2013 - The Cooper Union

Report
Rabia Akhtar and Ozzy Khan
The percentage share of world consumption
of Victrex PEEK by sector for the year 2012.
Industrial: 39%
Electronics: 24%
Transport: 26%
Medical: 11%
PEEK
DFBP
Hydroquinone
Sodium nitrate
DADM
Arbutin
Formaldehyde
Aniline
Methanol
Nitrobenzene
CO2
Benzene
Petroleum
Nitric acid
Nitrogen Dioxide
H2O
H2
Hydrogen
fluoride
Tank Size: 3,400 L
Temperature: 90ºC
Time: 41.7 days/batch
Batch size: 3750 kg
Spools per batch: 4,650
Spools per day: 100
Spool size: 250’ 1” PEEK
electrical sleeving
Polymethyl Methacrylate:
PMMA
Saijah Williams
Mia Rodie
History and Markets
• Discovered in 1877 by Fittig
and Paul
Uses and Properties
(pontiacgrandprix.net)
1972 Olympic Stadium- Munich,
Germany
Headlights made of PMMA
Edge-lighting.com
Lighting Applications of PMMA
LG LCD television
Polymer Chemistry
• PMMA is made of methyl methacrylate. PMMA is most commonly polymerized
through free radical polymerization.
• The application of PMMA traces back to the type of polymerization used.
Type of Polymerization
Application
Bulk
Plexiglas®
Solution
Adhesives, paint resins
Suspension
PMMA beads
Emulsion
Paper coating agents, paper processing
agents, textile binders
Raw Materials and Production Process
Methyl formate
Acetone
Methyl formate
Acetone
Hydration of
acetonecyanhydrin
Prussic acid
ahydroxyisobutyric
acid amide
Hydrogen Cyanide
methyl ahydroxyisobutyric
Methyl
methacrylate
Reactor Design
• Goal: 100 sheets of Plexiglas® per day
• Amount of PMMA per year: 800
metric tons
• Amount of time per batch: 5.6 minutes
Equation 1
Variable
Meaning
Ki, Kp, Kt
Rate constants
p
Polydispersity
[M]
Concentration of monomer
[I]
Concentration of initiator
By: Caroline Hunt & Isael Luperon
History and Market
 Created in 1964 by Stephanie Kwolek
 Produced by DuPont
 First commercial use in 1971
 Mainly produced in USA
 Costs : $12 - $27
Uses & Properties
Advantages:
 Tensile strength
 Chemical resistance
 Structural rigidity
 Thermal resistance
 Lightweight
Disadvantages:
 Absorbs moisture
 Poor against compression
 Poor against UV rays
6
2
3
4
7
5
Polymer Chemistry
1,4-phenylene-diamine
(para-phenylenediamine)
Terephthaloyl
Chloride
Hydrochloric
Acid (byproduct)
Poly-para-phenylene
Terephtalamide (Kevlar)
Results of Reactor Design
 Goal: 1,000 pairs of Kevlar gloves per day
 Total monomer: 835 moles
 Total solvent: 278 moles
 Total volume of tank: 150 Liters
 Time for one reaction: 9.7 seconds
Properties, Uses, and Production of
Polytetrafluoroethylene
By Sally Kramer
Dr. Roy Plunkett
History, Discovery, Markets, Demand, Chemical
Formula and Prices
 Teflon
 Roy Plunkett 1938 DuPont Company
 Production rate of 900 tons per year in 1948 will grow to
240,000 tons per year by 2017
PTFE Price as a Function of Time
10
9
Figure 2
Price per pound ($)
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2010
Year
2011
Uses and Properties
Polymer Chemistry, Raw Materials, and
Production Process
 CHCl3 + 2HF
CHClF2 + 2HCl
 2CHClF2
F2C=CF2 + 2HCl
 Fluorspar, water, sulfur, air, natural gas
(1)
(2)
Ethics and Safety
 Carcinogens and birth defects
 “Fracking” for natural gas
 Don’t leave an empty Teflon coated pot or pan over
an open flame!
 If your pan starts to
look like this, throw it
away!
Reactor Design for Gaskets
 Goal: 10,000 Teflon gaskets per day, each 12.947g
 Ten hours per batch, two batches per day
24.399 kg
dimethylamine
oxide
dihydrate
87.14 kg TFE
8.714 kg
glacial acetic
acid
26,142 kg
water
64.725 kg
PTFE
Producing Polylactic
Acid
By: Kevin Garcia and Janki Tailor
History/ Discovery/ Introduction
O Similar to petroleum based plastics but its
biodegradable
O Lactic acid discovered in 1780 by Carl Wilhelm
Scheele and PLA discovered in 1932 by Wallace
Carothers.
O First official PLA production plant launched in
Blaire, Nebraska.
Markets/ Demand/ Prices
O Used in fibers, packaging,
and chemical products
markets
O Archer Daniels Midland
Company, Cargill Inc., and
Ecochem
O 6.6 billion lbs. PLA produced
annually$6 billion per year
O Global lactic acid production:
40,000 tons per year
Markets and Markets. http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/MarketReports/polylacticacid-387.html (accessed July 9th, 2013), Global Lactic
Acid & Polylactic Acid (PLA) Market by Raw Materials, Types,
Applications, and Potential Opportunities (Forecast to 2016).
Uses/ Properties
Rigids
Food Serviceware
The Potential of Bio-Based Plastics. Steeman, A.
http://bestinpackaging.com/2009/11/30/the-potential-ofbio-based-plastics/ (accessed August 7, 2013).
Excellent Packaging & Supply (EPS). http://www.packagingint.com/suppliers/excellent-packaging-supply-eps.html
(accessed August 7, 2013).
Polymer Chemistry
O Monomer: L-Lactide
(two lactic acids
combined)
O Most methods for
making PLA are not
economically viable
O Methods to
synthesis PLA:
O Step Growth
O Ring Open
Polymerization
L-Lactide
Futerro.
http://www.futerro.com/products_lactide.html
(accessed August 7, 2013).
Lactic Acid
Intech. Jamshidian et al.
http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegr
adation-life-of-science/biodegradablepolymers (accessed July 23, 2013).
Raw Materials/ Production/ Safety
Corn
Starch
Fermentation
Step Growth
PLA
Lactic Acid
Ring-open Polymerization
Lactide
O PLA is eco-friendly, and releases carbon
dioxide and methane when it degrades
Batch Design
O Task: To design a batch
reactor to make these cups
O Goal: Make 10,000 plastic
cups/day
O Bulk Reaction
O Catalyst used for reaction:
Tin Octoate
Fabri-Kal. http://www.fabri-kal.com/product/greenware-colddrink-cups/ (accessed August 6, 2013)
Results for our Batch Reactor
OTime per batch: 200 hours
Lactide
OBatches per year: 44
batches
OCups produced per batch:
82,955 cups
OMass of monomer used per
cup: 48.65 g
OVolume of batch reactor:
3.16 cubic meters
PLA
Paulina Babiak
And
Fradah Gold
Uses and Properties
Polymer Chemistry and Safety
Phenyl Groups
Methyl Groups
Carbonate
Raw Materials
$1.75/lb
$0.94/lb
Polycarbonate (C16H14O3)
Phenol
(C6H5O)
Acetone
(C3H6O)
Coal Tar
C14H18O4ClN5
Benzene (C6H6)
Coal
Petroleum
(crude oil)
Phosgene
(COCl2)
$0.74/lb
Bisphenol-A (C15H16O2 )
CO
Propylene
(C3H6)
Petroleum
Coal
O2
Natural Gas
CO2
Cl2
C
Process Design for 10 Million CDs
Phenol
NaOH
Acetone
Phosgene
Diphenyl
carbonate
BisphenolA
Caustic
soda
NaCl
(Condenser)
200 L 200ºC
153 min
POLYCARBONATE
Markets
Polycarbonate
Life Cycle
POLYOXYMETHYLENE
(POM)
BY OLIVIA KAZIOR AND REECAN JUAREZ
INTRODUCTION
• General molecular structure:
H—(—O—CH2—)n—OH
• Discovered during the 1920’s by German chemist
Staudinger
• Production began in the U.S. in 1959 when it was finally
made thermally stable by chemical company DuPont
MARKETS
Table 1. POM consumption by region, 1999-2002
Western Europe
North America
Japan
Remainder of Asia
Pacific
1999
2000
2001
2002
28.8%
29.5%
29.6%
29.6%
23.7%
15.7%
31.8%
23.5%
13.8%
33.1%
23.0%
13.9%
33.5%
Table 2. Percentage share of world POM consumption
by market sector, 1999-20025
1999
2000
2001
2002
Automotive
31.8%
31.8%
32.0%
31.8%
23.0%
Electrical &
Electronics
23.1%
23.3%
23.0%
23.0%
13.1%
Consumer
Products
20.4%
20.3%
20.6%
20.9%
Industrial
17.1%
16.9%
16.4%
16.2%
Others
7.5%
7.6%
8.0%
8.3%
34.3%
Source: Platt, D. Engineering and High Performance Plastics Market Report; iSmithers Rapra Publishing, 2003; pp 43
PROPERTIES & USES
• Great mechanical strength, toughness, and resistance to
impact  electronic and engineering appliances Reduced
wear and friction  transfer device
• Resistance to moisture and shrink resistance  paper
• Can modify toxicity of viruses  medicines
Image Source: DuPont Chemical Company
POLYMER CHEMISTRY
+
Distilled
+
Heat
H2O
Polymerization
+ Initiator
formaldehyde
Finished
Product
Filtration
+
Source: Schweitzer, C. E., Macdonald, R. N. and Punderson, J. O. (1959), Thermally stable high molecular
weight polyoxymethylenes. J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 1: 158–163.
SAFETY & PRODUCTION
• Formaldehyde
(toxic)
• Methanol
(toxic)
• POM is generally nontoxic to living things.
• Injection molding is
commonly used to produce
POM plastic.
Sources: DuPont.
http://plastics.dupont.com/plastics/pdflit/americas/delrin/H76
836.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/81-111/
REACTOR DESIGN
To make 1000 POM guitar picks per 15
seconds, you would need:
100 metric tons of POM per year
• Time to make one batch of POM:
~40 hours
• Volume of reactor: 532 liters
• Moles of POM: 1445 moles per liter
Image Source: Dunlop. http://www.jimdunlop.com/product/delrin
Acknowledgments

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