writing

Report
ESP Practicum
ESP/EMI Teacher Collaboration
paper-based learning for academic writing
Paul Saunders
paulrsaunders @hotmail.com
reference: chapter 4
Dr. Mei-Ling Tsai
Traditional Division of Instructional Responsibility
Structure
Content
writing
ESL Instructor
‘writing style’
Discipline Expert
Language
teaching how to write effectively must
INTEGRATE expertises
Structure
Content
Discipline Expertise
writing
WRITING
EMI/ESP
integration
Critical Thinking
ESL Expertise
‘writing style’
Language
Three must-ask questions for team
teachers in innovative ESP courses
What to teach?
Who to teach?
How to teach?
EMI teacher conversation ESP teacher
Teacher
Preparation
work from strengths
Structure
Content
writing
WRITING
Language
Discipline Expertise
EMI teacher
ESL Expertise
‘writing style’
explain
ESP teacher
focus on General Content: Genre Analysis
Scientific Academic Writing
Author’s Objective:
1) Reader understands specific scientific project
2) Reader convinced the research is important
Convince Project is: - novel
- meaningful
- valid
Analyze research article general IMRD structure
- use of structure & language
- apply concepts in writing
(Swales genre analysis of academic writing)
Knowledge to Help Read Science (original article)
Introduction’s Purpose (why do research)
- Introduce topic of research
(significance of field; general background information)
- Cite HIGHLY relevant background research
- Indicate a Need – the Unknown information (3 kinds)
- extending previous findings
- information gap
- states that other research is wrong (questions theory)
or other research requires some qualification
- State purpose of study (take care of the Need – 3 ways)
- state purpose, hypothesis OR specific research aims
- introduce key method to accomplish purpose
- state findings that resulted
Novelty
Knowledge to Help Read Science (original article)
Methods’ Purpose (what was done)
- describe experimental procedures
(must be clear so others may repeat)
Results’ Purpose (what was found)
- describe outcomes of research project
- some conclusion ok in describing and summarizing
findings
Validity
Knowledge to Help Read Science (original article)
Discussion’s Structure (typical segments)
-
State/Summarize KEY results
Summarizing secondary results
Use previous research to support findings
Explain unexpected findings
(explain contradictions with previous research)
- Indicate study’s limitations
- Provide conclusion, recommendations for future
research and/or ‘benefits’ of study
Meaningfulness
Teacher
Preparation
work from strengths
Structure
Content
writing
WRITING
Language
Discipline Expertise
EMI teacher
ESL Expertise
‘writing style’
explain
ESP teacher
focus on appropriate Specific Discipline Content
Teacher
Preparation
for ANY form of Communication
(presentation & writing)
Structure
EMI teacher
explain
ESP teacher
focus on effective organization of Specific Content
Scientific Academic Communication
Humans use ‘stories’ all the time
- organize information
- know how to behave
- explain GENERAL phenomena (these are science stories)
Data is NOT the story
Story must explain (reader relevance)
- future application for Reader (typically understanding)
How to develop reader appropriate story?
Storyboarding
- organizes details: ALL events in story must be connected
draw out research story
use arrows (focus one at a time) to indicate events
if describe in words “and” “then” good indicators of
separate events
Takes practice; Learning to think scientifically
Research Story: Provides Content Framework
Type 1:
- Background Story (in gray) indicates the known info,
so UNKNOWN info can be highlighted
(put research purpose in context - rationale)
- Research Story (in green) is what is new
Initial stage
Event 1
Event 2
Final Outcome
- very typical to explain a new mechanism of action
pathway in a biological system
Teaching Duties (initial offering option)
Time
Process
Wk 1 Analyze Model Paper
- important concepts
- general purpose of each major section (IMRD)
Wk 2 Use Model Paper for example material
- demonstrate how Central Theme is introduced
- paragraph structure
- section structure to develop an idea (genre analysis)
Wk 3 Use Model Paper for example material
- demonstrate how to present scientific article
- demonstrate scientific storytelling
Wk 4+ Students give presentation of an article they selected
Teacher in
charge
EMI
ESP
ESP
EMI&ESP
evaluate
Students prepare to write summary paragraph based on their selected article
- examine how to select appropriate Central Theme for paragraph
EMI
- assess necessary details to support/explain Central Theme
- demonstrate developing cohesion through linking phrases (language ESP
examples from Model and Student-Selected articles)
(continue with more writing skills & writing more sophisticated documents)
for the STUDENTS
Structure
Content
writing
WRITING
ESL Expertise
‘writing style’
Discipline Expertise
EMI/ESP
integration
Critical Thinking
Language
Extra Story Framework types:
- alter phenomena (ie. heal/prevent disease)
- examine associations (relationship strengths)
- multiple responses to condition
Research Story: Provides Content Framework
Type 2:
- Background Story (in gray) indicates the known info,
so UNKNOWN info can be highlighted
(put research purpose in context - rationale)
- Research Story (in green) is what is new
Intervention
0
Event 1
Event 2
Event 3
Event 2’
Event 3’
- explain how a treatment intervention (eg. a drug) can
change a system through an altered mechanism of
action pathway in a system (typically biological)
Research Story: Provides Content Framework
Type 3:
- Background Story (in gray) indicates the known info,
so UNKNOWN info can be highlighted
(put research purpose in context - rationale)
- Research Story (in green & red) is what is new
Factor A
Factor B
Initial stage
Factor C
Final Outcome
Factor D
- explain how particular factors are positively (green)
and negatively (red) associated with a particular
singular outcome – common in clinical sciences
Research Story: Provides Content Framework
Type 4:
- Background Story (in gray) indicates the known info,
so UNKNOWN info can be highlighted
(put research purpose in context - rationale)
- Research Story (in green) is what is new
Outcome 1
Initial stage
Factor C
Outcome 2
Overall
Condition
Outcome 3
- a pattern of >1 outcome with each outcome
measured independently; the outcomes are
constituent elements of an overall condition
- may include single factor that could alter outcomes

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