Sparta

Report
OBJECTIVES
• Learn how people lived in Ancient
Sparta
• Discover some results of the Persian
invasion of Greece
• Understand the conflicts that the
Athenian empire faced
KEY TERMS
• Sparta – a city state in ancient Greece
• Helots – in ancient Sparta, the term for slaves
who were owned by the state
• Peloponnesian War – war fought between Athens
and Sparta in ancient Greece; almost every other
Greek city-state was involved in the war
• Plague – a wide-spread disease
• Blockage – an action take to isolate the enemy
and cut off its supplies
EARLY SPARTA
• In early days, Sparta similar to other
Greek cities
• In 600 B.C. wars inside/outside of the city
led to changes in government and life
• Changed Sparta into powerful war
machine
• Established one rule – Always put city’s
needs above your own
LIVING IN SPARTA
•Life in Athens free and open
•Life for citizens of Sparta the
opposite - harsh, cruel
•Spartans tough, silent, grim
•Only area in which Sparta
matched Athens was in army,
military realms
EARLY SPARTA
• Early in history, Spartans conquered
land around their city
• Turned the conquered people into
helots – slaves owned by the citystates
• Helots farmed all Spartan land
• Spartans free to wage war
• However, helots far outnumbered
Spartans
EARLY SPARTA
• However, helots far outnumbered
Spartans
• In fear of revolt, Spartans turned
city into armed camp and treated
helots harshly
GROWING UP IN SPARTA
• Life at the hands of the government
• Only healthy children raised
• Wanted only healthy adults in
society
The Glory of Ancient Greece
Athens and Sparta
Chapter 7 – Section 2
GROWING UP MALE
• At age 7, boys left home to live in barracks
with other boys and begin military
training
• Training continued for next 13 years
• By age 12, boys had spent long hours
practicing with swords/spears
• Owned one cloak and slept on thin mat
GROWING UP MALE
• Through rigid discipline, boys
became superior soldiers
• When 20 years old, young men
officially became soldiers and
remained soldiers until 60 years old
GROWING UP MALE
• At age 30, men took place in
assembly – council consisting of all
male citizens born in Sparta
• Council approved decisions made by
the council of elders, who, in turn,
acted as advisors to the king
GROWING UP FEMALE
• Girls also trained and competed in
wrestling/spear throwing
• Girls not expected to become soldiers
• However, Spartans believed that
strong/healthy girls would grow into
strong/healthy women who would bore
strong/healthy children
• So, unlike other Greek women, Spartan
women trained to exercise and build up
strength
GROWING UP FEMALE
• Spartan women had somewhat
better life than other Greek citystate women
• Allowed to own land, take part in
business
• However, like Athenian women, had
to obey males (fathers, husbands,
brothers)
• Because men busy at war, women
took on running farms & estates
SPARTAN ATTITUDES
• Spartans did not mingle with other
Greeks
• Not permitted to travel
• Looked down upon those desiring
wealth/engaged in trade
• Lacked interest in arts
• However, Spartan warriors known
for skill & bravery
SPARTAN ATTITUDES
• However, Spartan warriors known
for skill & bravery
• Spartan fighting force played key
role in Greek wars against Persians
who lived across Aegean Sea, east of
Greece
SPARTAN WARRIORS
THE PERSIANS INVADE
• Most Greek history tell of wars
Greeks fought amongst themselves
• However in 400 B.C., Greeks put
aside their differences, joined forces
to defend their peninsula against
Persia.
EXPANDING PERSIAN
EMPIRE
• Cyrus the Great had founded the
Persian Empire in the mid-500s B.C.
• Cyrus and the rulers who followed
him extended the original empire
• By 520 B.C., Persians had gained
control of Greeks colonies on the
west coast of Asia Minor
BATTLE AT MARATHON
• In 490 B.C, force including thousands of
Persians landed in Greece
• Persian soldiers gathered at Marathon
about 25 miles north of Athens
• The Athenians hastily put together small
army but Persians outnumbered them 2:1
• For several days, armies stared tensely at
each across the plain of Marathon
BATTLE AT MARATHON
• Without warning, Athenians rushed
Persian who were overwhelmed at
furious
unexpected attack
• By one (probably exaggerated) account,
6,400 Persians and 192 Athenians were
killed
• However, true that in short time, this
time this tiny state had defeated the giant
that had come to destroy it
LEGEND OF MARATHON
• Stories say that after battle at marathon,
Athenians sent fastest runner to tell
people of Athenian’s victory.
• With chest heaving runner covered the
distance to the city and shouted to the
people “Rejoice! We have won.”
• Then, he dropped dead
• Actual distance from marathon to Athens
25 miles; today’s marathons 26 miles in
honor of legend
CONFLICT & ATHENIAN
EMPIRE
• More battles with Persian followed
• As common enemy, Persia distracted
Greek city-states from fighting one
another
• Briefly united, Greece drove away
Persians
CONFLICT & ATHENIAN
EMPIRE
• Victory over Persians increased
Greeks’ sense of own importance
• Thought gods favored them
• Athens emerged from war as move
powerful city-state
• Influence spread over eastern
Greece.
CONFLICT & ATHENIAN
EMPIRE
• Athens joined other city-states in
Delian League (name after island of
Delos, where leagues treasury kept)
• In time, these cities treated more as
subordinates to Athens and not like
allies
• Athens came to dominate league and
used it to create its own empire
CONFLICT & ATHENIAN
EMPIRE
• Ironically, while Athens expanding
empire and forcing other city-states
to bow to its will, Athens came to
champion political freedom at home
• Athens did support democratic
groups within other city-states, but
focus on freedom for its people
• Years following Perisan Wars were
Golden Age of Athens - Chapter 6
SPARTA AND ATHENS AT
WAR
• Athens may have been democracy at home
but it began to act unfairly toward other
city-states.
• Early on allies paid tribute to Athens to
protect them if Persia caused more
trouble
• Later, Athens moved treasure from Delos
to Athens and used money intended to
defend allies, to build Parthenon and
finance other projects.
PELOPONNESIAN WAR
• People began to fear & resent
Athen’s power
• Looked to Sparta, who had not
joined alliance for protection
• To counter Delian League, Sparta
formed Peloponnesian League,
named after Peloponnesus, the
southern Greek peninsula where
Sparta located
• Sparta and allies fought Athens and
allies
Thus began the Peloponnesian War
which lasted for 27 years
PELOPONNESIAN WAR
• Athens at great disadvantage in war
• Sparta, located inland, could not be
attacked from the sea
• Spartans had to march north to
attack Athens by land
PELOPONNESIAN WAR
• When Sparta invaded Athens, Pericles let
people from surrounding countryside
move inside city walls
• Overcrowded conditions led to plague
• Plague lasted 5 years and killed 1/3 of the
people, including Pericles
• Power struggle of those who sought to
take Pericles’ place resulted in further
destabilization of the government.
THE FALL OF ATHENS
• Athens never recovered from its
loses during the plague
• Worse yet, Sparta allied with Persia
• In 405 B.C, Spartans and Persians
staged blockade to cut off Athens's
supplies
• Spartans but off harbor for food
shipments
• Athenians, starved and decimated,
surrendered in 404 B.C.
THE FALL OF ATHENS
• Athenians, starved and decimated,
surrendered in 404 B.C.
• Victorious Spartans knocked down wall
of Athens
• Destroyed navy and empire
• Athens never dominated Greek world
again
THE SPREAD OF GREEK
CULTURE
Chapter 7
Section 3
OBJECTIVES
• Learn how King Philip of Macedonia
came to power and how Alexander
the Great built his empire
• Understand what role the conquests
of Alexander the Great played in
spreading Greek culture
Key Terms
• Barbarian – person who belongs to a group that
others consider wild
• Assassinate – to murder for political reasons
• Alexander the Great – king of Macedonia;
conquered Persia and Egypt and invaded India
• Hellenistic – describing Greek history or culture
after the death of Alexander the Great, including
the three main kingdoms formed by the breakup
of Alexander’s empire
YOUNG ALEXANDER
• Son of King Philip of Macedonia
• Fine and eager student who wanted
to learn as much as he could,
especially about ideas and deeds of
Greeks
• Alexander thought of himself as
Greek and spoke Greek language
• However, people to the south did not
accept Macedonian’s as Greeks
YOUNG ALEXANDER
• Alexander’s tutor was Greek philosopher
Aristotle
• Aristotle taught Alexander Greek
literature, philosophy, science
• Aristotle passed on strong feelings that
Greeks were superior people who
deserved to rule
• Alexander’s role model was Achilles, hero
of Homer’s Iliad
• Alexander vowed to visit site of ancient
Troy and lay wreath on tomb of his hero
PHILIP COMES TO POWER
• Before Philip came to power,
Macedonia week & divided
• Philip united Macedonia, formed
alliances with Greek city-states by
bribing…or threatening them
• Built army even stronger than
Sparta’s
• With this, Philip captured one citystate after another
PHILIP COMES TO POWER
• Demosthens (dih MAHS thus neez), who
was master of elocutions (art of public
speaking) tried to warm Athenians of
danger to the north
“He is always taking in more, everywhere
casting his net round us, while we sit idle and
do nothing. When, Athenians, will you take
the necessary action? What are you waiting
for”
PHILIP COMES TO POWER
• In 338 B.C, Athens and Thebes at last
joined forces to try to stop Philip,
however they were too late
• Philip gained control of all of Greece
PHILIP COMES TO POWER
• Like predecessors, Philip considered
himself Greek
• Philip dreamed of conquering rich
city-states of Greece
• Accomplished this with combination
of diplomacy & military force
Alexander Builds an Empire
• After conquering
Greece, Philip
planned to attack
Persia but was
instead assassinated
by a rival
• At age 20, Alexander
becomes king
Alexander’s Conquests
• Although young, Alexander already
experienced solider
• First invaded Persian Empire
• Forged ahead to Asia Minor, Judea, Egypt,
Babylon & Persian Empire then crossed
Indus River into India
Alexander’s Conquests
• All this happened within 11 years
• Established cities wherever he went
• Named many after himself (Alexandria,
Alexandropoulos, etc.)
Alexander’s Last Battle
• Alexander’s troops battle weary and
refused to go further than Indus River
• Alexander not happy, but agreed to turn
back
• Got as far as Babylon and died of fever in
323 B.C at age of 33
• His many conquests spread Greek culture
far and wide
Greek Culture Spreads
• Death of Alexander = Death of Empire
• 50 years & disorder resulted in split of
kingdoms with one commander in charge
of each
– 1 Greece & Macedonia
– 2 Egypt
– 3 Persia
Greek Culture Spreads
• 100 years of fighting amongst themselves
and their descendants followed
• All attempting to amalgamate (ding-ding)
and take over Alexander’s previous empire
Greek Culture Spreads
• Many Greek soldiers remained in new
kingdoms
• Traders, artisans followed, further
spreading culture
Hellenistic Kingdoms
• Hellenistic
– Comes from word
Hellas, name
Greek’s gave their
land
– Describes Greek
history & culture
after earth of
Alexander the
Great
The Hellenistic Kingdoms
• Alexander left defeated cultures in tact
• Hoped local culture would mix with Greek
• Did not happen in Hellenistic kingdoms
• Cities of Hellenistic Kingdoms modeled
after Greek cities
– Greek kings, Greek leaders, Greek agoras,
Greek temples, Greek theater, Greek
language etc.
Greek Culture in Egypt
• Greatest of Hellenistic cities Alexandria in
Egypt founded 332 B.C
• Alexandria became capital of Egypt, grew
famous for trade & business
Learning Capital of Greek World
• Alexandria boasted largest library in world,
with half million scrolls
• Scholars and writers from all over traveled
to use library
Math & Science
• Math & Science flourished in Alexandria
• Branch of math called Geometry
developed by mathematician name Euclid
• Started with basic mathematical laws
then wrote step by step proofs of
additional principles to help explain
qualities of figures including squares,
cubes, angles, triangle's cones
Eratosthenes
• Many Hellenistic
scientists knew Earth
was round
• Scientist named
Eratosthenes even
calculated distance
around earth and came
up with result very
close to today’s
estimation
Aristarchus
• Scientist who rejected idea that is Earth
center of universe
• Believed sun center and earth revolved
around it
• Idea did not catch on
and scientists continued
with Earth-centered
universe until A.D. 1500s
Archimedes
• Discovered concept of
pulleys & levers to lift
heavy objects
• Boasted “Give me a
lever long enough and a
place to stand on, and I
will move the Earth.”

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