Our View of the Universe

Report
Our View of the Universe
History
The Big Bang
The Anthropic Principle
Physicists Find Elusive Particle Seen as Key to Universe
“ASPEN, Colo. — Signaling a likely end to one of the longest, most expensive
searches in the history of science, physicists said Wednesday that they had
discovered a new subatomic particle that looks for all the world like the Higgs
boson, a key to understanding why there is diversity and life in the universe.”
- New York Times, July 4 2012
Integration of Science and Religion ?
Worldview - 2012
Worldview – 1700 BCE
Ptolemy – 150 AD
Source - http://www.vikdhillon.staff.shef.ac.uk/
Copernicus – 1500 AD
Heliocentric Model
Galileo and Kepler – 1600s
SN 1604
Elliptical orbits
Phases of Venus 1610
Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727)
• Principia mathematica
• Law of Universal Gravitation
– Confirmed Kepler’s Laws of planetary motion
 Static Universe Model (Einstein’ s universe)
Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955)
• Newtonian mechanics did not reconcile with
laws of electromagnetism
• General Theory of Relativity (1916)
E = mc 2
– Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
 Led to Quantum Theory
Georges Lemaitre, S.J.
• Belgian priest and physicist
• Applied general relativity to cosmology
– derived equations describing universe of constant
mass and expanding radius (1927).
 Theory of the Primordial Egg
– Disputed by Einstein
– Later known as Hubble’s Law
– Pejoratively (Hoyle 1949) referred to as:
» The Big Bang
The Big Bang - Evidence
• Edwin Hubble (1889 – 1953)
– Hooker telescope at Mount Wilson CA
Discovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way
• Measured distances by “brightness”
• Light from distant galaxies is “red shifted”
 Galaxies are all moving away
• Hubble’s Law (1929)
H = v/d
Electromagnetic spectrum
• Light behaves as both a particle (photon) and a wave
• Shorter wavelengths/higher energy
The Doppler Effect
• Change in frequency of a wave (sound or light)
for an observer moving relative to its source.
• Applications – radar (police, weather), medical imaging
The Big Bang - Evidence
• Edwin Hubble (1929)
– Assumes all galaxies emit similar light
– Spectroscopically measured light from far off galaxies
– Light from distant galaxies is “red shifted” , i.e. has longer
wavelengths than light from nearby galaxies
– Confirmation of Big bang theory.
• Microwave Background Radiation (1964)
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–
–
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Princeton and Bell Labs (New Jersey)
New radio telescopes
Found microwave “noise” everywhere
Determined age of the universe (13.7 billion years)
• Oldest galaxy – UDFy 38135539 (2011)
– 13.07 billion light years away (600 MY after the big bang)
But Why is There Anything at All ?
• “The Laws of Nature” – mathematical
relationships that describe what we observe.
• The Law of Gravity
• First and Second Law of Thermodynamics
• Theory of Relativity ( E = mc2 )
• Each of these laws is defined by a constant
which could (theoretcially) have different
values than what we observe.
The Fundamental Constants (Forces)
• Strong nuclear force
– holds subatomic particles together
• Weak nuclear force
– Causes radioactive decay
– Higgs boson is part of this
• Gravitational force
• Electromagnetic force
– Combines electricity and magnetism
• Matter/anti-matter ratio
• Expansion rate of the universe
– H in Hubble’s Law
 If any of these were even slightly larger or smaller the
universe as we know it would not exist!!!
Let’s Play!
Roulette – spaces 1-36, 0, 00
• Chance of hitting a 7?
1/38
• Let it ride!
1/38 x 1/38 = 1/1444
• How about 3 times ?
1/38 x 1/38 x 1/38 = 1/54,872
• Hitting 6 times 1 in 3 billion chance
The Goldilocks Enigma
Why is the universe “just right” for life?
• Random chance –
– We are winners of the cosmic lottery
• Anthropic principle (AP)
– Weak AP: universe must support our presence
– Strong AP: “fine tuning” suggests there is an
intentionality in universe’s creation
• Multiverse hypothesis
– There are many hostile universes, we just happen to
be in one that isn’t hostile
• Temporal Multiverse
• Simultaneous Multiverses
String Theory/M Theory
The Theory of Everything (ToE)
• All matter is composed of strings of infinitely
small energy loops
• Attempts to unify:
– Quantum physics (behavior of very small things)
– Relativity theory (behavior of very large things)
• Is it testable??
• Advocates believe it will ultimately explain
why the constants are what they are?
Questions?
• Why do YOU think the Big Bang should be
accepted or not accepted?
• Projects such as the Super Hadron Collider are
VERY expensive – are they worth it?
• Do you think a Theory of Everything will
eventually be arrived at?
 What then?
Day 2 - Schedule
:00
9am
:30
:45
10am
Gather - Continental Breakfast
Welcome/Updates
The Big Bang
:00
:45
Sauer/Ryscavage
Sauer
Sauer
Questions/Discussion
:00
11am
:15
:30
Transition
Small Groups 1-3/Lunch Groups 4-7
:00
12pm
:15
:30
1pm
2pm
3pm
4pm
5pm
Transition
Lunch Groups 1-3/Small Groups 4-7
:00
:30
Religious Cosmology
Dallavalle
Questions/Discussion
Reflection Period
Small Groups
Collins
:00
:30
:00
:30
:00
:30
:00
:30
Large Group Report Out
Depart

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