Bio-Security Proficiencies Program for Young Producers

Report
Bio-Security Proficiencies Program
for Young Producers
Improving practices to mitigate
disease transmission and
associated financial risks through
experiential learning.
Martin H. Smith, M.S., Ed.D.
Associate Specialist in
Cooperative Extension
University of California, Davis
Bio-Security: A National Issue
 National and state agencies/institutions have identified
bio-security in animal agriculture as a high priority.
o USDA: Long-term goal of safeguarding animal production
industry.
o CDFA: Focus on whole-farm approach to herd health
management through risk assessment, prioritization, and
action; professional development and education materials.
o UC ANR: Strategic Initiatives: safe and secure food supplies;
managing endemic and invasive pests and diseases.
Bio-Security and Backyard Operations
 Backyard flocks and herds are bio-security risks.
 Small producers (e.g., hobbyists; non-commercial)
represent a risk to commercial agriculture (e.g.,
2002-2003 Exotic New Castle outbreak).
 Improving bio-security practices among backyard
operations is critical to prevent the introduction or
reintroduction of economically important diseases.
4-H Animal Science
 Approximately 30,000 youth participate in 4-H Animal
Science projects annually in California; nationally, this
number exceeds 2,300,000.
 4-H Animals, particularly livestock, are commonly
shown at public fairs and exhibitions (average = 2.5
per season).
 4-H Animal Science project animals (livestock) are
most commonly kept as part backyard herds (66%).
 Average “backyard herd” size = 8.6 animals; same or
mixed species.
Bio-Security Risks at Public Venues
 Data from State Fair and eight county fairs in north
central California revealed disease transmission
risks associated with exhibition practices (Smith &
Meehan, 2012). Risks include:
o Visitor Interactions
o Animal Pens (e.g., water, tools, bedding,
vectors/vermin, food)
o Wash Racks
o Judging Arenas
Public Venues: Disease Outbreaks
 2012. Influenza A (H3N2) and variant (H3N2v) viruses at county
fairs in Midwest (e.g., OH, IN); swine and swine exhibitors
affected; swine exhibitions canceled at 2012 Indiana State Fair.
 2011. Fifty-four horses potentially exposed to equine herpes
virus (EHV-1) at Western National Championship cutting horse
competition in Ogden, UT. In California, 12 confirmed cases of
EH Myeloencephalopathy among horses that participated in
competition; five counties; one horse euthanized.
 2008. Twenty-four of 133 dairy cattle housed in one barn
contracted malignant catarrhal fever and died; source of the
virus was infected lambs owned by youth exhibitors.
Bio-Security and Youth Education
 University of California Division of Agriculture and
Natural Resources (UC ANR) Strategic Vision 2025
(http://ucanr.edu/files/906.pdf).
 Guiding document to help address wide range of new
and existing challenges in California.
 Nine Strategic Initiatives for the 21st Century.
o Initiative to Ensure Safe and Secure Food Supplies
o Initiative for Managing Endemic and Invasive Pests and
Diseases
o Initiative to Increase Scientific Literacy
Bio-Security and Youth Education
 Curriculum research, development, and testing;
educator professional development.
 Relevant curricula:
o Bio-Security in 4-H Animal Science* (Smith, M.H., Meehan, C. L. et
al. 2011) (https://ucanr.org/freepubs/freepubsub.cfm?cat=36&subcat=12)
o Pre-Harvest Food Safety in 4-H Animal Science* (Smith, M.H.,
Meehan, C. L. et al. 2011) (in press)
o Youth Development through Veterinary Science* (Smith, M.H.,
Meehan, C. L. et al. 2009) (http://anrcatalog.ucdavis.edu/Items/8372.aspx)
*Funded by grants from UC ANR, CDFA, and USDA Formula Funds
4-H Bio-Security Proficiencies*
 Build upon and augment 4-H curricula.
 Introduce opportunities to develop advanced
problem-solving skills.
 Enhance youth scientific literacy through the
authentic application of knowledge and skills.
 Address UC ANR Strategic Initiatives.
*Funded through a grant from CDFA; supplemental activities and outcome testing
funded through a grant from the Western Center for Risk Management Education at
Washington State University.
Bio-Security Proficiencies in 4-H
 Sequence of five proficiency levels; scaffold
knowledge and skills.
 Promote the acquisition of knowledge and skills
through the Experiential Learning Cycle that includes:
o Active engagement through “hands-on/minds-on”
experiences (Confrontation).
o Opportunities to reflect on experiences (Assimilation).
o The application of knowledge and skills to authentic
situation (i.e., using new knowledge and skills to make
decisions and solve problems) (Accommodation.)
Learning: A Continuous Process
Grounded in Experience
 Knowledge is continuously derived from and tested out
in the experience of the learner (Kolb, 1984, p. 27).
 Learning is an ongoing process that, by its nature, is a
tension- and conflict-filled process.
 At one extreme, learning involves active engagement;
at the other extreme, it revolves reflective
observation.
The Learning Cycle and
Knowledge Construction
 Confrontation: The process of active engagement should create
cognitive dissonance (the “groan zone”), violating expectations
and creating some level of doubt and uncertainty for learners.
 Assimilation: Reflection provides opportunities to challenge
prior understanding and address skepticism related to new
understanding. Learning is a social endeavor; it is important to
reflect from multiple perspectives.
 Accommodation: The use of new knowledge and skills to make
decisions and solve problems in authentic settings. Allows
learners to adjust and solidify their new/revised understanding.
This helps make “learning last.”
The Learning Cycle and
Knowledge Construction
 Confrontation: The process of active engagement should create
cognitive dissonance (the “groan zone”), violating expectations
and creating some level of doubt and uncertainty for learners.
 Assimilation: Reflection provides opportunities to challenge
prior understanding and address skepticism related to new
understanding. Learning is a social endeavor; it is important to
reflect from multiple perspectives.
 Accommodation: The use of new knowledge and skills to make
decisions and solve problems in authentic settings. Allows
learners to adjust and solidify their new/revised understanding.
This helps make “learning last.”
Bio-Security Proficiency Level 1
 Group Experience: Complete Biosecurity: Assessing
and Preventing the Spread of Disease Activity (Smith
et al., 2011).
o Review Endemic and Foreign Animal Disease Matrix
 Individual Experience: Complete Animal Health
Assessment Activity (Smith et al., 2009).
 Application: Complete two weeks of health journaling
on own animal.
o Submit completed individual experience and completed
health journal to project leader.
Bio-Security Proficiency Level 2

Group Experience: Complete Assessing Critical Control Points
Associated with Disease Transmission Activity (Smith et al., in
press).
o Review on-farm Bio-Security Risk Assessment Tool (Smith et al.,
2011).


Individual Experience: Complete “Risk Assessment: A Picture
Says a Thousand Words” Activity (Smith et al., 2011).
Application: Complete on-farm Bio-Security Risk Assessment;
document using photos or video.
o Present completed individual experience and Bio-Security Risk
Assessment to project leader.
Risk Factors

Low Risk
Moderate Risk

High Risk
ANIMAL
Contact with other species (wild and
domesticated)
Never or Seldom
Occasionally
Frequent
Quarantine procedures for introduction of new
animals
Quarantine procedures
always used
Quarantine procedures
sometimes used
Quarantine procedures
never used
Vaccinations
All recommended vaccinations
Some recommended
vaccinations
No recommended vaccinations
Vaccination Status
All current
Some current
None
HUMAN
Non-Owner Human Contact
Never or Seldom
Occasionally
Frequent
Clothing
Protective clothing; only worn in
barn; cleaned after each use
Protective clothing; only worn
in the barn
No specific clothing when
working with animals
Footwear
Footwear only worn in barn;
disinfected after each use
Footwear worn only in barn;
cleaned after each use
No specific footwear; footwear
not cleaned after each use
Hand Washing
Always was hands before and
after contact with animals
Occasionally wash hands before
or after contact with animals
Rarely wash hands before or
after contact with animals
Housing (same species)
Animal housed individually
Animal housed in small group
Animal housed in large group
Bedding
Clean and dry
Soiled and/or damp
Foul and/or wet
Vermin and Vector Control
No visible signs of vector
or vermin
Some visible signs of vector and
vermin
Many visible signs of vector and
vermin
Minimal exposure to extremes
Sometimes exposed to extremes
Frequently exposed to extremes
Air Flow
Adequate ventilation
Some ventilation
No ventilation
Tools, Equipment, Vehicles
Cleaned & sanitized after
each use
Cleaned sometimes
Rarely or never cleaned
Food Quality
Food is clean and fresh
Food is clean; not fresh
Food is moldy, dirty or spoiled
Water Quality
Clean water; circulated
Clean water; standing
Dirty water
Shared food and water
Group food and water; many
animals
Rarely or never transported
Transported sometimes
Transported frequently
Always transported alone
Only transported with animals
from same farm
Transported with animals from
different farms
HOUSING & TOOLS
Climate (heat, cold, moisture)
FOOD AND WATER
Food and Water Access
Individual food and water
TRANSPORTATION
Transportation Frequency
Transportation with animals

Bio-Security Proficiency Level 3
 Group Experience: Complete Risky Business & BioSecurity and Financial Risk Activities*.
 Individual Experience: Complete Developing a Plan for
Change in Bio-Security Practice Activity.
 Application: Implement and document Plan for
Change in Bio-Security Practice with photos or video.
o Present completed Plan for Change in Bio-Security Practice
to project leader.
*Activities developed through funding from the Western for Risk
Management Education at Washington State University.
Risky Business &
Bio-Security and Financial Risk




What is risk? What type of risk taker are you?
Positive and negative consequences of risks.
Probability and risk.
Disease Risks: Mechanisms of Disease Transmission.
Financial Risks: Production; Market and Price.
 Strategies to Manage Financial Risks: Record Keeping;
Budgeting; Animal Health Management & BioSecurity Measures.
Bio-Security Proficiency Level 4
 Group Experience:
o Discuss options and create plan for public
presentation on Bio-Security.
o Develop public presentation.
 Group Application: Deliver public
presentation.
Bio-Security Proficiency Level 5
 Group Application (Capstone Event):
o Work collaboratively with fair representatives to
develop a plan to improve education outreach and
bio-security practices at county fair/exhibit.
o Work collaboratively with fair representatives to
implement plan to improve education outreach
and bio-security practices at county fair/exhibit.
Bio-Security Proficiency Project for
Beginning Producers in California 4-H
 Three county 4-H Programs in California participated in
implementation and evaluation project: Kern, Merced, &
Siskiyou.
 County 4-H staff recruited adult 4-H volunteers.
 4-H volunteers recruited 4-H youth participants.
 County 4-H staff and adult 4-H volunteers participated in
professional development on the implementation of the
Bio-Security Proficiencies.
*Project funded by the Western for Risk Management Education at
Washington State University.
Bio-Security Proficiency Project for
Beginning Producers in California 4-H
 Project Implementation: 2011-2012.
 Bio-Security Proficiency Levels 1-4 evaluated.
 Bio-Security Proficiency Level 5 was optional.
Evaluation
 Three forms of evaluation were conducted over the
course of the project.
o Surveys following each Proficiency Level (1-4) designed
using a post-as-pre format and completed by youth.
o Authentic assessments built into proficiency activities,
including written work completed by youth.
o Surveys following public presentations designed using
a post-as-pre format and completed by adult
attendees.
Results: Participation
Proficiency Level
Proficiency Level 1
Proficiency Level 2
Proficiency Level 3
Proficiency Level 4
Proficiency Level 5 (optional)
Community Members
Number of Participants
120 youth*
104 youth*
86 youth*
63 youth*
32 youth*
140 adults**
*Participants reported at Proficiency Levels 1-5 represent the number of youth
that completed all activity and authentic application requirements.
**Community Members represent the total number of attendees at public
presentations youth participants delivered as part of completion of Proficiency
Level 4.
Evaluation: Surveys
 Post-as-Pre Surveys* were offered to all
participants at the end of each Proficiency.
*Participation in all surveys was voluntary (IRB stipulation).
Example Post-as-Pre Survey Question:
X. My understanding of how sharpen a pencil is:
XX. Before participating in this project my
understanding of how to sharpen a pencil was:
1. Poor;
1.
2. Fair;
3. Good; 4. Excellent
Poor;
2. Fair 3. Good; 4. Excellent
Selected Survey Results
Paired t-tests were used to compare “pre” and “post” survey
scores (1-4). Results reported are significant at p<0.01
o Improved understanding of disease transmission. (n=54)
o Improved understanding of how to keep health records. (n=54)
o Improved knowledge of the bio-security risks in home farm
environment. (n=50)
o Improved ability to identify the financial risks associated with biosecurity practices. (n=25)
o Improved ability to prioritize bio-security risk reduction goals. (n=25)
o Improved ability to communicate about bio-security with peers.
(n=23)
Results: Authentic Assessment
Development and Implementation of an
On-Farm Bio-Security Risk Reduction Plan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Perform a Bio-Security Risk Assessment of home farm.
Develop a Risk Mitigation Plan.
Discuss the Risk Mitigation Plan with an adult family member.
Prioritize risks and select two risks to mitigate.
Implement mitigation; document change.
Risk Identification
Risk Analysis and Mitigation
Risk Analysis Table
Risk
Many signs of
vectors / vermin
No specific
footwear
Bedding is foul and
wet
General Plan
Set traps, reduce
standing water
Keep an old pair of
shoes in the barn
for barn use only.
Change bedding
more often
Estimated Investment
Traps, construction supplies,
help with repairs
None. Use shoes I already
have.
More bedding needed
More time needed
Detailed Risk Mitigation Plan
(Vector/Vermin)
Describe the Risk:
 Many flies, mosquitoes, and mouse droppings visible in the barn, feed shed, and
surrounding yard. Water collects on the ground near the spigot on the outside of
the barn and near the barn entrance after it rains. Standing water could be a
breeding area for insects.
Describe your Detailed Plan to Reduce the Risk:
 Set mouse traps in feed shed.
 Hang fly paper every 25 square feet in barn.
 Hang bug zapper near barn.
 Patch holes in feed shed.
 Fix water spigot to stop leaking.
 Level ground and place gravel near barn entrance to prevent pooling of
water after rain.
Detailed Risk Mitigation Plan
Describe the Investment Required (include money, supplies, help
from friends or parents, etc.) :
1. Need a ride to the hardware store to get supplies.
2. Need adult’s help to fix the spigot.
3. 4 mouse traps = $10
4. 8 fly paper traps = $5
5. Bug Zapper and extension cord = $35
6. Scrap wood and nails = free
7. Gravel (25 square feet x 2 inches deep) = $40
8. Plumbing supplies = TBD
Detailed Risk Mitigation Plan
Describe your Expected Outcomes:
 I expect that there will be an immediate reduction in the amount of flies in the barn,
but I will need to replace fly paper on a regular basis. The bug zapper might be more
effective, but I’m not sure if we can run an extension cord safely to the barn.
Describe the Potential Challenges of this Plan:
 Mouse dropping should decrease if we can trap them or cause them to move away if
we prevent access to the feed shed by patching holes. If we can’t trap them, they may
just move into the barn to access the feed there. Placing traps in the barn will be
challenging because I don’t want the sheep to be able to access them. Maybe we can
find some out of the way areas to place additional traps.
 If we can eliminate the standing water, we should be able to reduce the number of
mosquitoes. Do not know how expensive it will be to fix the spigot.
Proficiency Level 4: Public Presentations
 Six community presentations were delivered and
attended by 140 adult community members.
o Voluntary survey was completed by 63 attendees.
 Of the presentation attendees, 41% were active in
animal agriculture either as producers or hobbyists.
 Other attendees included parents of 4-H participants,
local government representatives, 4-H staff, fair board
members, and representatives of agricultural
associations.
Attendee Survey Results
Survey respondents from public presentations reported:
 Improved understanding of the modes of disease transmission.
 Improved in knowledge of critical control points in disease
spread.
 Increased understanding of the financial risks related to
biosecurity practices among young producers.
Of those who identified themselves as active in animal agriculture,
95% reported that the information presented by the youth was
directly applicable to their own practices.
Proficiency Level 5 Siskiyou County Fair
Cleaning and Disinfecting
 All pens, tie stalls, wash
racks and scales were
cleaned and disinfected
with a bleach solution that
was sprayed on all
surfaces.
Education and Outreach
 Participants spoke with fair
attendees and other youth
regarding bio-security
practices.
Acknowledgements






California Department of Food and Agriculture
UCCE Kern, Merced, and Siskiyou County 4-H Programs
United States Department of Food and Agriculture
University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural
Resources
University of California School of Veterinary Medicine
Western Center for Risk Management Education
Contacts
Martin H. Smith, M.S., Ed.D.
Departments of Human Ecology and Population Health &
Reproduction
University of California, Davis
[email protected]
Cheryl L. Meehan, Ph.D.
Department of Population Health & Reproduction
University of California, Davis
[email protected]

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