CORBA Architecture Nitin Prabhu Outline • • • • • CORBA Object Model CORBA Architecture Static Invocation Dynamic Invocation CORBA Communication Model CORBA Object Model Encapsulation Client Request Exception value • • • • • • Object Implementation CORBA Object implementations Request CORBA Types Interfaces Operations Exceptions CORBA Object • Object is a encapsulated entity that performs services • Object is referred to by an unique object reference • Client software invokes object services by generating request • Object returns some results or returns exception CORBA Request • A request is a message sent from a client to an object. • It consists of – – – – an operation. a target object. zero or more parameters. an optional request context. CORBA Types • An identifiable entity defined over values. Value Basic Value Short long Ushort Ulong Float Double Char String Boolean Octet Constructed Value Struct Sequence Union Array Object Reference CORBA Interface • An Interface comprises a set of operations and attributes that a client may utilize to request services of an object. • All interface information is public. • Interfaces are defined in IDL. CORBA Operations • An operation is an identifiable entity, that denotes a service which can be requested. • Operation Signature consists of – – – – – – Operation name Parameters required Return Value Exceptions thrown Contextual Information Execution Semantics • Synchronous • Asynchronous CORBA Exceptions • An exception is an indication that an operation request was not performed successfully. • Two types – Standard Exceptions – User defined Exceptions • CORBA guarantees that the client will not hang. Either it returns successfully or with an exception. OMA • Object Management Architecture COMMON FACILITIES Horizontal •User Interface •Mail •Printing APPLICATION OBJECTS Vertical •Telecom •Finance •Health Care OBJECT REQUEST BROKER naming trading persistence COMMON OBJECT SERVICES security CORBA Architecture Standard Interface Per-Object Type Generated Interface Client Interface Repository Dynamic Invocation IDL Stubs ORB Dependent Interface Object Implementation ORB Interface Static IDL Skeleton Dynamic Skeleton Implementatio Repository Object Adapter ORB core ORB • Object Request Broker. • Gives the communication infrastructure that is capable of relaying object requests across distributed platforms. • Client calls the Object implementation through interfaces provided by ORB. • Advantages: • Separates Client and Server implementation • Separates both client and Server from underlying communication infrastructure and protocol stack and so replaceable while migration from one implementation to other Interoperable Object Reference(IOR) • An ORB must create an IOR whenever an object reference is passed across ORB’s • Includes ORB’s internal object reference and addressing information Client Stubs • Client side proxy for server. • Joins to the client at one end and to the ORB core at the other end. • Client-to-stub interface is decided by the standard OMG language mapping for the chosen programming language. • Clients actually invoke methods on stub objects. Server Skeletons • Acts as client proxy for server implementation. • Connects – to the server object via the mapping defined for its programming language on . – To the Object Adapter via a proprietary interface. • Invocation pass through Object Adapter to skeletons, which in turn actually invoke methods on server object. Object Adapter • Different kind of object implementations – objects residing in their own process and requiring activation. – others not requiring activation. – or some residing in same process as ORB. • OA helps the ORB to operate with different type of objects. • Most widely used OA - BOA (Basic OA) • Recently standardized - POA (Portable OA) Object Adapter Contd... • Services provided by ORB via OA – Registering implementations. – Generation and interpretation of object references. – Mapping object references to their corresponding implementation. – Activating and deactivating object implementation. – Invocation of methods via a skeleton. Interface Repository • Contains information regarding the interfaces to ORB objects. • Can be used by the ORB in 2 ways – To provide type-checking of request signatures, whether a request was issued through DII or stub. – To check correctness of inheritance graph. • Client objects can use it – To manage installation and distribution of interface definitions around your network. – Language compilers may use them to generate stubs and skeletons. • Can be shared by more than one ORB or one ORB may refer to more than one interface repository. Implementation Repository • Contains all the information regarding object implementation. • Provides a persistent record of how to activate and invoke operations on object implementations. • CORBA gives vendors free-hand in handling implementations. Marshaling • Refers to the process of translating input parameters to a format in which it can be transmitted over the network. • Unmarshaling is the reverse of marshaling. • Stubs and skeletons contain code for marshaling and unmarshaling. Development Steps IDL CORBA Compile Stubs Skels Client Server Compile Link Client Compile Link Server Static Invocation Server Servant Client IOR Server IDL Skeleton Client IDL Stub Object Adapter(BOA/POA) Server ORB Client ORB IIOP Client Invocation Process Scenario Client Program 1. Object string valued object reference 2. Obtain object Handle 3. Invoke request String_to_object( ) user_fun( ) File ORB Interfaces 4. Check exceptions 5. Utilize results 6. ORBFree( ) Results & exceptions Interface Stub ORB CORE Object Implementation Invocation Scenario Object Implementation Methods 2. Registration of implementation 3. Activate object 4. Invoke method 1. Activate Implementation Skeleton Basic Object Adapter Object Request Broker Core 5. Access BOA service Dynamic Invocation Interface • Generic interface for making remote invocations. • Uses interface repository at run-time to discover interfaces. • No need of pre-compiled stubs. • Steps – Obtain IOR. – Ask IOR of the interface name and get a reference to an object in the interface repository. – Obtain the method description. – Create the request to be passed. – Invoke the operation/method. Dynamic Skeleton Interface • Allows the ORB and OA to deliver requests to an object without the need of precompiled skeletons. • Implemented via a DIR (Dynamic Invocation Routine). • ORB invokes DIR for every DSI request it makes. Dynamic Skeleton Interface Contd... • Steps – OA up-calls the DIR servant and provides the request information (targeted object and operation name etc.). – DIR asks IOR for the interface name of the targeted object and gets the meta-data information about it from interface repository. – Creates the request to targeted object, using other parameters from the received request. – Locates the Servant and send the request to it. – Takes the return parameteres and give them back to OA. Differences between Dynamic invocation and static invocation • Use • SI used for general purpose • DI used for special purpose where extra flexibility is needed • In SI interfaces should be known at compile time,In DI interfaces are discovered during run time using data in interface repository • Static Interface are easier to use and code CORBA Communication model • It is independent of underlying protocol suite and assumes an underlying connection-oriented protocol at transport layer. • Two protocols are defined in the communication mode. • GIOP-General Inter ORB Protocol • IIOP- Internet Inter ORB Protocol GIOP-General Inter ORB Protocol. • IT is a high level standard protocol for communication between ORB implementations. It is designed to directly work over any connection- oriented transport protocol • GIOP defines a transfer syntax known as CDR (Common Data Representation) and seven messages that cover ORB request reply semantics. • No format negotiations are needed.In most cases,clients send a request to objects immediately after they open the connection. • CDR maps data types defined in IDL in to flat, networked message representation. CDR also takes care of the interplatform issue. • GIOP also defines a format for Interoperable Object References(IOR). IIOP- Internet Inter ORB Protocol • It is a specialized form of GIOP for TCP/IP networks. • IIOP specifies how GIOP messages will be exchanged over TCP/IP network • An ORB must support IIOP in order to be considered compliant with CORBA 2.0. • It consists primarily of the specification for the IIOP IOR, which contains the host name and the port number.