2014 Potato Science Lect 19 – Breeding-Genetics

Report
Potato Breeding: Methods,
Genetic Constraints, and
Disease and Pest Resistances
Rich Novy
Overview of Presentation
History of Potato
Potato Breeding Methodology
Germplasm Resources
Genetic Constraints
Breeding for Resistance at Aberdeen
– Fungal-Like: Late Blight
– Viruses
Potato Leafroll Virus (PLRV)
Potato Virus Y (PVY)
– Insect: Potato Psyllid
Concluding Remarks
Transport of Potato from the
New World to the Old World
Market Classes: Modern Day
 Russets
• Dual-Purpose
• Single Use
 Long Whites
• Processing, some Fresh
 Round Whites
• Processing into Chips
 Reds
 Specialties
•e.g., Pigmented Flesh
Potato Breeding
Seedling Tuber
Production
New Varieties
10-11 years
Why 10-11 years?
 Seed Increase Over Years
 Replicated Field Evaluations—Yield & Disease
 Storage, Sensory & Processing Evaluations
 Commercial Evaluations, Input, & Interest
 Development of Management Profiles
Parents from the Plant
Introduction Station at
Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin
Germplasm from genetic
studies, hybridization
strategies
Aberdeen, ID, Prosser, WA,
Corvallis, OR
Greenhouse
Year 1
Commercial varieties
Parents from other breeders
Crosses
Aberdeen, ID, Prosser, WA
Corvallis, OR
Greenhouse
Year 2
70,000 TPS seedling tuber
production at Corvallis,
OR
Field
Genetic engineered
germplasm Prosser, WA,
Albany, CA,
Moscow, ID, Corvallis, OR
Greenhouse
Exchange of seeds and
tubers with other States
140,000 TPS seedling tuber
production at Aberdeen, ID
Field
Year 3
Tubers from seedlings.
Planted at Powell Butte and
Klamath Falls, OR
Tubers from disease
resistant and specialty
crosses. Prosser, WA
Tubers from seedlings.
Planted at Aberdeen and
Tetonia, ID
Year 4
700-1,200 clones planted at
Powell Butte and Hermiston
and Klamath Falls, OR
Disease trials in Corvallis,
Aberdeen, Kimberly,
Hermiston, Prosser, Rexburg
2,500 clones planted at
Aberdeen, and Tetonia, ID
Yrs 4-5
Breeder seed increases
Aberdeen, Tetonia,
Powell Butte
Selection field, storage,
processing, and disease at 8-10
locations
Lab and Greenhouses
Yrs 5-8
Yrs 9-11
Yrs 12-15
PVMI
Promotio
n and
Marketing
Limited
Generation
seed
production
OSU & UI
Tri-State Trials
(OR, ID, WA)
Western Regional Trials
8-10 locations (OR,ID,WA,CA,TX,CO)
Limited
generation seed
production
Seed Growers
Name and Release
New Variety
Breeder
seed
increases
Powell
Butte
Cultural
management
studies &
Industry
trials
PVMI
Promotion &
Marketing
eye-indexing
Development of a Potato Variety – PNW Program
Wild species germplasm
from Prosser, WA
...
Traits Evaluated Over Years
Agronomic
Total and marketable yield, stand count, vine
maturity, and tuber size distribution
Tuber Attributes
Appearance, skin/flesh, shape, dry matter,
processing and culinary qualities, nutrients,
storage
Stress and defect resistance
Water and nutrient stress, internal defects,
external defects
Disease and Pest resistance
Fungal, viral, and bacterial pathogens; insect
and nematode
Germplasm Resources
2%
104 Potato Species
– 100 “Wild”
6%
14%
– 4 cultivated
Wide geographic range
5%
Most 2n=2x=24
Cultivated Potato = 4x
Hybridization
– Haploids
– Chromosome doubling
– 2n gametes
– Somatic hybridization
73%
2x
3x
4x
5x
6x
S. microdontum
S. etuberosum
Species Utilization in Breeding
Wild species represented in varieties:
– S. demissum: LB, PLRV
– S. acaule: Viruses, nematode, frost
– S. chacoense: Viruses, insects
– S. spegazzinii: Nematodes
– S. stoloniferum: PVY and PVA
– S. vernei: Nematodes, high starch
Additional 9 species: In a few varieties
Primitive Cultivated: adg, stn, phu
Summary: Genetic Resources
Potato rich in genetic resources
Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats
– Importance of collection and preservation
– Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI
Few species widely used in enhancement
– Specific industry and consumer expectations
– Undesirable traits along with desirable
– More pre-breeding necessary
Increased interest in host plant resistances
– Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs
– Benefits to consumers and the environment
Breeding for Resistance
Very good crop for Irish
– 1.5M to 9M from 1760-1840
Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans)
1845-1847 Great Potato Famine
– >1.0 million died
– 1.5-2.0 million emigrated next decade
Reduced diversity
– Surviving varieties: Partial resistance
– Influx of new germplasm from South America
(tbr)
– More formal “controlled hybridizations”
– Beginning of “Breeding for Resistance”
Defender
• Released in 2004
• Primarily Processing
• High Yield & Specific Gravity
• High Vitamin C
• Bulks Rapidly
• Good for Organic Production
 Resistant to Late Blight
Weaknesses:
Blackspot, Scab, Greening,
Shorter Dormancy
American J. of Potato Research
(2006) 83:9-19
 Foliage
 Tuber-Very
Also Resistant to:
 Tuber early blight, PVX, net
necrosis
Moderate Resistance:
 Early dying, pink rot, corky
ringspot, PVYO, and soft rot
Courtesy of Dr. Jeff Miller
Late Blight Screening Trial
Bonners Ferry, Idaho-2004
-No Fungicides
-Late Blight Inoculated
Late Blight Susceptible:
Dead Vines
Defender
Defender Grown in Bangladesh
Palisade Russet (A97066-42LB)
Dual-Purpose Russet
Strengths
Good Yield
High % No. 1’s
Late Blight Resistance
Good Processor for LB
• Low % of Sugar Ends
Weaknesses
Susceptible to Blackspot
Bruise
Very High Specific Gravity
Palisade Russet, Foliar and Tuber
Late Blight Data
Corvallis, OR
Foliar Area Under
Disease Progress
Curve
Tuber Rot from
Late Blight (%)
Palisade Russet
322 b
3b
Ranger Russet
1145 a
1126 a
32 a
6b
Russet Burbank
Palisade Russet
Disease Responses
Early Blight
Late Blight
Cultivar
Vert.
Wilt
Pink
Rot
Black Com.
Dot Scab Foliar
Palisade R.
R
R
R
MS
Ranger R.
MR
-
-
R. Burbank
S
S
S
Tuber
Foliar
Tuber
MR
MR
R
R
S
S
MS
S
VS
MR
S
MS
S
S
PVY & PLRV
Most important viruses of
potato
Reduce crop vigor and yield
– Especially with secondary
infection
Reduction in Tuber Quality
– PVY: Tuber necrotic strains
– PLRV: Net necrosis
No resistance to either virus
in the most widely grown
potato cultivars in North
America
Somatic Hybrids
(E + TxB)
1st Generation
Etb 6-21-3
A05379-211
4th Generation
2nd Generation
Molecular Markers
RFLP Markers
– Used for localization
– PLRV resistance linked with
TG443 – Chrom. 4
Gillen & Novy. 2007.
Euphytica. 155:403-415
PCR Markers- Rlretb
– More closely linked
– 13.6 cM
Kelly et al. 2009. Mol.
Breeding. 23: 489-500
Current Research
– Dr. Joe Kuhl
3.8 cM from Rlretb
BAC Library
DNA Markers for PLRV Resistance
1000 bp
850 bp
650 bp
500 bp
400 bp
300 bp
Progeny from etb-ber somatic hybrid
• Green Peach Aphid



John Trumble, UC-Riverside
Reduced fecundity
Growth inhibition
Decreased nymph survival

Novy et al., 2002. AJPR 79:9-18
• Colorado Potato Beetle
 Reduced field defoliation
• Wireworm
 Reduction in tuber damage
 Comparable/better than Mocap
• Potato Psyllid?





Juan Alvarez,
DuPont
Possible based on exhibited diversity of insect resistances
Psyllid Yellows: Reduction in yield and tuber quality
Insect vector of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (solanacearum)
Vector resistance could aid in the control of Zebra Chip (ZC) disease
Butler et al., 2011. Crop Protection 30: 1233-1238
Concluding Remarks
Breeding & Genetics
Potato rich in genetic resources
Few species widely used in enhancement
– Specific industry and consumer expectations
– Undesirable traits along with desirable
– More pre-breeding necessary
Increased interest in host plant resistances
– Reduced pesticides = reduced production costs
– Benefits to consumers and the environment
Increasing pressure on Solanum habitats
– Importance of collection and preservation
– Potato Germplasm Collection, Sturgeon Bay, WI
Variety Development
The New Potato Marketplace
Variety Development History
 Private breeding era (1840-1910)
Burbank, Irish Cobbler, White Rose
 Early public breeding era (1910-1950)
LaSoda, Pontiac, Katahdin, Kennebec,
 Modern era (1950-2000)
Russet Norkotah, Shepody, Atlantic,
Snowden, Ranger Russet
 Plant Variety Protection Era (2000-present)
Market Perceptions
 Historically all potatoes were used for fresh
consumption
 Three types of potatoes
Russets – good for baking, frying
Round whites – good for baking, boiling
Reds – summer potatoes, good for boiling
Market Diversification
Current
 Russets  Fresh market for baking
 Russets  French fry processing
 Fresh market for baking
(Dual Purpose)  French fry processing
 Russets
 Long whites
 Fresh market for baking
 Long whites
 French fry processing
Market Diversification
Current
 Round whites  Fresh market for baking,
boiling
 Round whites  Potato chip processing
 Reds
 Fresh market for boiling
 Specialty
 Misc. fresh market uses
 Specialty
 Misc. processing uses
Successful Varieties
Important characteristics
 High yield
 Wide adaptation
 Good consumer quality
Selection Criteria
 Market acceptance
 Market delivery (maturity, storability)
 Economic benefit (better/different than
current varieties)
Productiveness
Adaptation to different environments
Tuber quality
Resistance to physiological problems
Resistance to pests
Production efficiency
Russet Burbank
Russet Burbank
Description and usage:
Long russet tubers, the standard for fresh and processing russets
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
+
--o
+
+
+++
-
Other: Long dormancy, susceptible to many stress problems
Russet Norkotah
Description and usage:
Long russet tubers, used for early and storage fresh market
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
-++
-o
--+
o
- - - (PVY, Vert.)
Other: Early maturing, very susceptible to early dying, off-flavor
Ranger Russet
Ranger Russet
Description and usage:
Long russet tubers, utilized primarily for french fry processing
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
++
+
++
o
++
+
++
++
Other: Very susceptible to blackspot bruise, resistant to most field
diseases
Umatilla Russet
Umatilla Russet
Description and usage:
Long russet tubers, primarily used or french fry processing
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
+
+
++
o
++
o
o
+
Other: Produces pear-shaped tubers, at times has small size
Alturas
Alturas
Description and usage:
Oblong, lightly russeted tubers, very high yield potential
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
+++
++
++
++
0
+
+++
Other: Bred for dehydration processing, resistant to most field
diseases
Tri-State Potato Varieties
Alpine
Russet
Clearwater
Russet
Teton
Russet
Classic Russet
Dark Red Norland
Dark Red Norland
Description and usage:
Oval red tubers, used in the non-storage red market
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
+
++
+
++
NA
-++
-
Other: Earliest of the red varieties, poor storability
Atlantic
Atlantic
Description and usage:
Round buff tubers, standard for field delivery chip processing
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
+
++
+++
+
-++
o
Other: Susceptible to internal defects, worldwide usage, poor
storability
Yukon Gold
Yukon Gold
Description and usage:
Round yellow-skinned tubers with yellow flesh, specialty fresh
market potato
Yield
Grade
Specific gravity
Overall fresh quality
Overall processing quality
Storability
Adaptability
Disease resistance
o
++
o
++
o
+
o
Other: Relatively low yielding, good name recognition
Yukon Gem
Huckleberry Gold
Purple Majesty
Purple Majesty Retail Bags
Klondike Rose
Plant Variety Protection (PVP)
The Plant Variety Protection Act of 1970 is an
intellectual property statute in the US.
PVP gives breeders up to 20 years of exclusive
control over new, distinct, uniform, and stable
sexually reproduced or tuber propagated plant
varieties.
Breeders or their representatives typically
charge growers licensing and/or royalty fees for
producing protected varieties for sale
Plant Variety Protection
A major expression of plant breeders
rights in the United States, the PVPA
grants protection similar to that
available through patents, but these
legal forms of protection differ in critical
respects.
A PVP certificate gives the breeder the
right to exclude others from selling the
variety, or offering it for sale, or
reproducing it for 20 years.
Potato Variety Management
Institute
PVMI is a nonprofit
501(c)(3)
corporation that
handles the
licensing and
royalty collection
on Tri-State potato
varieties
Trademarks
A trademark is a distinctive sign or
indicator, used by an individual or
business to identify that the products
with which the trademark appears
originate from a unique source, and to
distinguish its products from those of
other entities
A trademark is typically a name, word,
phrase, logo, symbol, design, image, or
a combination of these elements
Trademarks
Registered trademarks confer
exclusive rights upon the registered
owner, including the right to exclusive
use of the mark in relation to the
products or services for which it is
registered
The owner of a registered trademark
may commence legal proceedings for
trademark infringement to prevent
unauthorized use of that trademark.
Klondike Rose
Trademarked Variety
Klondike Varieties
TM
Klondike Goldust
Klondike Minis
Klondike Gourmet
Klondike Rose

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