romania - The language of art

Report
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
DOMANTAS
DOMINYKAS
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
BURAK
OZDER
ALY
SED
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
MARAMURES
ELENA& PAUL
BUCOVINA
ADINA
BANAT
STEFANIA
TRANSILVANIA
EDWARD
DOBROGEA
TEODORA
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
COOPERATION!
Winter habits from Poland
Poland
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winter habits from Latvija.
Latvija
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winter Habits From Lithuania
Lithuania
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
‘’Winter Habits of Lithuania’’
Lithuanian traditional costumes
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Turkey
Moschee – Loc pentru rugaciuni
Durum
Costum Traditional
Baklava
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
WHINTER HABITS FROM TURKIE
TURKEY
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winter habits from Turkey
chestnut
boza
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
WINTER HABITS FROM ROMANIA
ROMANIA-Maramures
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
WHINTER HABITS FROM ROMANIA
ROMANIA -MARAMURES
ENGLEZA
ROMANA
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Christmas customs and traditions are still alive in Maramures Christmas continues
to be a celebration Maramures where traditions and customs are kept religiously,
it can best be seen in the villages. And in big cities but on Christmas Eve but you
can see groups of singers, young and old, going to proclaim to friends Nativity.
People spend with family and friends three days in one. Christmas does not mean
only three days, called "the Christmas village." Celebration has three stages:
preparation period, fasting and all other actions in entering the house cleaning,
the yard, graves, then there is the period between December 23 (Eve Eve) and
January 31 and the last is the period of the New Year ( The little old named
Christmas) and
Epiphany.
Maramures is still a place where you can hear the voices of children and young
people and the elderly who proclaim the birth of Jesus, but first of all ask: “Leave
them to wander?".
Delia Suiogan PhD lecturer at the University of Baia Mare believes that as long as
carols and carols will never perish, Christmas celebrations will not lose its charm
in Maramures. "Carols in common is an ancient ritual magic symbols with very
complex functionality. Ceremony includes elements of sun worship, worship of
the dead elements, and elements of worship agriculture, "said anthropologist
specialist.
"Star" and "The Goat" fun cocoons Christmas Eve in Maramures villages are the
first to go trick or treating children. With traditional purses, they go on to houses
to announce the grand event will occur, and in return their carol use to provide
coins, nuts, apples.
The walk to the "Star" or the "Goat", whose game (killing, bocirea, burial,
resurrection) originally was a serious ceremony. Delia Suiogan showed that goat
parade of characters Dionysian procession reminiscent of half man, half animal
encountered in Thracians, the Greeks and the Romans. Children are objects made of
time necessary, improvising with what they find in the drawers mothers, especially the
"star" that go trick or treating should be really bright and "goat", as luscious and loud.
In some areas outside these traditions are preserved and "Viflaimul", a popular theater
that arise that relate biblical Nativity time. There are few villages in Maramures who
presented the show, and the large number of characters, over 20, and the careful
preparation to be made well in advance. In Ieud, but also in other places of the Iza
Valley tradition was preserved, even if "Viflaimul" is presented just before Christmas.
"The game estates," the art of disguise
Delia Suiogan showed that "the holiday season, a role it has played and still plays
disguise and travestirea May practiced at playing with masks. Those who mask,
individually or in groups, watching that besides frames of the project to obtain real or
magical, using masks and spiritual connection with alleged superhuman strength. " It
showed that "mask wearer is mindful of its power is removed from profane time and
space" and "Joker mask retains function with intent to secure the passage she wears
easier than" thresholds "that to be overcome, because the mask implies a series of
prohibitions, but it will also give the right to a behavior that comes from daily patterns,
real soon. "
She added that in Maramures, a particularly important place in our game Mosilor
years, the origin of which seems ceremonies with masks stood vigil nights - ancestral
ritual of honoring the dead.
"The actual mask made of fur mos Maramures cattle, although reminiscent of animal
origin similar mask differs from the rest of the country through ethnographic areas that
do not have horns," said Delia Suiogan. According to the game Mosi is a special
moment and is distinguished by the ingenuity of those who knock on doors and hosts
disguise to scare them and wish them happiness and health.
Colacutul gave singers, a symbol of the sun.
Ethnologist said that they have an important place and wandered about objects,
reminiscent of beat, which is seen as a "tree of life". Reaching goals, and the women,
and repeated beating both floors of the house and in the yard with bat ground
fertilizer acts according beliefs of Maramures.
Also, another ritual object that is missing from Maramures Christmas households is
hoop, which is a symbol of the sun, proofing dough which is signifying fertility. There
are but apple - sacred food "fruit of knowledge", and walnut, which is assimilated and
"cosmic egg". All these can be found on Christmas tables all households in
Maramures, even if modernism has made its way even in rural areas.
"All symbols used by actantial rituals or gestural nature, object, or animal or vegetable
etc. are designed to recreate the myth (at the originating or the Christian Creation).
Nothing is accidental, everything is subject to the order established by mythical
memory. Celebration of Christmas or the New Year and beyond, are a form of direct
participation in the cosmic order, "said Delia Suiogan.
She admitted that habits were "reworked" regular community members.
Christmas superstitions have their place on holidays.
Are therefore extremely rare situations where floors are covered with fresh hay house,
and under the tablecloth is made straw for acquiring wealth. Also chains no longer
bind with table legs, custom is practiced to stop wild animals attacking cattle in yards
and to remove evil from the house.
But superstitions persist, so do not give the mature Christmas, no laundry and not give
anything lender. Also, give saturated animal food in the household, including a piece
of yeast dough, which is believed to protect them from diseases. In some areas, it is
said that if Christmas Eve, the animals rest on the left, is a sign that winter will be long
and very cold. There is also the belief that those who complain will complain Eve all
coming year and Christmas morning you should wash your face with spring water that
put a silver penny.
Christmas preparations are required in Maramures and the peasant take this
opportunity to reveal to her their heritage or married girls. Sterguri beautifully woven,
embroidered pillows painstakingly dressed in girls, colorful rugs are removed from the
cabinet and placed in rooms, especially the carol singers are received. Houses not miss
any tree, now decorated with lights and ornaments Chinese and sometimes with nuts,
apples or rows of white beans instead of tinsel.
Christmas dinner, magical moment of celebration.
The most important is that the Christmas house is clean and decorated holiday and
table is full, that family gathering around the table and the tree is the most well
preserved. Delia Suiogan showed that "habit is a form of reconstruction of the house
gathering all around logs illuminates the sacred hearth Eve house and has a sense of
power load with the participants". In fact, even many believe that Christmas Eve is not
allowed to put out the fire in the stove, so that the man of the house used to put the
fire a large stump.
Delia said Suiogan gathering around the table for Christmas recipes "return
to the circle, which could be interpreted as a form of initiation or restarted. Starting
from the center "cool" enable reconstruction own "center", so that every home is a
repeat of "Center of the World", participants with the opportunity to charge with
power. " As for the feast, it is to provide welfare, but is also a form of sacrifice: the pig
for cooking sausages and caltaboslului, and the grain of wheat to make bread.
Rituals for health and family welfare Delia Suiogan also said that "many rituals were
preserved. Some felt that habits are not being treated as ordinary shares, but part of
that long series of symbolic gestures that allow the individual to periodically have the
chance for a new beginning. "
She gave the example of Costa Brava, which is felt today as a very important ritual
gesture of recalling the sacrifices to gods who were born and dying regularly in
renewal periods of calendar time. His sacrifice was made before a certain day, the
Ignat and dawn. Even if time is no longer observed, it still retains a series of rituals that
are meant to provide health and family welfare in the New Year. Thus, the pig should
not whine and all activities during his cutting must be accompanied by good vibes and
wishes. "In Maramures crossed the blood is on top of cocoons (No - children) that they
are healthy and strong. Contact with animal flesh, its blood implicitly means the
transfer of power, the life of those who consume this food. At the same time, the
animal becomes mediator between worlds, between man and god / deity, between
man and his ancestors, "said university lecturer.
Carol, a possible "key" to the gates of knowledge Christmas in Maramures
identify the carol, which, despite pressures on folklore, not "manelizat“ but was
preserved as sung by the ancestors. Ethnologist believes that "as long as it will not
resort to miming and free Christmas will remain the same, a time of joy and rebirth",
adding that he would like that to be celebrating five years as beautiful now, although
fears that "could result in loss of identity within globalization the phenomenon of
disintegration". "Rediscovering the true meanings of gestures or objects may
contribute to maintaining tradition.
Thus, caroling ceremony related to joint appeal to a range of objects loaded
with meaning and value, just because of their function as a mediator between man
and nature, between man and cosmos. They are not mere objects become forms of
communication between worlds. Carol can receive and purpose of indicating
direction, becoming a possible "key" that opens her gates to being some knowledge
"concluded ethnologist.
MERRY CHRISTMAS!
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Craciunul continua sa fie in Maramures o sarbatoare la care traditiile si obiceiurile se
pastreaza cu sfintenie, cel mai bine acesta putand fi vazute la sate. Si in marile orase
insa, in Ajunul Craciunului se pot vedea insa grupuri de colindatori, tineri si batrani,
care merg sa vesteasca pe la prieteni Nasterea Domnului. Lumea petrece impreuna cu
familia si prietenii trei zile intr-una. Craciunul nu inseamna insa doar cele trei zile,
numite «ale Craciunului satul». Sarbatoarea are trei etape: perioada de pregatire,
postul si toate celelalte actiuni in care intra curatirea casei, a curtii, a mormintelor;
apoi mai e perioada cuprinsa intre 23 decembrie (Ajunul Ajunului) si 31 ianuarie, iar
ultima este perioda dintre Anul Nou (numit in vechime Craciunul cel mic) si Boboteaza.
Maramuresul este inca un loc in care se pot auzi glasurile copiilor si tinerilor, dar si ale
celor batrani care vestesc Nasterea Domnului Iisus, dar intai de toate intreaba:
“Slobodu-i a colinda?”.
Lectorul universitar doctor Delia Suiogan de la Universitatea de Nord Baia Mare este
de parere ca atat timp cat colinda si colindatul nu vor pieri, sarbatoarea Craciunului nu
isi va pierde farmecul in Maramures. ”Colindatul in comun este un ritual stravechi cu
functionalitate magico-simbolica foarte complexa. Ceremonialul contine elemente de
cult al soarelui, elemente de cult al mortilor, dar si elemente de cult agrar”, a precizat
specialistul etnolog.
”Steaua” si ”Capra”, distractia coconilor In Ajunul Craciunului, in satele din Maramures
primii care pleaca la colindat sunt copiii. Cu traistutele prinse de gat, acestia merg pe
la case ca sa anunte marele eveniment care se va produce, iar in schimbul colindei lor
se obisnuiste sa se ofere colacuti, nuci, mere, iar acum, din ce in ce mai des, se dau
bani.
Se umbla cu ”Steaua” sau cu ”Capra”, al carei joc (omorarea, bocirea, inmormantarea,
invierea), la origine, a fost un ceremonial grav. Delia Suiogan a aratat ca alaiul caprei
aminteste de alaiul dionisiac al personajelor jumatate om, jumatate animale intalnite
la traci, la grecii antici si la romani. Copiii isi confectioneaza din timp obiectele
necesare, improvizand cu ce gasesc prin sertarele mamelor, mai
ales ca ”steaua” cu care se merge la colindat trebuie sa fie neaparat stralucitoare, iar
”capra”, cat mai inzorzonata si galagioasa.
In unele zone, in afara acestor obiceiuri se mai pastreaza si ”Viflaimul”, un teatru
popular in care apar personajele biblice care au legatura cu momentul Nasterii
Domnului. Sunt putine localitatile Maramuresului in care mai este prezentat
spectacolul, si datorita numarului mare de personaje, peste 20, dar si a pregatirilor
minutioase care trebuie facute cu mult timp inainte. In Ieud, dar si in alte localitati de
pe Valea Izei traditia s-a mai pastrat, chiar daca ”Viflaimul” nu este prezentat chiar in
Ajunul de Craciun.
”Jocul mosilor”, o arta a deghizarii Delia Suiogan a aratat ca ”in cadrul sarbatorilor de
iarna, un rol important l-a jucat si il mai joaca inca deghizarea si travestirea, practicate
in jocul cu masti. Cei ce se mascau, individual sau in grup, urmareau ca, pe langa
proectia reala sau magica sa obtina, cu ajutorul mastilor si legatura spirituala cu
presupusele forte supraomenesti”. Ea a aratat ca ”purtatorul mastii este patruns de
forta ei, este scos din timpul si spatiul profan”, iar ”masca isi pastreaza functia de
pacalire, cu intentia de a asigura celui care o poarta o trecere mai usoara peste
«pragurile» pe care le are de depasit, pentru ca masca presupune si o serie intreaga
de interdictii, dar ii si da dreptul la un comportament ce iese din tiparele cotidianului,
realului imediat”.
Ea a mai adaugat ca, in Maramures, un loc important il ocupa mai ales in anii nostri
jocul mosilor, la originea caruia se pare ca au stat ceremoniile cu masti din noptile de
priveghi - ritual stramosesc de cinstirea mortilor. ”Masca propriu-zisa de mos
maramuresan executata din blana de cornute, desi aminteste de animalul originar se
deosebeste de masca similara din restul zonelor etnografice ale tarii prin faptul ca nu
au coarne”, a spus Delia Suiogan.
Potrivit acesteia, jocul mosilor este un moment aparte si se remarca prin
ingeniozitatea celor care se deghizeaza si bat la usile gazdelor sa le sperie si sa le ureze
fericire si sanatate.
Colacutul dat colindatorilor, un simbol al soarelui. Etnologul a mai spus ca un loc
important il au si obiectele legate de colindat, amintind de bata, care este vazuta ca un
”arbore al vietii”. Atingerea portilor si a femeilor, dar si bataia repetata atat in
podeaua casei, cat si in pamantul din curte cu bata are rol fertilizator, potrivit
credintelor din Maramures.
De asemenea, un alt obiect ritualic, care nu lipseste din gospodariile maramuresenilor
de Craciun, este colacul, care este un simbol al soarelui, dospirea aluatului din care se
face semnificand fertilitatea. Mai sunt insa marul - aliment sacru si “fruct al
cunoasterii”, si nuca, care este asimilata si “oului cosmic”. Toate aceste se regasesc pe
mesele de Craciun in toate gospodariile din Maramures, chiar daca modernismul si-a
facut loc chiar si in zonele rurale.
”Toate simbolurile folosite de catre actantii ritualurilor, fie de natura gestuala,
obiectuala, fie de natura animala sau vegetala etc. au rolul de a reconstitui mitul (cel al
Creatieioriginare sau cel Crestin). Nimic nu este accidental, totul se supune ordinii
instituite de memoria mitica. Sarbatoarea Craciunului sau cea a Anului Nou, si nu
numai, devin o forma de participare directa la acea ordine cosmica”, a spus Delia
Suiogan. Ea a recunoscut ca obiceiurile au fost remodelate” periodic de membrii
comunitatii.
Superstitiile de Craciun au locul lor in zilele de sarbatoare Prin urmare, sunt extrem de
rare situatiile in care podelele casei sunt acoperite cu fan proaspat, iar sub fata de
masa sunt puse paie pentru dobandirea bunastarii. De asemenea nu se mai leaga cu
lanturi picioarele mesei, obicei care se practica pentru a opri animalele salbatice sa
atace vitele din curti si sa indeparteze raul din casa.
Superstitiile persista insa, astfel incat nu se da cu matura de Craciun, nu se spala rufe si
nu se da nimic cu imprumut. De asemenea, se da de mancare pe saturate animalelor
din gospodarie, inclusiv cate o bucatica de aluat dospit, despre care se crede ca le va
feri de boli. In unele zone, se spune ca daca in seara de Ajun, animalele se culca pe
partea stanga, e semn ca iarna va fi lunga si geroasa. Mai exista si credinta ca acei care
plang in Ajun vor plange tot anul care vine, iar in dimineata de Craciun este bine sa te
speli pe fata cu apa de izvor in care se pune un banut de argint.
Pregatirile de Craciun sunt obligatorii in Maramures, iar tarancile folosesc acest prilej
ca sa isi scoata la iveala zestrea lor sau ale fetelor de maritat. Sterguri frumos tesute,
perne imbracate in fete brodate cu migala, pleduri colorate sunt scoase din dulapuri si
asezate in incaperi, mai ales in cea in care sunt primiti colindatorii. Din case nu lipseste
nici bradul, impodobit acum cu beculete si globuri chinezesti, iar altadata cu nuci,
mere ori siraguri de boabe de fasole alba in loc de beteala.
Masa de Craciun, momentul magic al sarbatorii
Cel mai important este ca de Craciun casa sa fie curata si impodobita de sarbatoare,
iar masa sa fie plina, pentru ca adunarea membrilor familiei in jurul mesei si al
bradului este elementul cel mai bine conservat. Delia Suiogan a aratat ca ”obiceiul
apare ca o forma de reconstituire a strangerii tuturor ai casei in jurul buturugii sacre ce
se aprindea in vatra casei in Ajun si care are rostul de a-i incarca cu
putere pe participanti”. De altfel, chiar exista credinta ca in noaptea de Craciun nu e
voie sa se stinga focul in soba, astfel incat barbatul casei
obisnuia sa puna pe foc o buturuga mare.
Delia Suiogan a spus ca reunirea in jurul mesei de Craciun ete ”revenirea in cerc, ce ar
putea fi interpretata ca o forma de initiere ori reinitiere.
Pornirea din acest centru «tare» da posibilitatea reconstituirii propriului «centru»,
astfel incat fiecare casa devine o repetare a «Centrului Lumii», participantii avand
prilejul sa se incarce cu putere”.
Cat priveste ospatul, acesta se face pentru asigurarea bunastarii, dar este si o forma de
sacrificiu: al porcului pentru prepararea carnatilor si caltaboslului, precum si al bobului
de grau pentru a face painea.
Ritualuri pentru sanatatea si prosperitatea familei Delia Suiogan a mai aratat ca ”foarte
multe ritualuri au fost pastrate. Unele nu mai sunt simtite ca obiceiuri, fiind privite ca
actiuni obisnuite, dar fac parte din acea serie lunga de gesturi simbolice care ii permit
individului ca, periodic, sa aiba sansa unui nou inceput.”
Ea a dat ca exemplu taiatul porcului, care este simtit si astazi ca un ritual deosebit de
important, gestul amintind de jertfele aduse zeitatilor care se nasteau si mureau
periodic, in perioadele de innoire a timpului calendaristic. Sacrificarea acestuia se
facea inainte intr-o anumita zi, cea de Ignat si in zorii zilei. Chiar daca data nu se mai
respecta, se pastreaza inca o serie intreaga de ritualuri, care au menirea sa asigure
sanatatea si prosperitatea in familie in Noul An. Astfel, porcul nu trebuie vaitat si toate
activitatile din timpul taierii lui trebuie sa fie insotite de voie buna si de urari.
”In Maramures, se face semnul crucii cu sange pe fruntea coconilor (n.r. – copiilor) ca
acestia sa fie sanatosi si puternici. Contactul cu carnea animalului, implicit cu sangele
acestuia, inseamna transferul de putere, de viata asupra celui care consuma acest
aliment. In acelasi timp, animalul devine mediator intre lumi, intre om si
zeu/divinitate, intre om si stramosii sai”, a precizat lectorul universitar.
Colinda, o posibila ”cheie” spre portile cunoasterii Craciunul se identifica in
Maramures prin colinda, care, in ciuda presiunilor asupra folclorului, nu s-a
”manelizat”, ci s-a pastrat asa cum era cantata de strabuni. Etnologul este de parere ca
”atata vreme cat nu se va apela la mimare si gratuit, Craciunul va ramane acelasi, un
timp al bucuriei si al renasterii”, precizand ca i-ar placea ca si peste cinci ani sarbatorea
sa fie la fel de frumoasa ca acum, desi se teme ca ”pierderea identitatii ar putea
conduce in interiorul procesului de globalizare la fenomenul de dezagregare”.
”Redescoperirea adevaratelor sensuri ale unor gesturi sau obiecte poate sa contribuie
la pastrarea traditiei. Astfel, ceremonialul legat de colindatul in comun apeleaza la o
serie intreaga de obiecte incarcate de sens si valoare, tocmai datorita functiei lor de
mediere intre om si natura, intre om si Cosmos. Ele nu mai sunt simple obiecte,
devenind forme de comunicare intre lumi.
Colinda mai poate primi si sensul de indicare a directiei, devenind o posibila «cheie»
care sa-i deschida Fiintei unele porti spre cunoastere”, a concluzionat etnologul.
CRACIUN FERICIT!
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winter Habits From Romania
Romania
Engleza
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winther habits !
Traditional custmes !
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Summary: Life in the rural environment is simple and complex at the same time: people
still follow strict rules of behaviour and maintain ancient traditions, but modern life brings
conflicting values even to the remotest villages. A land harmoniously inhabited by various
nationalities, Bucovina has withstood the most radical transformations of time and
fashion,
and
has
preserved
its
unforgettable
way
of
life.
Small family farms often raise poultry, besides hens, also ducks, geese and turkeys.
A typical farmyard in Bucovina generally includes the main house opposite the gate, the
summer kitchen to the right, the stable and hay barn to the left, a lower shed between
the house and the barn, and a well and a kennel. When several generations live within the
same yard, the parents or grandparents move to the summer kitchen, which becomes a
secondary dwelling, with only one room and a hall. A typical farmyard in Bucovina
generally includes the main house opposite the gate, the summer kitchen to the right, the
stable and hay barn to the left, a lower shed between the house and the barn, and a well
and a kennel. When several generations live within the same yard, the parents or
grandparents move to the summer kitchen, which becomes a secondary dwelling, with
only
one
room
and
a
hall.
The walls of this farmhouse are only partly covered with rendering and show the log
structure.
A peasant of average means had some
hectares of land on the outskirts of the village.
The land around the farm was exploited for
daily living, while the products obtained from
the land farther away were sold, or exchanged,
to assure the living of the family throughout
the year. The structure of the village differs for
example from a village in Neamţ, where the
houses are lined along the main road, with an
orchard behind the house and only a bed of
flowers in front of it. In Bucovina each house
has its own well in the yard, while in Neamţ a
common well is found by the road.
A man wearing traditional clothes for
the Sunday service. Both his coat and
his waistcoat are embroidered.
The folk costume is still worn daily by the old, while the younger generations wear
uniform western clothes. They rarely wear traditional clothes apart from special
occasions. The men’s costume includes white trousers (iţari), which have long legs to
fold them several times over, as protection against humidity; a white shirt with mainly
geometrical embroidery in black or brown; and a waistcoat (bundiţă) with the white
leather turned out and the fur turned in, decorated with floral or geometrical motifs
and with marten fur trimmings. Men also wear belts, either woven or made of leather.
Sometimes the leather belt is worn on top of the woollen one. The width of the belt
depends on the altitude of the village – the higher up the village, the wider the belt.
The future bride cut, sewed and embroidered the suit of her husband-to-be during the
one-year-long
engagement.
Women wear a similar waistcoat but the decoration is more colourful. The women’s
shirt is richly adorned with floral or geometrical motifs. It is said that the full
decoration of the Bucovinean shirts recalls the decoration of the painted churches.
Women wear one-piece wrap-around skirts (catrinţe) on top of the knee-length shirt,
tied
with
a
wide
woven
belt.
There are specific clothes for the cold seasons, autumn and winter. The suman, used
in autumn, is made of a very thick woollen felt cloth. The cojoc, is a knee-length fur
coat, with the fur turned inside and the skin outside, decorated with embroidered
flowers.
Singeing a pig with a
gasoline lamp. The flame
is strong as the bristles
need to be burned
quickly. This way the skin
is ready for being peeled
and eaten
The people of Bucovina not only greet strangers, but also offer
a place to sleep, not for financial gain but because they are
hospitable, and consider it an honour to open the door of their
house. And when hungry, the best traditional dishes are served
– mămăligă (maize polenta) with fresh cheese and cream,
eggs, pork sausages, sarmale (cabbage or vine leaves stuffed
with meat and rice), yoghurt, soup or răcituri (jellied meat).
Nearly all food is heavy, and digestion is helped with a glass of
ţuica (plum brandy). This is the only alcoholic drink commonly
used, and is often drunk from the same glass by everybody at
the table. Various soups and borş (soup soured with fermented
husk of wheat) are eaten every day. A thick mixture of boiled
wheat grain, colivă, a patty-like cake for commemorating the
dead is still prepared and eaten on special occasions.
Oven-baked dishes are usually flour-based cakes and pies. In
poale-n brâu -pies, cheese is wrapped in dough, in vărzări,
cabbage is used instead as filling (varză=cabbage). Of the
traditional Easter baked goods, pască is specific to the
countryside and cozonac has its roots in the towns. Pască is
made of a rolled out sheet of yeast dough, covered with a
mixture of cottage cheese, cream, eggs and sugar, decorated
with a figure of a cross made with the dough, and baked in a
round tin. Cozonac is made of a sheet of the same dough,
covered with nuts, rolled and baked in a high tin.
The people of Bucovina are famous sheep and cow
breeders, and make very good milk products, which within
the region of Moldavia face competition only from those
made in the zone of Neamţ. Both Suceava and Neamţ are
hilly, with an altitude of 400 m – 1,000 m, with beautiful
meadows and good grass. The pastoral year starts in April
and ends in October. During this period the sheep stay at the
sheepfold, outside the village, under the care of a shepherd.
The owners of the sheep receive milk and cheese
A young woman carrying
periodically, depending on the number of their sheep. The
sheep in a horse cart.
shepherds are paid in produce rather than money.
The same way of bartering was also used at flour mills
when grinding grain, or at wine presses when crushing
raisins. Nowadays, modern wine presses can be found
in almost every house, but flour mills are owned by
small companies, and the payment is partly in flour and
partly
in
money.
Bucovina is also known for its well-bred domestic birds
and pigs, as well as for its excellent potato, cabbage,
cauliflower and fruit crops, especially apples, pears,
plums and cherries. Cereals are also cultivated, but the
crop is mainly meant to cover the requirements of the
homestead. Wood processing has always been one of
the main occupations in Bucovina.
Among the traditional mask plays The Goat is one of the
most frequently performed.
The life of the Romanian peasant has always been structured
around the yearly cycle of labour, agriculture, animal
husbandry, hunting, fishing and beekeeping. The life of a
peasant has always meant making the land productive, not
with the aim of becoming rich, but simply to assure a good
living for his family. The yearly cycle is also followed in
traditions and beliefs, many related to a good crop and
placating
the
spirits.
Among the most important traditional beliefs are the
ancestors’ spirits, which are said to return among the living
during the winter holidays from Christmas to Epiphany. They
do not come with harm in mind and are paid due respect.
This belief is mainly visible in the mask playing tradition of
this time of the year, with the Old Man and the Old Woman
the most usual personages. If these spirits delay the return to
their own land there is a risk that they could turn dangerous.
In order to chase them away, garlic is put at the windows of
the houses. The same mask playing tradition recounts also
beliefs in the supernatural powers of animals, such as the
bear (symbolizing protection and strength), the goat, the
ram, the ostrich, which are represented with realistic masks.
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Winter Habits From Romania
Romania-Banat
English
Romanian
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Feast of the Nativity is celebrated by Christians throughout the world, every country but
with their own traditions and customs. Meaning or origin of many of them were lost in the
mists of time, but they give an extra beauty mystery winter holidays.
One of the most important Romanian Christmas festivities is the carol. In some villages in
Timis, centuries-old traditions are still preserved today, so he wandered from house to
house, going both children and youth divisions, called "baker". On the first day of Christmas
carolers go with "Star" astral recalling that have followed the Three Magi to reach the place
where Baby Jesus was born. Another custom is the "Viflaimul" or "Herods", representing a
play by recovering children in the house or in the yard of the host, the story of Jesus' birth.
Tradition holds that he who receives carol will be blessed and will only luck in the coming
year, a sign of wealth and that is the first to enter the house for Christmas is a man.
In some villages to store and another custom: the eldest member of the family must throw
in the carol singers and corn grains. Elders say that if beans that have passed over carolers
will be mixed with the seed that will put the swath will have a very good harvest next year.
Also in Banat, there are customary under the table that will celebrate food place to put
wires hay and wheat, corn and sunflower, which are then given to cattle, to be quiet house
and wealth.
Communities of Hungarians and Germans in the Banat, winter religious holidays starting
with Advent or "coming (God)", characterized by a waiting time of Jesus happy. On the first
Sunday of Advent, Advent for Catholics begins, which lasts four weeks (in the Orthodox
tradition, Advent begins on November 15, the run was great celebrating six weeks).
Specific symbol of this holiday is the Advent wreath, made of fir branches intertwined with
ribbons and decorated with gilded nuts and cones, which are placed four candles that are
lit one by one, every Sunday until Christmas Eve. Candles symbolize the light of the Savior
Jesus brought on earth, a symbol of hope.
To sweeten awaiting Christmas in German communities still customary to make a calendar
of Advent - "Adventskalender". The calendar contains one window for each day left until
Christmas, behind which children will find one toy, candy or images of the Nativity story.
Also on the first day of Advent, in some villages in Banat, breaking a twig from a tree fruit cherry, cherry, plum - and put it in a pot of water to heat. Branch, which will bloom until
Christmas, is kept in the house until Epiphany, when the priest is holy, and is attached to a
barn wall to protect farm animals.
Tudor Ceia: If you think about from the outset that the Banat habits are unique, they are
related to practices related to what happens after December 15, until after the end. John
the Baptist in January. In practice, linked to the Christmas food that has become a custom
made coils and cut pork, December 20 is the day when sf. Ignatius. About food for
Christmas is number one seat, comes first and why? Banat coils are primarily for
remembrance of the dead, from doing large hoop that they named Christmas and New Year
to eat, even here with us, in Giroc, near Timisoara juice of the pig head.
Then, all at Giroc, it is customary to make a life for thieves, or come to meet them, give
them to eat, they then not attacking you did, or to enjoy your wealth. Then they do the 12
coils for the months of the year, that regarding fertility. Place joined, along with works that
are done in the garden, the orchard, the vineyard, in the field during the year.
See it here (in carol) are references to house animals besides humans and generations living
in the house and of course are those with children, the child who is the symbol of family
perpetuation
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Sărbătoarea Naşterii Domnului este celebrată de creştinii din întreaga lume, fiecare ţară
având însă propriile datini şi obiceiuri. Semnificaţia sau originea multora dintre ele s-au
pierdut în negura vremilor, dar frumuseţea lor dau un plus de mister Sărbătorilor de
iarnă.Spaţiu prin excelenţă multicultural, Banatul ne surprinde prin multitudinea de
tradiţii şi obiceiuri înrădăcinate în zonă. Excepţie nu face nici Sărbătoarea Crăciunului, de
care sunt legate credinţe populare vechi specifice fiecărei etnii ce coabitează aici.
Una dintre cele mai importante festivităţi ale Crăciunului românesc o reprezintă colindul.
În unele sate din Timiş, tradiţiile vechi de secole se mai păstrează şi astăzi, aşa că la
colindat, din casă în casă, merg atât copiii, cât şi cetele de tineri, numiţi “piţărăi”. În
prima zi de Crăciun, colindătorii merg cu „Steaua”, amintind de astrul pe care l-au urmat
Cei Trei Magi pentru a ajunge la locul unde s-a născut Pruncul Iisus. Un alt obicei este cel
al „Viflaimului” sau „Irozii”, reprezentând o scenetă prin care copiii refac, în casa sau în
curtea gazdei, povestea naşterii lui Isus. Tradiţia spune că cel care primeşte colindul va fi
binecuvântat şi va avea numai noroc în anul care vine, un semn de bunăstare fiind şi
dacă prima persoană care intră în casă de Crăciun este un bărbat.
În unele sate se păstrează şi un alt obicei: cel mai în vârstă membru al familiei trebuie să
arunce în faţa colindătorilor boabe de grâu şi de porumb. Bătrânii spun că, dacă boabele
peste care au trecut colindătorii vor fi amestecate cu sămânţa pe care o vor pune în brazdă,
vor avea o recoltă foarte bună în anul următor.Tot în Banat, există şi obiceiul ca sub faţa de
masă pe care se vor aşeza bucatele sărbătoreşti, să se pună fire de fân şi seminţe de grâu,
porumb sau floarea-soarelui, care se dau apoi la vite, ca să aibă casa linişte şi bogăţie.
Pentru comunităţile de maghiari şi germani din Banat, sărbătorile religioase de iarnă încep
cu Adventul sau „Venirea (Domnului)”, perioadă caracterizată printr-o aşteptare bucuroasă
a lui Iisus. În prima duminică de Advent, pentru catolici începe postul Crăciunului, care
durează patru săptămâni (în tradiţia ortodoxă, postul Crăciunului începe pe 15 noiembrie,
perioada premergătoare marii sărbători fiind de şase săptămâni).
Simbolul specific acestei sărbători este cununa de Advent, formată din crenguţe de brad
împletite cu panglici şi decorată cu nuci şi conuri poleite, pe care se aşează patru lumânări,
care se aprind pe rând, duminică de duminică, până în Noaptea de Ajun. Lumânările
simbolizează lumina adusă pe pământ de Iisus Mântuitorul, fiind un simbol al speranţei
Pentru a îndulci aşteptarea Crăciunului, în comunităţile de germani se mai obişnuieşte să se
facă un calendar de Advent – „Adventskalender”. Calendarul conţine câte o ferestruică
pentru fiecare zi care a mai rămas până la Crăciun, în spatele căreia copiii vor găsi câte o
jucărie, dulciuri sau imagini din istoria Naşterii.Tot în prima zi a Adventului, în unele sate din
Banat, se rupe o crenguţă dintr-un pom fructifer – cireş, vişin, prun – şi se pune într-un vas
cu apă, la căldură. Creanga, care va înflori până la Crăciun, e ţinută în casă până la
Bobotează, când e sfinţită de preot, apoi e prinsă de un perete din grajd, pentru a proteja
animalele din gospodărie.Deosebit de frumoase sunt şi obiceiurile sârbilor legate de
sărbătorile de iarnă. Aceştia sărbătoresc Ajunul Crăciunului după calendarul gregorian, pe 6
ianuarie. Una dintre tradiţii este aprinderea Badnjakului – un trunchi de stejar tânăr – în
cuptorul casei sau, mai nou, în curtea bisericii. Acest lemn tânăr îl simbolizează pe
Mântuitor şi intrarea lui în lume, iar arderea Badnjakului reprezintă căldura iubirii lui
Hristos. Se spune că numărul mare al scânteilor provocate de arderea lemnului semnifică şi
bogăţia din casa respectivă, pentru anul care vine.
Un alt obicei al sârbilor de Crăciun este ca gospodinele să aducă în casă paie, care semnifică
ieslea Pruncului Iisus. Primul musafir de Crăciun trebuie să fie bărbat. Asupra acestuia se
aruncă grâu, iar el trebuie să adune nucile pe care gazda le aruncă în cameră, prin paie.
Tudor Ceia: Dacă vă gîndiţi de la început că obiceiurile din Banat sunt unice, ele sunt legate
de practicile legate de ce se întimplă, imediat dupa 15 decembrie, pînă după sf. Ion
Botezătorul în ianuarie. În mod practic, legat de alimentele de Craciun care, a devenit un
obicei, făcutul colacilor şi tăiatul porcului, la 20 decembrie cînd este ziua sf. Ignat Teoforul.
Despre alimentele de Craciun: colacul este pe locul întăi, primează şi de ce ?
Bănăţenii fac în primul rînd colaci pentru pomenirea morţilor, pe urma fac colacul mare pe
care l-au botezat Craciunul şi care se mănîncă la Anul Nou, chair aici la noi, la Giroc, lîngă
Timişoara cu zeamă din capul porcului.Pe urmă, tot la Giroc, se obişnuieşte să se facă un
colac pentru hoţi, adică vii în întîmpinarea lor, le dai de mîncare, ca ei după aceea sa nu îţi
mai atace avutul, sau să se bucure de avutul tău. Pe urma se mai fac cei 12 colăcei pentru
lunile anului, asta vizînd rodnicia. Se pun alăturat, paralel cu lucrarile care se fac în grădină,
în livadă, în vie, în cîmp pe parcursul anului.Vedeţi că aici (in colind) se fac referiri şi la
animalele de pe lîngă casa omului şi la generaţiile care trăiesc în casă şi bineînţeles că sunt
şi cei cu copii, copilul care este simbolul perpetuării familiei.
Tudor Ceia: Nu am notată melodia, dar suna foarte frumos. Se combină cu faptul că atunci
cînd intră colindătorul în casă neapărat are în mînă o tufă de cu toamna, rupe floarea de
noroc şi o creangă de busuioc de stropit casa. Stropiţi masa, stropiţi feţi şi fetce mari, fetce
mari s-or pomeni şi frumos ne-or dărui un colac de grîu curat, pe colac vasul cu vin a asa e
legea din batrini, din oameni buni... la anul şi la multi ani!
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea
Maramureș County.
• Maramureș is a county (județ) of Romania, in the Maramureș region. The county seat
is Baia Mare.
Geography.
• This county has a total area of 6,304 square kilometres (2,434 sq mi), of which 43% is
covered by the Rodna Mountains, with its tallest peak, Pietrosul, at 2,303 metres
(7,556 ft) altitude. Together with Gutâi and Țibleș mountain ranges, the Rodna
mountains are part of the Eastern Carpathians. The rest of the county are hills,
plateaus, and valleys. The county is crossed by Tisa River and its main tributaries: Iza,
Vișeu, and Mara rivers.
Demographics.
• In 2011, the county had a population of 461,290 and a population density of 73.17
inhabitants per square kilometre (189.5 /sq mi).
Romanians - 82.38% (or 380,018)[3]
Hungarians - 7.53% (or 34,781)
Ukrainians - 6.77% (or 31,234)
Roma - 2.73% (or 12,638)
Germans - 0.27% (or 1,243), and others.
Tourism.
• The region is known for its beautiful rural scenery, local small woodwork and
craftwork industry as well as for its churches and original rural architecture. There are not
many paved roads in rural areas, and most of them are usually accessible.
• The county's main tourist attractions:
• The cities of Baia Mare and Sighetu Marmației.
• The villages on the Iza, Mara, and Vișeu Valleys.
• The Wooden Churches of Maramureş
• The Wooden Churches of Lăpuş
• The Wooden Churches of Chioar
• The Merry Cemetery of Săpânța
• The Rodna Mountains.
• The landscape of Cavnic.
History.
• The 10th century frontier county of Borsova was founded by Stephen I of Hungary.
Since then Máramaros served as the north-eastern border of the Hungarian Kingdom
until 1920, the Trianon Peace Treaty.
• 11th century historical Maramureș counties separation from Borsova (Rom. Borşa)
• 1241 Tartar invasion decimated about half of the local population
• 14th century Duke (knyaz) Bogdan of Maramureș said to be founder of Moldova
• In the Middle Ages, the historical region of Maramureș was known for its salt mines
and later for its lumber
In 1920 after the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly
formed Czechoslovakia. The southern part (including Sighetu Marmației) became part of
Romania.
ROMANIA
LITUANIA
Comenius
Multilateral Project
“The language of art”
Romanian workshop
and final product –
“Winter habits”
LETONIA
Coordinator of the
project: prof.
Gabriela Ivan
TURCIA
POLONIA
Workshop
conducted by prof.
Mihaela Codrea

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