Welcome to Mrs. Wilkinson’s BIOLOGY 12 POWER POINT REVIEW BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES • Name the molecule on the top left. • What type of bonding does it have? • Is it a polar or nonpolar molecule? Why? • What type of reaction is this? • Name diagram A, B, C and D. • Which diagram comprises carbohydrates? • Which is the unit molecule for DNA? • Diagram A is found in which organic group? • Which molecule is found in fries? • Which of the molecules is found in enzymes? • Name the saturated fatty acid. • In diagram A the NH2 is the __________group and the COOH is the __________ group. • Name A, B, C and D and name a place where they can be found. • Name this molecule. • What type of bonding does it have? MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE • What is the X? • Name the letters that represent the bases and name the bond between them? • What is the back bone in this molecule? • What is the shape? • Name the molecule. What are the crosspieces? DNA/RNA • The building blocks or monomers of nucleic acids are: 1) ________ 2) ________: _______ or ______ 3) ________: __, __, __, __ for DNA __, __, __, __ for RNA • What is complimentary base pairing? What is the bond between the bases? • Name W, X, and Y. • What is Z? What is the purpose of Z? • Name this molecule. • To which organic group does it belong? • This process is called _______ _________ because _______________. • The enzyme that “unzips” the strand is ____. This process shown is _________________ • • • • X is the __________. Y is the __________. Z is the __________. Name the bases found on strand X. • Give two differences between the double strand and the single strand X. A. • • • • • • • B. Is there a difference between A and B? Name the process shown? What do the represent ? Using the base letters identify the mRNA in A. Where does this take place? What is X and give its function? If DNA is TAC, what will mRNA and tRNA be? Given GGG UCG AAC, What will be the resulting sequence of amino acids? How many RNA codons are required to produce a polypeptide that has 60 amino acids? Given DNA = TAC GAA AAU, a mutation has occurred such that the leucine was deleted, what is the resulting dipeptide? CELL ANATOMY • Name structures: U: V: W: X: Y: Z: Then give a function • What is this organelle? What is X? • Where is X made? • X in this diagram produces _________ • Y produces________ • Identify the nucleus & nucleolus. What is their function? • What is the nucleolus made of? • Name the cell that would most likely be found in the testes. • Name the cell that would most likely be found in muscle tissue and heart tissue and why? CELL MEMBRANE • In the top diagram what is X? • Name the process being shown in both diagrams. • In the bottom diagram what could X be? (think Nervous System) ISO-, HYPO, OR HYPER- TONIC? • What happened in Graph A? Graph B? • What is happening at 4 minutes in graph B • Why did the line plateau at 3 minutes in graph A? • Why does salt kill weeds? • What kind of solution were these red blood cells sitting in ? • Explain what allowed for the shape change? • Where have you seen this graph before? • Explain what is happening? • Where is it isotonic to cells? DIGESTIVE SYSTEM • • • • • • • Name structures: U: V: W: X: Y: Z: • Name the structure that produces pepsin. • Which structure controls our blood sugar level? • Bile is made here. • A lack of water in our body could be due to a malfunctioning of structure _____. ENZYMES • Denaturation is caused by _____ and ___. Enzyme pH Pepsin 3 Salivary Amylase Substrate product protein mouth Peptidase Lipase Location Amino Acids 8 • The purpose of bile is to increase the ________ area of _______ and thereby ____________ emulsification. • What do the villi do? And where are they located? • The pancreas produces ____________ (breakdown), sodium ___________ (neutralization) and ___________ (sugar uptake) • Name the structure that has and acidic environment. • What is structure W and give its function? • Name two functions of structure Z. • The function of U is? CIRCULATORY SYSTEM • Which vessel has valves? • Which vessel carries out exchange? • Name the vessel that leaves the left ventricle. • This diagram is similar to the previous slide. • Name: • W: • X: • Y: • Z: • Where would this be found? • Name this organ. • What is the function of the labelled structures? • Name the two chambers on either side of W and Z. Systole of the ventricles is occurring at _____ Systole of the atria is occurring at _______ • Which structure would contain oxygenated blood? • Which structure would contain deoxygenated blood? What is the function of the oval opening, arterial duct, venous duct and umbilical arteries? • Structure Z is ______ • Structure Y is ______ • Structure X is ______ • Structure W is ______ • Which structure is part of the lymphatic system • Name the two cells shown. • List two differences between the two cells. • What is the function of each of the cells? RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Structure U V W X Y Z Name Function Inhalation/Exhalation • Exhale: ___________ (dome) relaxes _________________ relaxes ________ ________ decreases • Inhale: ____________ contracts ____________contracts up and _____ _________ ___________ increases • What is X and give its function? • Identify W and Y. • What kind of blood is found in W? • What type of blood is found in Y? • Gas exchange occurs by __________ RESPIRATION in the capillary • External: Hb + O2 _______ ______ Hb + CO2 HHb Hb + ___ _____ + H+ H2CO3 ___ + CO2 • Internal: HbO2 ___ + O2 ___ + ____ HbCO2 Hb + H+ _____ H2O + ___ ______ H2O + CO2 • What most likely is Z? • Identify X and Y and explain your reasoning for your answer. EXCRETORY SYSTEM • This is a diagram of a _______ • The 3 regions labelled X, Y and Z are _________. • In which region would the Loop of Nephron be found? •What is the function of Z? •W is the ______ and it serves to ______________. • This is a ________ • Where does reabsorption take place? Structure Name W X Y Z Function URINARY SYSTEM Indicate where the kidney, urethra, ureter and bladder are and briefly give a function • Z and Y are found in which region of the kidney? • Why is region W very salty and concentrated? • X and W are found in which region of the kidney? HORMONES •Label W, X, Y and Z •Name a hormone that is released from each of these glands NERVOUS SYSTEM • Label the following diagram using the words listed below: receptor, motor axon, ganglion, interneuron, sensory neuron, sensory axon, sensory dendrite, motor dendrite This graph represents action and resting potential. • Briefly describe what is happening at the labelled parts W, X, Y and Z. • Guess what the above diagram is ? • Label W, X, Y and Z and give a function • When does the Na+/K+ pump work? • What is the function of the myelin sheath? • This whole diagram represents the ________ of the nervous system. •What is X and give its function? •What is Y and give its function? •Why are mitochondria found here? •By what means are the “dots” released? • This diagram is the _______________ V Name Function W X Y Z REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM • Who is this little guy and what is his job? • What is found in Y and why? • What does W contain? • The purpose of X is ________ • X and Y produce two different substances. What are they? What is X and Y’s function? • X and Y are found in the _____ • The function of Z is to? • What is T’s dual function? • X makes ____________ which is important because __________ • What is U and its function? • V carries __________. • The structure that is being released is the __________ • Identify structure X and what is its function. • The name of the process is ____________ • Is this a male or female? (you better get this!) • The four main parts of the system are listed. Name them and give their function. • Where does fertilization occur?