LEUCIPPUS BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Little is known about Leucippus although he lived in the first half of the 5th century BC. He originated from Greece but later spent most of his time in Italy. In 440 BC he founded the school at Abdera where he meet his pupil Democritus that would perfect and spread his theory's of the atom. Many people believe that Leucippus never existed because all of his works were overshadowed by Democritus but evidence of his works exist in “The great order of the universe” & “On mind” Leucippus was the founder of the Atomic Theory. He said that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms. Much about his work was not recorded but was described in the works of his pupil Democritus. He also believed that that true being does not admit of vacuum, and there can be no movement in the absence of vacuum and he said that “Since movement exists that there has to be a. vacuum” LEUCIPPUS ATOMIC THEORY http://reichchemistry.wikispaces.com/file/view/aristotle_cosmo.gif/31589113/ari stotle_cosmo.gif http://www.on.br/site_edu_dist_2008/site/conteudo/modulo1/2cosmologia-grega/imagens/Leucippus.jpg DEMOCERITUS BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Democritus lived from 460BC-370BC where he grew up in Adenera Greece on the Northern Coast. He was a politician who was a free thinker the first of his kind he believed in Zeus not in “God the Creator” or that humans had souls. Although he was not religious he spread his “Moral Teachings” which preached his “Goal of Cheerfulness” and preached notion that rewards for righteous actions and punishments for wrongdoing were administered in an afterlife. Democritus worked off of the theory's of Leucippus & Aristotle. He believed that atoms were a irreducibly minimal quantity of matter. He believed in the concept of infinite divisibility of matter. He described atoms to be different shapes that join together to “make things” roaming around in “empty space” and these things are destroyed when the atoms separate. He preached "Nothing occurs at random, but everything happens for a reason and by necessity." Democritus' Atomic Theory http://www.uoregon.edu/~ch111/images/democritus.gif http://web.mit.edu/philos/www/mm/democritus.jpg ANTOINE LAVOISER BIOGRAPHY • Antoine was born in 1743 and grew up as a French nobleman. He found great interest and inspiration in biology and chemistry. When he was 25 he was elected as a important member to the “French Academy of Sciences.” THEORY • Antoine was known as the father of chemistry he was the fist to come up with the theory of the law of conservation of mass. He also did such things as help construct the metric system, name hydrogen and oxygen. He also proposed an idea that matter can change but its mass will always remain the same. He was also the first to work with stoichoimerty and did extensive research on combustion, gasses and water. ISAAC NEWTON http://static.howstuffworks.com/gif/newton-law-of-motion-forceramps.jpg http://ballyhooligan.files.wordpress.com/2009/04/isaac_newton.jpg ISAAC NEWTON BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Isaac was born and raised in England although he did grow up being raised by his grandmother. He schooling included Cambridge university. • • • Newton explored motion and gravity. He came up with three laws: An object in motion stays in motion unless an outside force acts upon it. Force is equal to the change in momentum per change in time. For every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction. Antoine Lavoisier's Stoichoimetry Pioneer Joseph Proust BIOGRAPHY • Proust was born in France in 1754 where he studied chemistry on his own in his fathers shop he did not attend an elite college, he basically taught himself. THEORY • Proust claim to fame in the chemistry department is his law of definite proportions. JOSEPH PROUST http://www.todayinsci.com/P/Proust_Joseph/ ProustJosephThm.jpg http://image.absoluteastronomy.com/images/encyclopediaimages/d/ da/daltons_symbols.gif JOHN DALTON http://www.aoi.com.au/matrix/101.1.GIF http://www.mayoclinic.org/tradition-heritage-artifacts/2-1.html JOHN DALTON BIOGRAPHY THEORY • John Dalton was born into a Quaker family in England. He wanted to peruse medicine but that idea was not welcomed by his family. When he was older he meet his role model John Gough who got him a job at the “New College” teaching. He was also considered to be a meteorologist who from a young age kept a meteorology diary. • • • • • • Dalton is infamous for the Atomic theory and he proposed : “The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element; the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weights. All atoms of a given element are identical. Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds; a given compound always has the same relative numbers of types of atoms. Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms. “ MARIE CURIE BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Curie who has a polish upbringing and struggled being a female scientist was actually the fist person not just woman to with the Nobel prize for physics and for chemistry. The French Academy of Science refused to allow her as a member just because she was a woman. Her main accomplishment was her theory of radioactivity, no one had even heard of radioactivity before Curie. She also created techniques for the isolation of isotopes. Because she was the first to deal with radiation she discovered the element radium and polonium. http://www.erau.edu/er/newsmedia/newsreleases/2007/images/curi e.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/Electron_shell _088_radium.png ROBERT MILLIKAN http://www.kentchemistry.com/links/AtomicStructure/Millikan.htm http://wwwnews.uchicago.edu/releases/06/images/061128.millikan.jpg ROBERT MILLIKANS THEORY BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Robert Millikan was born in Maquoketa Iowa, where he attended Columbia University where he earned a doctorate in physics. He made book that asked question not just text he wanted to engage his readers that was the first of its kind. Millikan was the founder of the oil drop experiment which is now very famous. The oil experiment measured the charge of a single electron. His experiment measured the force on tiny charged droplets of oil suspended against gravity between two metal electrodes for this he won a physics Nobel prize. HENRI BECQUREL http://w.g.seeley.tripod.com/physics/q2q/images/spectr2.gif http://www.scientificweb.com/en/Physics/Biographies/images/HenriBecquerel01.jpg HENRI BECQUEREL BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Becquerel was born Into a French family where he took his family name as the physics chair at the Museum National d’Historie Naturelle. Becquerel “accidently” discovered radioactivity when he wrapped a fluorescent substance in urinal sulfate when he exposed the photographic plates to sunlight the image was exposed this was the beginning of nuclear radiation. JJ THOMPSON BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Thompson was very intelligent for his age and he attended college at the young age of fourteen. His father wanted him to work in a factory bus as soon as his father died very young he perused his dream of becoming a scientist. Thompson discovered electrons. He also explored properties of cathode rays and he discovered that rays were being deflected by electron fields. This became know as the plum pudding model. JJ THOMPSON http://www.ucl.ac.uk/sts/chang/electricity/thompson.jpe ERNEST RUTHEFORD http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/602/616516/Media_Ass ets/Chapter02/Text_Images/FG02_05.JPG http://www.antiquewireless.org/images/rutherford01.jpg EARNEST RUTHERFORD BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Rutherford became known as the father or nuclear physics . He also won a Nobel prize in chemistry. Rutherford stumbled on the concept of radioactivity and radioactive half life. He also made the distinction between thorium and uranium. He also dabbled with the concept of decay. He also came up the with “Gold Foil Experiment” which proved that the atom has a nucleus. ERNEST MARSDEN http://www.chemteam.info/Gallery/Marsden-1.GIF http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/75/22475-004A3C9BDB8.gif ERNEST MARSDEN BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Ernest went to the university of Manchester where he met Ernest Rutherford also work as a professor of physics and agent most of his time conducting experiments for Rutherford. Worked on the Geiger Marsden experiment also know as the Gold Foil Experiment. He also founded the department of scientific and industrial research. WERNER HEINSENBERG http://www.nanogallery.info/images/news/Heisenberg_14.jpeg http://www.humanthermodynamics.com/Atom_diagram.jpg WERNER HEISENBERG BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Werner was a German physicist. He served as director of Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics. He was also the chairman of a group working with nuclear physics. Werner proposed many theories involving quantum physics. He also discovered allotropic forms of hydrogen. He was also the first to use matrices instead of ordinary numbers. NIELS BOHR http://cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/timothyk/images/em_bohr.gi f http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/f/f4/Niels_Bohr_Albert_Einstein2_by_Ehrenfest.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commo ns.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Niels_Bohr_Albert_Einstein2_by_Ehrenfest.jpg&usg=__ NIELS BOHR BIOGRAPHY THEORY • • Niels was born in Denmark , he grew up in a wealthy Jewish family. He was surprisingly good at football and sports which was his passion in life. At first he studied mathematics. He went on to have a large successful family. Bohr worked at Los Alamos lab working on the Manhattan project. He was one of the few people ever to get his hands on the atomic bomb and help create this not knowing the effects it would have on the world. He did not like working for this secretive company and got out. The created the Bohr model of the atom and his theory stated that electrons travel in discrete orbits around the atoms nucleus. ALBERT EINSTEIN ALBERT EINSTEIN • Although einstein was extreamly famous for much better things scientifically than just atomic reserch he did play an important role. He lead such scientist and Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg he was the man who gave them the confidence they needed he also spend a lot of time researching quantum physics with these too men. They were a tight group in the scientific world and they all worked off each others knowledge which is what lead them come so far with atomic research.