View/Open

Report
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
The Architecture of Computer Hardware
and Systems Software:
An Information Technology Approach
3rd Edition, Irv Englander
John Wiley and Sons 2003
Wilson Wong, Bentley College
Linda Senne, Bentley College
Three Operating Systems
 Microsoft Windows 2000/XP
 UNIX and Linux
 IBM zSeries z/OS
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-2
Microsoft Windows 2000/XP





Design Goals
Operating System Features
User Environment
Desktop Components
Windows 2000/XP Architecture
 Overview
 System Block Diagram
 Logical Memory Map
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-3
Design Goals
 Extensibility
 Object-based modular design
 Portability
 Written in C and C++ to facilitate porting to other CPUs
 Reliability
 Kernel architecture design to protect from internal errors and
buggy application programs
 Downward compatibility
 Compatible with earlier versions of Windows and DOS
 Scalability and Performance
 Supports symmetric multiprocessing
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-4
Operating System Features
 Single user 32-bit or 64-bit, pre-emptive multi-tasking operating
system
 Powerful GUI that behaves consistently for local, network, and
Internet use
 Support for new capabilities
 Multimedia, plug-and-play hardware, electrical power
conservation
 Manageable and secure file system with built-in recoverability
options and is downwardly compatible
 API that provides a wide range of services to simplify application
development and ensure consistency
 Built-in networking and a new distributed file system
 Network server capabilities
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-5
User Environment
 Simple for novice, powerful for advanced user
 Tools, operations and applications that use
the API behave in a consistent manner
 Extensive context-sensitive help
 User’s system parameters are modifiable
 Applications and users have access to the
same services and interface features
 Tools and operations perform reasonably and
in an intuitive manner
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-6
Desktop Components
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-7
Windows 2000/XP Architecture
 Modified microkernel-based
 User mode
 Environmental subsystems

Expose OS services to the user through an API
 System support processes

Logon and user session management
 Server processes
 Protected (kernel) mode
 Hardware abstraction layer
 Kernel
 Executive layer
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-8
Executive Layer
 Object manager
 Provides standardized interface for objects




Process manager
Virtual memory manager
I/O manager
Security reference monitor
 All protected objects are monitored
 Enforces validation procedures and audits
 Local Procedure Call (LPC)
 Control of all service requests and interprocess activities
 Windowing and Graphics System
 Manages Windows graphics
 Provides Windows screen interface tools
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-9
Overview of Windows 2000
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-10
System Block Diagram
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-11
Logical Memory Map
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-12
UNIX and Linux





Design Goals
Pioneering Design Features
Operating System Features
User Environment
General Organization
 Kernel operations
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-13
Design Goals
 Easy-to-use, interactive, powerful, and flexible
interface
 Powerful programming tools
 Compilers and associated tools
 Use of small, simple utility programs to perform tasks
and to construct more complex applications
 Small and simple kernel together with a separate
interface shell
 Logical file system
 Multi-tasking and multiuser capabilities
 Simple system portability
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-14
Pioneering OS Design Features




Process creation and control
Separate shell for user interface
Hierarchical directory file system
Ability to combine small independent
software modules to accomplish a more
complex task
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-15
Operating System Features
 Preemptive multitasking with multiuser
capability, automatic scheduling, and
background execution
 User shells that provide an interactive
interface, commands, and programming tools
 Interactive process creation and management
 Hierarchical, tree-based file system
 Kernel
 Network administration tools
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-16
User Environment
 Login
 User name and password
 Start-up file for user environment customizations
 System, group, and user protections are set
 Interface shells
 Bourne shell, C shell, and Korn shell are the most
commonly used
 Command line prompt
 X-Windows interface
 Logins to remote UNIX computers
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-17
General Organization of a
UNIX System
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-18
Kernel Operations
 Virtual storage and memory
management
 Process management
 File management
 I/O management
 Networking and communication
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-19
Virtual Address Space for a
Process
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-20
IBM zSeries z/OS





Design Goals
Operating System Services
User Environment
User Interfaces
MVS Organization
 Virtual Memory Map for a Task
 Data Management
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-21
Design Goals
 Maximize system performance and
availability
 Maximize amount of processing by
providing support for execution of batch
programs
 Minimize operator support effort
 Reliability
 Security
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-22
Virtual File System vs.
Socket Layered Structure
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-23
Operating System Services
 Sophisticated resource allocation services and workload
management
 Data set management services
 Job and task management
 Virtual storage operation and management
 Network services
 Time-sharing support
 System resource logging, auditing and accounting
 Error detection, recovery, and logging
 Reassignment of tasks and data to other resources in the event
of an error or failure
 System support programs and facilities
 Security services
 Large-scale cluster support
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-24
User Environment
 BCP, Base Control Program
 JCL, Job Control Language
 TSO, Time Sharing Option
 Used for program development and job preparation
 JES, Job Entry Subsystem
 Job submissions
 ISPF, Interactive System Productivity Facility
 Menu-driven facility that serves as an extension to TSO
 CICS, Customer Information Control System
 Application enabler that provides services to application
programs that have been developed to work with it
 UNIX
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-25
User Interfaces
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-26
MVS Organization
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-27
Virtual Memory Map for a Task
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-28
Data Management
 Data sets




z/OS files
Sequential, random, or indexed sequential access
Fixed or variable size
Partitioned


Directory
Members - group of independent, related records
 Catalogs




z/OS directories
Master catalog for the system
VTOC – catalog for a DASD (disk) device
User catalog has an indexed entry in the master catalog
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-29
Steps in Location of a Data Set
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-30
Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons
All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this
work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976
United States Copyright Act without express permission
of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further
information should be addressed to the permissions
Department, John Wiley & Songs, Inc. The purchaser
may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and
not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no
responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused
by the use of these programs or from the use of the
information contained herein.”
Chapter 18
Three Operating Systems
18-31

similar documents