Presentation - Irrigation Australia

Report
1
63 rd International
Commission on Irrigation
and Drainage,
Executive Council Meeting,
7th Asian Regional Conference And
Irrigation Australia 2012
24 - 30th June, 2012
Adelaide, Australia
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ON-FARM VALIDATION AND ASSESMENT OF WATER
PRODUCTIVITY UNDER CAUVERY COMMAND AREA KARNATAKA, INDIA
RAMANAGOWDA, P., KRISHNA MURTHY, N, AND SURESH NAIK, K.P.
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture,
University of Agricultural Sciences,
GKVK campus, Bengaluru 560065, India
26-06-2012
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Background
• India has the 5101 irrigation dams, Of which 390 are under
completion. Karnataka state has two major river basins
namely Cauvery and Krishna command supporting in
irrigation for crops.
• In Cauvery command area rice, sugarcane, pulses, oilseeds
and other plantation crops are cultivated.
•
The problem are loss of water between the head and
delivery to an extent of 40 per cent and the unscientific water
usage in cultivating the crop.
• Resulting in very low water productivity and net irrigated area
limited to 60 per cent.
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Karnataka Agriculture
 Karnataka state is one among Five southern states of
India comprising of 10 Agro-Climatic Zones (ACZ)
 The ACZ wise area shows that there are only class II,
class III and class IV lands totaling to 14.41 m ha are
available for agriculture production to 4.64 m.ha land
available for non agriculture production
 The major area of 41 percent is available under class
III followed by class IV - 23 percent and class II -19
percent for agricultural use inclusive of rainfed and
irrigated agriculture representing 70 percent and 30
percent respectively
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Fig. 1: River Basin in Karnataka
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Table .1: Agriculture Zone-wise total Geo. area, Gross cropped area, Net
cropped area and Gross irrigated area in Karnataka
Zone No. & Name
Total
Geographical
Area
1. North Eastern Transition Zone
871036
Gross
Cropped Area
Gross Cropped
Area
727186
571007
Gross
Irrigated
Area
67843
2. North Eastern Dry Zone
1762604
1526720
1251861
348257
3. Northern Dry Zone
4783642
4478665
3432394
1703510
4. Central Dry Zone
1943830
1254076
1129389
282459
5. Eastern Dry Zone
1808217
861375
802088
222375
6. Southern Dry Zone
1739430
1032601
813227
435546
7.Southern Transition Zone
1218029
828012
612488
280641
8. Northern Transition Zone
1194941
1120569
845599
178591
9. Hilly Zone
2560727
738262
691093
151384
10. Coastal Zone
1167380
325205
269646
118533
19049836
12892671
10418792
3789139
State Total
Unit: Area in Hectares
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Table.2:WATER RESOURCES OF KARNATAKA
Sl. No.
River System
1
2
3
4
Krishna
Cauvery
Godavari
West Flowing river
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North Pennar &
South Pennar
TOTAL
Estimated Annual
average yield in
M.cum
TMC
%
27,451
12,034
1,415
56,600
969.44
425.00
49.97
1998.83
27.90
12.23
1.44
57.51
906
32.00
0.92
98406
3475.24
100
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HYPOTHESIS
 Conveying large amount of water in open canals and providing
to fields through field channels has poor conveyance
efficiency, soil erosion due to high velocity of water,
difficulties in measurement as well as recurrent mantainance
problems.
 The high cost involved in water storage and irrigation, losses
(seepage, percolation, evaporations, and transpiration loss by
weeds) to be minimized from 45-55 per cent to ensure high
water productivity.
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LOCATION
 The location was Goravanahalli, Maddur taluk, Mandya
district, Cauvery command, Karnataka.
 The local practice of letting the water in open canals and
cultivating rice and other crops
 The study involving supply of water through pipes from
main canal to the field with several gate vales to regulate
the water supply to individual crops and fields.
 The various crops tested were rice with scientific water
management practices, (need based irrigation) in terms of
time and quantity have been fallowed.
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Krishna Raja Sagar (1944)
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Virija Anicut Project in Cauvery Sub-Basin
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Main canal without water
Main canal with water
RAGI
RAGI
MULBERRY
SESAME
RICE
FORAGE
SUGARCANE
On-farm Installation of main and sub pipes
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
 The total length of pipe line laid was 1500 meters coasted
Rs.8 lakhs. This worked out to be Rs. 21025 per farmer,
resulting in saving of water valuing of Rs. 114000 per
cropping season while an amount of Rs. 44444 per hectare
was the unit cost of pipe and accessories.
 The payback period of the total investment made on the
pipes may be 6-7 year. Under normal usage, life
expectancy of the pipes ranges from 12 to15 years. The
effect of the modern and scientific method of water
management in most of the tested crop were ranging from
25 to 30 per cent.
 Above all the indirect benefits such as retaining the good
health of soil and reduced cost of cultivation thereby
increasing productivity per drop of water. This study clearly
indicated that there is possibility of doubling the water
productivity across crops season and location.
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Conclusion
 The various crops tested under this study of piped water supply were sugarcane,
Rice, ragi, mulberry and fodder crops could save irrigation water to an extent
ranging from 20-50 per cent, it was worked out by the saved water of 975 cm
through piped water could irrigate the additional crop area to an extent of 15.6
hectare of ragi or 6 hectare of aerobic rice or 3.6 hectare of sugarcane.
 Besides the modern and scientific method of water management among the
tested crops were ranging from 25-30 per cent higher yield this study clearly
indication that there is possibilities of doubling the water productivity across the
crops, season and locations.
 The overall saving in the investment and maintenance of canal, gates etc are the
benefits and the overall life span of pipe and other accessories one time
investment and life span of ten years without any maintenance.
 Based on the findings a pilot project at Haveri district in lift irrigation project from
Varada river by providing piped water for irrigation has resulted a high water
productivity under participatory mode
 Based on the present finding the government of Karnataka has initiated the
supply of irrigation water through pipes in all the major and minor irrigation
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command areas
Fig. 2 : large scale cultivation of Rice under piped water supply 19
Fig. 3 : Public-Private Participatory Development
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Fig. 4: Bottom up approach for development
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DHANYAWADHA
(THANK YOU)
STORE, SAVE WATER FOR FUTURE
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Contact for further information:
[email protected]
[email protected]
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