Issues in Biotechnology

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Issues in Biotechnology:
The Way We Work With Life
Dr. Albert P. Kausch
life edu.us
Medical Biotechnology
Lecture 26
Part Ic. Animal and Human Cloning
and Genetic Engineering
© life_edu
Issues in Biotechnology:
The Way We Work With Life
Dr. Albert P. Kausch
Kimberly Nelson
OnCampus Live
BCH 190, MIC 190, AFS 190, NRS 190, PLS 190
OnLine BCH 190
A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology
A Public Access College Course
The University of Rhode Island
Issues in Biotechnology:
Biotechnology, Our Society and Our Future
life
edu.us
Issues in Biotechnology:
The Way We Work With Life
Dr. Albert P. Kausch
life edu.us
BCH 190
Section II.
The Applications of
Biotechnology
A Sweeping General Survey on Life and Biotechnology
© life_edu
The University
of Rhode Island
Where is DNA in a cell?
• All of the information for each protein in a cell is in it’s DNA
• All of the information that codes for a complete organism is in DNA
Cloning Animals
Cloning and Genetic Engineering in Animals
Genetically Engineered Animals
Cloning and Genetic Engineering in Animals
How to Clone
Nuclear transfer procedures
An Organism can be cloned by
transferring it’s DNA to an egg cell
This shows:
All of the
information
that codes for
an organism is
in it’s DNA
•
All of the DNA
is the same in
every cell
•
DNA is located
in the nucleus
of the cell
•
Could we Genetically Engineer Cloned Animals?
Promoter
Coding Sequence
Terminator
Your favorite gene
Controlled expression
“making protein”
Stop transcription
Vaccines
Message stability
Antibodies
High Value Proteins
Spider Silk in Goats Milk
Genetically Modified somatic nuclei could be
implanted into unfertilized eggs to create a genetically
modified clone
Transgenics and Cloned Animals
Genetically Modified somatic nuclei could be implanted
into unfertilized eggs to create a genetically modified clone
What is cloning?
• A process whereby all members are
directly descended (asexually) from a
single organism by……(various ways)
• Demonstrates that all the information
required for an organism and its
development are in the a single cell
Where is DNA in a cell?
• All of the information for each protein in a cell is in it’s DNA
• All of the information that codes for a complete organism is in DNA
Principle
•
•
•
All cells are derived from a zygote
All have the same genetic makeup
All have the potential to develop
into an individual
UCONN Clones
Many animals
can now be cloned
sheep
cattle
porcine
mice
rats
mules
frogs
primates?
And Genetically
Engineered
Many animals
can now be cloned
Primates
2012
And Genetically
Engineered
Issues in Biotechnology
The ‘cloning’ of plants was demonstrated by Steward
in 1958 at Cornell Univ. showing that plants could
be grown back from a single cell. This ability is
called “totipotency” and like the more recent
examples of animal cloning, demonstrates:
(A) that all biological scientists are unethical and
fraudulent
(B) that all of the DNA that codes for an entire organism is
in every cell of that organism
(C) Steward belonged to the group that called
themselves the ‘Raeliens’
50
40
(D) the necessity to ban all types cloning
30
(E) that the theory of evolution must be wrong 20
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
Could we Genetically Engineer Humans?
Promoter
Coding Sequence
Terminator
Your favorite gene
Controlled expression
“making protein”
Stop transcription
Insulin
Message stability
Cancer
Anti-Oncogenes
Parkinson’s
Huntington’s
SCID
Beyond Therapy???
Can humans be cloned and/or genetically engineered?
Cells from an
amniocentesis
can be used for DNA
sequence analysis. All
of the genes for humans
will be known.
Disease genes would be
detected.
Cloned “correct” genes
could be used for
replacement.
Corrected nucleus could
be delivered to an
unfertilized egg.
Same baby without the
defect.
Could we Genetically Engineer Humans?
The Tay Sachs
Dilemma
Do You Think We
Should We
Genetically Engineer
Humans?
(A) yes
(B) no
(C) depends on the circumstance
Issues in Biotechnology
I would clone myself if that were possible.
(A) yes
(B) no
(C) undecided
40
30
20
10
0
1
2
3
The Possibilities of
Human Cloning
To Clone or
Not to Clone
18. Cloning illustrates that all of the genetic material required
for an organism is in its DNA and that that information is in
most cells of an adult organism. The control of biological
feedback loops through modern biotechnology is of key
interest to:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
agricultural biotechnology only
across the various applications in biotechnology
pharmaceutical biotechnology only
tissue or organ level in medical biotechnology for humans
the field of gene therapy only
19. The control of gene expression is critical to all living
things. The amino acid tryptophan is important for making
many proteins. When there is plenty of tryptophan in a cell a
protein binds to the gene that codes for enzyme that will make
tryptophan. When there is no tryptophan present this protein
falls off the DNA allowing the gene to be expressed so more
tryptophan can be made. A protein that binds to a site on
DNA next to a gene and blocks the transcription of that gene,
thus preventing the synthesis of a protein that the gene
prescribes is known as a:
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
repressor
regurgitator
responder
receptor
promoter
20. When a cell is cloned, the programs of gene expression are
‘re-set’. Having the capability to sense signals and react to
stimuli is a central feature to all biological life processes. What
are the regulatory processes in which there are signals
indicating “too much” or “too little” which result in a
correction to the processes?
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
feedback loops
regressions
stop codons
auto rewinds
edit functions
21. Animal Cloning and genetic engineering has been
demonstrated in a number of species, including, sheep, pigs,
dogs, cats, mules, mice, rats and cattle. One can presume that
these technologies in principle apply to humans. The main
reason this has not been accomplished for humans is:
(A) there is no good medical reason to support such research
(B) there are already plenty of people, so there is no reason to
make more
(C) research on human cloning has been banned in most
developed countries
(D) the uniqueness and complicated nature of human biology
prevents it
(E) humans have a soul which cannot be cloned

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