Vorlesung WS 10_Intro & History of HR

Report
Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights
1. What are Human Rights?
Julia Kozma and Johanna Lober
University of Vienna
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna
The Golden Rule
Do naught to others which, if done to thee,
would cause thee pain: this is the sum of duty.
Hinduism
What is hateful to you, do not to your fellow man.
That is the entire law; all the rest is commentary.
Judaism
Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.
Christianity
No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that
which he desires for himself.
Islam
Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful.
Buddhism
What are Human Rights?
•
Descriptive, legal and philosophical approaches
1) Those fundamental rights, which empower human beings to shape
their lives in accordance with liberty, equality and respect for human
dignity
2) The sum of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and collective
rights laid down in international and regional human rights instruments,
and in the constitutions of states
3) The only universally recognized value system under present
international law comprising elements of liberalism, democracy,
popular participation, social justice, the rule of law and good
governance
Human Rights Terminology
Human rights
(international law)
Fundamental rights
(national constitutional law)
Human rights
(for everyone)
Citizen‘s rights
(for citizens)
Human rights
(individual rights)
Peoples‘ rights
(collective rights)
Ludwig Boltzmann Institut für Menschenrechte
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights
2. History of Human Rights
Julia Kozma und Johanna Lober
University of Vienna
Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Human Rights, Vienna
Timeline
International Human Rights Law
Constitutionalism
Socialism
Magna Charta
Liberalism
Natural Law Doctrine
Selective Protection Regimes
-Diplomatic protection
-Humanitarian Law
-Prohibition of Slavery
-Minority Protection
1215
Habeas
Corpus
1679
American Decl.
of Independence/Constitution
Déclaration des droits de l‘homme/
French Const.
Belgium Const.
1776/
German Const.
ICRC
1789 1789/
1791
1831
1848
1875
Vienna World Conference
on Human Rights
Banjul Charter /
Decl. Right to Development
1993
Covenants: CCPR / CESCR
Universal Declaration
of Human Rights
United Nations Charter
Atlantic Charter
1948
WW II
1945
1941
Peace Treaty of Versailles
/ League of Nations
WW I
1919
1981/
1986
1966
Philosophical Foundations I
 Doctrine of natural law: inalienable rights
Samuel Pufendorf (De iure naturae et gentium, 1672, 2. Book, 1. Chapter §5)
•
Der Mensch ist von höchster Würde, weil er eine Seele hat, die ausgezeichnet
ist durch das Licht des Verstandes, durch die Fähigkeit, die Dinge zu
beurteilen und sich frei zu
entscheiden [...].
John Locke (Two Treatises of Government, 1690, II, §§124, 123, 87)
‚the great and chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealths, and
putting themselves under government, is the preservation of their property-that
is, their lives, liberties and estates.‘
=>Individual human beings as subjects endowed with rights
=>New relationship between state and individual: social contract
Philosophical Foundations II
•
American ‚Declaration of Independence‘ 1776
–
•
‚we hold these truths to be self-evident – that all men are created equal; that they are
endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights; that among these are life,
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these rights, governments are
instituted among men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.‘
French ‚Déclaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen ‘ 1789
–
–
Article II: ‚‘Le but de toute association politique est la conservation des droits naturels et
imprescriptibles de l’homme. Ces droits sont la liberté, la propriété, la sûreté et la
résistance a l’oppression.’
Article III: ‘Le principe de toute souveraineté réside essentiellement dans la nation.’
Article VI: ‘La loi est l’expression de la volonté générale. Tous les citoyens ont droit de
concourir personnellement ou par leurs représentants à sa formation.’
=>Revolutionary and emancipatory concept: freedom, individual
self-determination, political participation (democracy)
Philosophical Foundations III
 Liberalism: freedom from state interference
•
Immanuel Kant (Über den Gemeinspruch 1793)
–
•
‚Die Freiheit als Mensch, deren Prinzip für die Constitution eines gemeinen Wesens ich in
der Formel ausdrücke: Niemand kann mich zwingen auf seine Art (wie er sich das
Wohlsein anderer Menschen denkt) glücklich zu sein, sondern jeder darf seine
Glückseligkeit auf dem Wege suchen, welcher ihm selbst gut dünkt, wenn er nur der
Freiheit Anderer, einem ähnlichen Zwecke nachzustreben, die mit der Freiheit von
jedermann nach einem möglichen allgemeinen Gesetze zusammen bestehen kann, (d.i.
diesem Rechte des Anderen) nicht Abbruch thut .‘
John Stuart Mill (On Liberty 1859)
–
‚[...]to assert one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of
society with the individual in the way of compulsion and control, whether the means used be
physical force in the form of legal penalties or the moral coercion of public opinion. That
principle is that the sole end for which mankind are warranted, individually or collectively,
in interfering with the liberty of action of any of their number is self-protection…Over
himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign .‘
Philosophical Foundations IV
 Socialism: equality over individual rights
•
Karl Marx (Zur Judenfrage, 1843)
–
•
‚Vor allem konstatieren wir die Tatsache, dass die sogenannten Menschenrechte, die droits
de l’homme im Unterschied von den droits du citoyen, nichts anderes sind als die Rechte
des Mitglieds der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, d.h. des egoistischen Menschen, des vom
Menschen und vom Gemeinwesen getrennten Menschen .‘
Friedrich Engels (Anti-Dühring, 1877/78)
–
‚Die Proletarier nehmen die Bourgeoisie beim Wort: die Gleichheit soll nicht bloß
scheinbar, nicht bloß auf dem Gebiet des Staates, sie soll wirklich, auch auf dem
gesellschaftlichen, ökonomischen Gebiet durchgeführt werden .‘
=> Priority of economic, social and cultural rights
First Legal Codifications of Fundamental Rights


Era of constitutionalism
Applicable between the citizens and the state
•
•
•
•
United States of America: first 10 amendments to US Constitution (1789/91)
France: Declaration des droits de l’homme et du citoyen as part of French constitutions (1791)
Belgium: Constitution of 1831 as model for 19th century bills of rights
Germany: Paulskirchenverfassung (1848), Weimarer Reichsverfassung (1919), Bonner
Grundgesetz (1949)
•
•
Austria: Staatsgrundgesetz (1867)
Russia (USSR): ‘Declaration of the rights of the working and exploited people (1917), Stalin
Constitution (1936), Breshnjev Constitution (1977), 1993 Yeltsin Constitution (Russian
Federation)
•
•
•
•
•
•
China: Constitutions of 1949, 1954, 1975, 1978 and 1982
India: Constitution of 1950
Brazil: Constitution of 1988
Uganda: Constitution of 1995
South Africa: 1994 interim Constitution, 1996 Constitution
European Union: Charter of Fundamental Rights of 2000
Antecedents of the International Protection
of Human Rights
 Limited by the doctrine of national sovereignty and principle of
reciprocity
 Selective protection regimes in specific areas of mutual interest to
states
– Diplomatic protection of aliens
– Prohibition of slavery (Quintuple Treaty (London 1841/42) with 26 states
parties, General Act of Berlin 1885, General Act and Declaration of
Brussels 1890, Slavery Convention 1926/27)
– Protection of religious freedom (Augsburger Religionsfriede of 1555,
Treaty of Westphalia of 1648, Treaty of Versailles of 1871)
– Protection of minorities (various bi- and multilateral (peace) treaties,
League of Nations 1919)
– Humanitarian law (see next slide)
– Protection of labour rights (International Labour Office/ILO)
Development of International
Humanitarian Law
•
Lieber Code 1863 (‘Instructions for the Government of Armies of
the United States in the Field’)
•
Red Cross societies in Europe since 1863 – today 178 countries
have national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies
•
International Committee of the Red Cross 1875
•
Hague Convention 1907
•
Geneva Conventions 1929
•
Geneva Conventions 1949 and Additional Protocols 1977
Internationalisation of Human Rights
 Holocaust painfully reveals double standard of international law
Atlantic Charter 1941 (Roosevelt/Churchill)
‘Sixth, after the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny, the hope to see established a peace which
will afford to all nations the means of dwelling in safety within their own boundaries, and
which will afford assurance that all the men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom
from fear and want;’
 Need to protect human rights in international law/international relations
Preamble of the UN Charter 1945
‘We the Peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the
scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind, and to
reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human
person,…hereby establish an international organization to be known as the United Nations.’
Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
‘Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have
outraged the conscience of mankind…’
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
1948
 Need for a common understanding of human rights
[…]Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United
Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental
freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the
full realization of this pledge, […](Preamble)
[…]All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.They are endowed with reason and
conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Art. 1)
 First comprehensive universal catalogue of human rights: nondiscrimination (Art. 2), personal liberties and freedoms (Art. 3-5, 12-13, 16,
18-20), procedureal guarantees (Art. 6-11), rights to nationality and to seek
asylum (Art. 14, 15), political participation (Art. 21), economic, social and
cultural rights (17, 22-27)
 But: no binding instrument, „only“ declaration of intent
Three Generations/ Dimensions of
Int. Human Rights Law
Civil and Political Rights
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966
Economic, social and cultural rights
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
Collective Rights
UN GA Res „Declaration on the Right to Development“ 1986
African Charter of Human and Peoples‘ Rights 1981
1993 Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action
‚4. ‘The promotion and protection of all human rights and
fundamental freedoms must be considered as a priority
objective of the United Nations in accordance with its purposes
and principles, in particular the purpose of international
cooperation. In the framework of these purposes and principles,
the promotion and protection of all human rights is a legitimate
concern of the international community…’
5. ‘All human rights are universal, indivisible and
interdependent and interrelated. The international community
must treat human rights globally in a fair and equal manner, on
the same footing, and with the same emphasis. While the
significance of national and regional particularities and various
historical, cultural and religious backgrounds must be borne in
mind, it is the duty of states, regardless of their political,
economic and cultural systems, to promote and protect human
rights and fundamental freedoms.’
The Three P‘s
Promotion
•Standard setting
Protection
•Individual complaints
•Inter-state complaints
•Advisory Service
•State reporting
•Inquiry and investigation
•Human Rights Education •Fact-finding
•Human rights field
monitoring
•Condemnation
•Sanctions
•Humanitarian
intervention
Prevention
•Early warning and
early action
•Conflict resolution
•Preventive visits to
places of detention
•Preventive deployment
of civilian and/or military
field personnel
•International criminal law
From Declarations
to Enforcement of Human Rights (I)
•
Declaration
non-binding document/resolution of political bodies (UNGA,
Parliamentary Assembly, etc.), e.g.
–
–
•
Universal Declaration 1948
American Declaration 1948
Convention/Covenant
binding international treaty, e.g.
–
–
–
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UN Covenants 1966/76
European Convention 1950/53
American Convention 1969/78
African (Banjul) Charter 1981/86
From Declarations
to Enforcement of Human Rights (II)
•
Implementation
human rights treaty monitoring, e.g.
–
–
–
•
complaints procedure
reporting procedure
inquiry procedure
Enforcement
sanctions and enforced measures, e.g.
–
–
–
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expulsiom from international organizations
economic sanction
humanitarian interventions
international criminal tribunals
reduction or suspension of development cooperation, financial aid, etc.

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