E-PRTR – Diffuse Emissions Project scope and subtraction

Report
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air
Emissions in the E-PRTR
Jochen Theloke, Thomas Gauger, Balendra Thiruchittampalam,
Melinda Uzbasich, Sonia Orlikova
University of Stuttgart
Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy
Institute of Navigation
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Outline
• Introduction
• Main objectives
• Gridding methodologies
• Results
• A comparison with national data sets
• Conclusion
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Aim of the project
1) Gathering of available data on diffuse releases to air for
● NOx, SO2, PM10, CO and CO2 emissions released by
 Transport (on-road, shipping, domestic aviation)
 Stationary combustion sources, which are not covered by
Annex 1
 Industrial releases from activities which are not covered by the
E-PRTR regulation (Annex 1 and 2)
● NH3, PM10 emission from agriculture activities
● Underlying proxy data to be used for gridding diffuse emissions for
each pollutant and each sector
2) Methodology development for gridding emission data
3) Derive gridded emission map layers covering EU27 + EFTA4 for
selected sectors and pollutants with as a minimum a 5x5 km
resolution
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Considered Sources – Diffuse sources
Sector
Pollutant
Emission Data Source
Industrial (only diffuse souces
not covered by E-PRTR)
CLRTAP, National totals
derived by subtraction,
UNFCCC National
submissions
On-Road Traffic
CLRTAP, National totals,
UNFCCC National
submissions
Domestic Navigation
CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, PM10
CLRTAP, National totals,
UNFCCC National
Submissions
International Navigation
CLRTAP, Memory items,
UNFCCC, Memory items
Domestic Aviation
CLRTAP, National totals,
UNFCCC National
Submissions
Residential and Commercial
Combustion
Agriculture
NH3, PM10
CLRTAP, National totals
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Wickert, 2001
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
NFR 1A4bi - residential stationary plants
Old method
New method
Regionalisation
Regionalisation
EUROSTAT Population data
on NUTS3 level
JRC´s Population data on
NUTS3 level
Gridding
CORINE Land Cover Classes
(EEA Data service)
•
Continuous urban fabric
•
Discontinuous urban fabric
Gridding
JRC´s Population data
•Land use weighted
•Gridded population
Advantage
Emissions are allocated where
the population occurs
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
The European Population Density Map (2006)
•
digital raster grid with a spatial resolution of 100 m
•
describes population density (inhab/km²)
•
spatial coverage: EU27 (except Greece and UK), plus Norway, Iceland, San Marino,
Monaco, Lichtenstein and the Vatican City
•
for Greece and UK: Apply of The European Population Density Map (2000)
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
JRC`s population density grid:
combines information on population per commune using the CORINE Land
Cover (COoRdinate INformation on the Environment) and LUCAS (Land Use
and Cover Area frame Statistical survey) systems.
[http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/index.cfm?id=2820&dt_code=HLN&obj_id=217&lang=en]
grouped class
CORINE Class
Label
1
111
Continuous urban fabric
2
112
Discontinuous urban fabric
3
4
121, 133, 14
Other urban
122-124, 131-132
Low population artificial
5
21, 22, 23
Agriculture
6
7
241-243
Heterogeneous
244, 31
Forest
8
32
Natural vegetation
9
33,4,5
Bare land, wetland and water
CLC Nomenclature aggregation (Gallego, F. J.)
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Degree of urbanisation (DGUR 2001) from EUROSTAT_GISCO
• The distinction is based on population densities
• three area types are defined as follows:
“A” - Densely populated area: refers to a set of closely
related local units, each one of which having a density
greater than 500 [inhab/km²], and the total population of
which being of at least 50 000 inhabitants
“B” - Intermediate area: refers to a set of closely related
local units that do not pertain to a densely populated
area, each one of which having density greater than 100
[inhab/km²], and where the total population is at least of
50 000 inhabitants or it refers to a set that is adjacent to a
highly populated area.
“C” - Thinly populated area: refers to a set of closely
related local units that are not part of a densely populated
area or of an intermediate area.
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Wood combustion
Input data for Regionalization:
• Population on NUTS3 level
• Forest area from CLC on NUTS3 level
 In generally thinly populated area has more forest area on NUTS3 level and vice versa
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Energy consumption distinguished by fuel type for gridding
The most usage of Wood fuel is still in thinly populated area
Wood Consumption Relation:
 the emissions are re-distributed on base of the assumption that
A : B : C
in densely populated regions, the average wood consumption is
1 : 1.5 : 2
about half of the amount used in thinly regions.
Gas is located in most densely populated urban areas
 the emissions are allocated under taken into account the
assumption that in densely populated areas the share of
households which are connected to gas installations are three
times higher than in thinly populated areas.
Oil and Coal is consumed independent from population density
 the emission related to these fuels will be distributed by
applying the overall population distribution.
Gas Connection Relation:
A : B : C
3 : 2 : 1
Oil, Coal Consumption
Relation:
A : B : C
1 : 1 : 1
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Comparison with the NL data setsresidential combustion-NOx
Be aware that x and y have not the same scale!!!
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Residential Combustion-NOx
er: NL; du: E_PRTR (1x1km2)
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Comparison with the NL data setsresidential combustion-CO
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Residential Combustion-CO
er: NL; du: E_PRTR (1x1km2)
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Result from the comparison of European data set vs.
national specific approach (NL)
CO-emissions (mainly wood related)
•
50 % of the cells have a deviation of at least 50%
•
20% of the cells have a deviation of at least 80 %
 More populated areas partly underestimated
 Less populated areas partly overestimated
 NL specific: wood mainly used for creating a nice atmosphere. (+ glas of wine,
dimmed lights, candles, snacks etc)
 It will cost you extra, so it's more or less a hobby
 Nearer to urban areas than to rural areas
 In the Netherlands most houses are heated with Natural gas (>98%). There is a
small amount of houses wich uses other fuels (oil , lpg , hardcoal, petroleum)
 There are 9 categories of houses, depending on the age and type; there is applied
factors to distribute the emissions. These factors differ depending on the fuel used.
These factors are not per type of house, but a calculated factor including the
number of houses within one of 9 categories.
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Gridding of on- road transport activities
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Road traffic volume in Trans-Tools
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Completion of the road network
●
Trans-Tools covering not the complete European street network
●
Enhancement of the Trans-Tools network by GISCO data set
●
Identification of missing traffic volumes with the TREMOVE model
●
Spatial weighting by population density for the enhanced network
Diffuse emissions
in theAir
E-PRTR
system
- Jochen
Theloke
Spatial Resolution
of the Diffuse
Emissions
in the
E-PRTRJochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Road transport 2008
Road transport 2008
1x1km: NOx in [t]
1x1km: NOx in [t]
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Agricultural sector
The emissions from 4B Animal husbandry and
Manure Management and 4D Crop production
and Agricultural soils are allocated on base of:
• animal census from EUROSTAT and FAO
• Corine Land Cover use
On base of this information it is possible to
allocate the diffuse emissions caused by each
animal species and each pollutant in a high
spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km² across EU27 +
EFTA 4.
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Animal census from EUROSTAT
An extract from EUROSTAT data sets shows data, which are necessary for quantifying
the amount of national emission in determined areas.
• The total animal numbers
• of each animal species (buffalo, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, dairy cows)
• for each administrative unit at NUTS2 level
NUTS 2 Level
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Gridded Animal density from FAO
• The modeled gridded livestock distributions are produced for the entire
globe for the major livestock species: cattle buffalos
goats sheep
pigs poultry
• The gridded animal density are used for fill the missing animal numbers on
NUTS2 from Eurostat and for split at NUTS3 level
• Resulting map values are animal densities per km², at a resolution of
3 minutes of arc (approximately 5km at the equator) [FAO]
Distribution of ruminant livestock
(cattle, buffalos, sheep and goats)
[Source: Gridded livestock of the world (FAO), ergodd.zoo.ox.ac.uk/download/reports/wintwellcomeglwposters2a0.ppt]
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
ONLY not E_PRTR related emissions from industrial sources!!!
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Conclusion
 It has been developed a comprehensive methodology for
allocate diffuse emissions over the whole EU27+EFTA4
domain in a consistent way and very high resolution (5x5km
grid cells) for different sectors and pollutants
 It has been further developed sector specific methodologies
on base of recent available proxy data sets
 The results have been and will be compared with NL specific
data set based on base of a country specific approach
 The data sets reliable in terms of an european consistency
and the accuracy of the applied proxies
 Future enhancements to other sectors, pollutants, countries
proxy data sets and years are possible
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke
Thank you for your attention!
And thank you especially for good cooperation, support and fruitful
discussions to the
●
DG ENV (Dania Cristofaro, Daniel Martin-Montalvo),
●
the EDGAR Team (Greet Janssens-Maenhout, John van Aardenne)
●
RIVM (Wim van der Maas and Bert Leekstra) and
●
the EEA (Martin Adams and Eva Gossens)
Spatial Resolution of the Diffuse Air Emissions in the E-PRTR- Jochen Theloke

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