partner
Approach
If transactional leadership involves the use of leadership
power over rewards and punishments to "lead",
transformational leadership can be characterized as a
process where leader and followers work together, in a way
that changes, or transforms the organization, the
employees/followers and the leader.
It recognizes that real leadership involves transformation
and learning on the part of follow AND leader. As such it is
more of a partnership, even though there are power
imbalances involved.
Module V
Trust and Leaders
► http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/dirks/trust
%20in%20leader%20chapter.pdf
► Positive interdependence
► Mutual respect and fairness
► Facilitating others to sources of power
► Sharing of information and resources
► Create an environment for informal
opportunities and interactions
Module V
“The Last Castle”
► What
are the traits of prisoner Irwin?
► Relationships:




Irwin and Yates
Irwin and Aguilar
Irwin and the sergeant major
How is situational leadership shown in these
relationships?
► Contrast
the leadership styles of Winter and Irwin
(formal/informal, transactional/transformational
etc.)
Module V
Transformational Leaders
► While
transactional leadership involves
telling, commanding, or ordering (and using
contingent rewards) transformational
leadership is based on inspiring, getting
followers to buy-in voluntarily, creating
common vision.
► Transformational leadership is what most of
us refer to when we talk about great leaders
in our lives and in society
Module V

similar documents