Power Matters. TM

Report
Power Matters.TM
Frequency References & Oscillators
Paul R. Gerry
Senior Product Manager, Clocks BU
[email protected]
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
1
Agenda
 Frequency & Time
 Atomic Clock Technology
 Components Clock Portfolio
• Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC)
• Chip Scale Atomic Clock (CSAC)
• Low Noise CSAC (LN CSAC)
 Microsemi Systems Clocks Portfolio
• Cesium Technology and Products
• Rubidium Clocks
• Masers
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
2
What is Frequency
Frequency = the number of cycles per second
Ideal frequency source generates a pure, repeatable sine wave
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
3
What is Frequency Stability & Accuracy
Courtesy John Vig
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
4
Atomic Clock Technologies
 Rubidium Gas Cell: 6,834,682,610.904 Hz
 Cesium Beam: 9,192,631,770 Hz
 Hydrogen Maser: 1,420,405,751.768 Hz
 Fountains use cesium, rubidium
 Stored Ions use mercury, ytterbium
 Optical Clocks use mercury, calcium
The resonant frequency of atoms does not age… the apparatus to
interrogate or confine atoms can in some atomic clocks
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5
Atomic (Passive) Clock Basics
Synthesizer
Atoms
Detector
RF Output
Oscillator
Servo
Divider
Clock Output
 Stimulate an energy state change in the atoms
 Detect when resonant frequency is achieved
 Servo the oscillator to maintain optimal performance
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
6
Component Clocks
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Power Matters.TM
7
Microsemi Component Clocks Portfolio
Rubidium Clocks
GPSDO’s
CSAC
Industry Leader in atomic clock technology
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Power Matters.TM
8
Component Clocks Positioning
Spec\Type
XPRO HighPerformance
Rubidium
SA.22C Precision
Rubidium Oscillator
SA.35m
Miniature
Atomic Clock
Quantum™ Chip
Scale Atomic Clock
(CSAC)
Dimensions (cm)
12.7 x 9.2 x 3.9
7.82 x 11.2 x 2.31
5.1 x 5.1 x 1.8
1.6 x 1.39 x 0.45
Volume
456 cm3
203 cm3
< 47 cm3
< 17 cm3
Power @25° C
13 W
10 W
5W
<120 mW
ADEV @ 1 sec
< 1E-11
<3E-11
<3E-11
<2.5E-10
Differentiator
Highest
Performance
Legacy Telecom
Performance
Good SWaP
Best SWaP
Microsemi’s atomic clocks meet a variety of application needs
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Power Matters.TM
9
Performance Versus Power & Size
Monthly
Aging
Rate
≤1E-11
< 1E-11
Product
XPRO
≤3E-11
≤2.5E-10
5E-11
1E-10
Performance
≤3E-11
SA.22c
SA.3Xm
3E-10
CSAC
Power Consumption, Size
1-Sec
ADEV
Power
@25°C
Volume
13 W
456 cm3
10 W
203 cm3
5W
47 cm3
120 mW
17 cm3
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
10
QuantumTM MAC Product Overview
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
11
The QUANTUM™ Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC)
The QUANTUM™ SA.3Xm Miniature Atomic Clocks
bring the accuracy and stability of an atomic clock
with all the benefits of Size, Weight and Power.
Key Specifications
• ±5.0E-11 accuracy at shipment
• <1.0E-10 month aging rate
• 5 W Power Consumption
• 47 cc in Volume
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12
The QUANTUM™ Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC)
 SA.3Xm Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC) is the world’s first
commercial Coherent Population Trapping atomic clock
 Cost effective and easily adaptable to a wide variety of
timing and synchronization applications.
 Three versions to address a wide range of performance and
price points – SA.31m, SA.33m, SA.35m
• Small Size Similar size to an OCXO
– Compact design 51 x 51 x 18 mm (2.0 x 2.0 x 0.7 in)
• Low Weight
– Less that 85 g (3 oz)
• Low Power - Lower power consumption
than traditional Rb clocks
– 5 W @ 25°C(14 W max during warm-up)
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The QUANTUM™ Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC)
 Competitive performance:
• Wide operating temperature range
• Superior temperature coefficient.
• ONLY Rb clock with laser-based (not lamp-based) source; so no
frequency “hops & pops” associated with lamp-based clocks
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14
Microsemi MAC Clock Comparison
Product
SA.35m
Size (volume)
(1Hz / 10Hz / 100Hz /
1kHz / 10kHz)
Aging
(monthly)
SA.31m
46cm3 / 2.8in3
Power @25°C
Phase Noise
SA.33m
5W
<-70 dBc/Hz
<-87 dBc/Hz
<-114 dBc/Hz
<-130 dBc/Hz
<-140 dBc/Hz
<-70 dBc/Hz
<-87 dBc/Hz
<-114 dBc/Hz
<-130 dBc/Hz
<-140 dBc/Hz
<-65 dBc/Hz
<-85 dBc/Hz
<-112 dBc/Hz
<-130 dBc/Hz
<-140 dBc/Hz
<±1.0E-10
<±1.0E-10
<±3.0E-10
<1E-10
<1.5E-10
<1E-9
TempCo
(-10C - 75C)
Allan deviation
(t=1s, 10s, 100s)
<3E-11
<1.6E-11
<8E-12
<3E-11
<1.6E-11
<8E-12
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
<5E-11
<2.5E-11
<1E-11
Power Matters.TM
15
MAC Applications
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16
Target Applications & Markets
Market
Precision
Frequency
Reference
Hold-over
Key Application(s)
Mobile Infrastructure
X
X
1 – 1.5 uS/24 hr holdover
Wired Communications
X
X
Holdover/Internal reference
Military/Defense
X
X
Holdover/Internal reference
Aerospace
X
Internal reference
Research/Medical
X
Internal reference
Instrumentation & Timing
X
Internal reference
 MACs Synchronize things with no physical connections including
applications such as
• Providing Longer holdover - such as when base station loses its
connection to a timing signal
• Providing precise frequency as free running frequency source – such
as 10 MHz reference for test and measurement equipment
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17
MAC Technology Overview
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
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MAC – Technology Overview
The MAC uses Coherent Population Trapping (CPT)
 Coherent Population
Jinquan Deng, Peter Vlitas, Dwayne Taylor, Larry Perletz, and Robert Lutwak, "A
COMMERCIAL CPT RUBIDIUM CLOCK“ EFTF 2008 Toulouse, France.
Trapping (CPT)
interrogation of
Rubidium
 Laser diode (VCSEL)
modulated to achieve
CPT resonance
 Photodiode detects the
CPT resonance
 10 MHz VCXO synthesizes 3.4 GHZ microwaves
 Microwave frequency is locked to CPT resonance signal
stabilizing the output to 10 MHZ
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MAC Assembly – Full Exploded View
Cover Assembly
Shield
1
2
Spacer
Resonator Assembly
Rubidium Cell Assembly
Electronics PCBA
Shield
1
Resonator Assembly
2
Laser Block Assembly
Laser Block Assembly
Baseplate
I/O Pins
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Power Matters.TM
24
CPT versus Lamp-based
Simplified Lamp Based Rubidium Clock Model
Simplified CPT Based Rubidium Clock Model
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25
MAC Developers Kit
10 MHz CMOS Output
Analog Tuning Input
15 VDC Power Input
10 MHz Sine Output
RS232 Connector
Lock Indicator
Power On Indicator
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26
Microsemi’s Rubidium Clock Lineup
XPRO
 Traditional lamp-based Rubidium atomic clock
 Our highest-performance clock
SA.22c
• Traditional lamp-based Rubidium atomic clock
• Legacy clock aimed at telecom applications.
• Not recommended for new applications, as will
eventually be replaced by MAC enhancements.
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
28
QuantumTM CSAC Product Overview
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Today’s CSAC Product Lineup
 SA.45s Chip Scale Atomic Clock
• The smallest, lowest-power atomic clock on earth.
• Key specs:
– < 120 mW power consumption
– < 17 cc in volume
 LN CSAC
• Combines the accuracy of the chip scale atomic clock with the spectral
purity of an OCXO in a compact size requiring low input power
• Key specs:
• < 250 mW power consumption
• < 47 cc in volume
• -87 dBc/Hz @ 1 Hz phase noise
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The QUANTUM™ Chip Scale Atomic Clock
(CSAC)
The QUANTUM™ SA.45s Chip Scale Atomic Clock
brings the accuracy and stability of an atomic clock
with all the benefits of Size, Weight and Power.
Key Specifications
• ±5.0 x 10-11 accuracy at shipment
• <3.0x 10-10/month aging rate
• <120 mW Power Consumption
• <17 cc in Volume
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31
CSAC Work Technology Overview
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Miniaturizing the Physics Package
US Patent
#7215213




Tensioned polyimide suspension
Microfabricated silicon vapor cell
Low-power Vertical-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL)
Vacuum-packaged to eliminate convection/conduction with
an overall demonstrated thermal resistance of 4000° C/W
 Entire physics package can operate on 15 [email protected]° C
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How the CSAC is Made
 Suspensions
• Spin-on polyimide over Silicon
• Photodefine polyimide and lift-off
• Metallization on polyimide
• Backside etch to release
 Resonance Cell
• DRIE holes in silicon
• Load cesium and buffer gas
• Anodic bond windows
 Stack-up
• Bond VCSEL/Photodiode to suspensions
• Stack up and epoxy on pick-and-place machine
 Vacuum Seal
• Bake-out and activate getter in lid before braze
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Lid
Photodiode
Upper
Suspension
Resonance Cell
Cell Spacer
Frame Spacer
Lower
Suspension
VCSEL
LCC
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CSAC Developer’s Kit Evaluation Board
3.3 VDC
Power-On
Indicator
Replaceable Fuse
Lock
Indicator
Analog Tuning
Input
BITE
10 MHz Output
1 PPS Output
1 PPS Input
Power Switch 5 VDC Power Input
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CSAC Developer’s Kit - Details
Kit contents
• Evaluation board with socket for CSAC*
• Mounting hardware to hold evaluation board
• Wall socket power supply to provide power to evaluation
board
• RS-232 cable to connect PC to evaluation board
• CD-ROM with User’s Guide, sample software to control the
CSAC
Microsemi Ordering P/N 990-00123-000
* CSAC unit not included as part of kit
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The QUANTUM™ Low Noise Chip Scale
Atomic Clock (LN CSAC)
The QUANTUM™ Low Noise Chip Scale Atomic Clock
brings the accuracy and stability of an atomic clock
with all the benefits of Size, Weight and Power.
Key Specifications
• ±5.0 x 10-11 accuracy at shipment
• <3.0x 10-10/month aging rate
• <250mW Power Consumption
• <47 cc in Volume
• <-87 dBc/Hz @ 1 Hz
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CSAC vs LN CSAC
Product
CSAC
LN CSAC
Size (volume)
40.6 x 35.3 x 11.3 mm ( <17 cc)
51 x 51 x 18 mm (47 cc )
Power @25°C (Warm-up)
120mW (140 mW)
250mW (775mW)
<-50 dBc/Hz
<-70 dBc/Hz
<-113 dBc/Hz
<-128 dBc/Hz
<-135dBc/Hz
<-87 dBc/Hz
<-120 dBc/Hz
<-140 dBc/Hz
<-145 dBc/Hz
<-150 dBc/Hz
Aging (monthly)
+3E-10
+3E-10
TempCo
+5E-10
+5E-10
Allan deviation (t=1s, 10s, 100s,
2.5E-10
8E-11
2.5E-11
8E-12
2E-11
5E-11
2E-11
8E-12
Output
3.3V CMOS
10 MHz Sine
Supply Voltage
3.3 V +0.1
3.3 V +0.1
Phase Noise
1Hz
10Hz
100Hz
1kHz
10kHz
1000s)
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LN CSAC Developer’s Kit
Power LED
Replaceable Fuse
LN CSAC
Not Used
Power Switch
RS232
10 MHz Sine Output
Lock BITE LED
1 PPS Output
Lock BITE
1 PPS In
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LN CSAC Developer’s Kit - Details
Kit contents
 The Developer’s Kit includes:
Description
Part Number
Evaluation Board
089-00794-000
Power Adapter
140-00041-000
RS232 Cable
060-00322-000
Introduction Doc
689-02461-000
Microsemi Ordering P/N 990-00565-000
* CSAC unit not included as part of kit
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41
Applications that benefit from the
QUANTUM SA.45s CSAC
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What Applications Benefit from the CSAC?
 Application performance needs
• Precise time for synchronization without direct connection
• Ability to hold precise time in absence of GPS
• Minimize Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP)
CSAC fulfills all of the above needs
 Example Applications that benefit from CSAC :
• Portable “man-pack” equipment for the military
• Underground or underwater distributed geophysical
sensors
• Enhanced Military GPS Receiver
• IED Dismounted Jammers
• Tactical UAVs
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CSAC Opportunities
Dismounted Military Radios
(Backpack)
Use TCXO’s, OCXO’s today
• Sometimes too much drift for GPS-denied scenarios
• Problem will get worse with new, higherbandwidth waveforms
• Excellent fit for SA.45s CSAC as these new
waveforms get rolled out
Enhanced Military GPS Receivers
•
•
•
•
•
Direct Y Acquisition after extended outage
3 SV navigation
GPS Tracking loop improvements
A/J Improvements
CSAC Calibration
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Marine Geophysical
Sensors
Oscillators inside underwater
geophysical sensors must provide
highly accurate timing without GPS
access. The CSAC’s superior aging
rate and low power consumption
compared to crystal oscillators
mean sensors can deliver more
accurate data for longer periods or
conversely, with smaller, less
expensive batteries
• <120mW power consumption
(Option 001)
• <3.0E-10 monthly aging rate
• <17 cc in volume
• 35 g in weight
• TempCo +5E-10 (Option 001)
Power Matters.TM
45
CSAC Opportunities
Tactical UAV’s
Payloads are always stretched on Size, Weight,
and Power “SWaP”
• SA.45s CSAC helps in all three areas!
< 17 cc, 35 g, < 125 mW
• CSAC provides excellent holdover performance
in GPS-denied environments
Portable Test Equipment
• Internal Atomic Clock option for the ultimate in handheld
frequency accuracy
• The atomic clock inside provides for a durable, handheld
instrument that delivers high accuracy necessary to prove
regulatory compliance.
• The internal atomic clock module eliminates loose cables and
potential snag hazards from external references
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
IED Dismounted
Jammers
(Backpack)
Ultra-low power consumption plus
high stability make the SA.45s CSAC
ideal for IED jammers small enough
and light enough to be carried by
soldiers. High stability allows
jammers to be highly synchronized,
so friendly force communications
won’t be blocked
• <125mW power consumption
(Option 002)
• <17 cc in volume
• 35 g in weight
• σy <5E-12 T = 1 hour
Power Matters.TM
46
Systems Clocks
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47
Microsemi Systems Clocks Portfolio
Cesium
Hydrogen Maser
Cs4000
AOG 110
5071A
CsIII
MHM 2010
Microsemi is viewed as the market leader worldwide
Rubidium Instrument
Quartz Instrument
8200
8040C
4145C
1000C
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Cesium Technology Applications
 Cesium Technology is considered the most
comprehensive holdover option against GNSS
vulnerabilities
• Exhibit no frequency drift
• Maintains 5x10-15 accuracy over the life of the
instrument
 Critical for long-term autonomous operation
 No on-going calibration required
 More expensive than Rubidium and OCXO
• Consumes more power and space
 Typical applications
• Fixed wireline communications infrastructure
• Under sea (Submarine)
• Satellite ground stations
• Metrology and Time Keeping
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5071A
CsIII
Power Matters.TM
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Cesium Applications
Clock stability enables:
Precision navigation
Secure communications backbone
Better realization of UTC
Ground Stations
Secure comm
Navigation
Timekeeping
Metrology
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Cesium Positioning
TimeCesium 4400/4500
Standard Performance
Telecom Environment
5071A
High Performance
Full featured
Price
Cs4000
Standard Performance
Full featured
Custom’s platform
CsIII (4310B)
Standard Performance
Entry level
Feature/Performance
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Microsemi Cesium Beam Tube Clocks
5071A
CsIII
CS4000
Accuracy (Std/high)
1E-12/5E-13
1E-12/N/A
1E-12/N/A
Stability Floor (Std/Hi)
Typical High Performance
5E-14/1E-14
5E-15
5E-14/N/A
5E-14/N/A
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
RF outputs
5MHz
10MHz
1MHz
1kHz
100kHz
10MHz TTL
Pulse Output
Phase Noise (1Hz)
Power
Temp Range
Front Panel Control
Management
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
-106dBc
-95dBc
-95dBc
AC/DC/Batt
AC/DC
AC/DC/Batt
0 to 50ºC
0 to 50ºC
0 to 50ºC
Std
N/A
N/A
RS-232
RS-232
RS-232
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Rubidium Gas Cell Frequency Standards
 Most widely used type of atomic clock
• Smallest, lightest, lowest power
• Least complex, least expensive, longest life
• Excellent performance, stability & reliability
 Device of choice when better stability is needed
compared to crystal oscillator
• Lower aging, lower temperature sensitivity
• Faster warm-up, excellent retrace
• Used as an inexpensive holdover technology
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Rubidium Applications
Clock stability enables:
Ground Stations
OEM Test Equipment
Higher resolution measurements in ATE systems
Fast frequency hopping radios to maintain sync
Precision time difference of arrival measurements
Longer operation without GNSS
ATE
Test Ranges
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SIGINT
Tactical Data link
Power Matters.TM
54
Rubidium Product Line
8040C - Rubidium instruments
•
•
•
•
ATE systems
Ground stations
General purpose reference
Ground benign environment
8200 – Military Rubidium modules
• Electronic warfare
• Secure communications
• Environmental extremes
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55
8040C Standard Configuration
8040C Key Features and Benefits
Multiple RF outputs

Greater flexibility and scalability


Low cost per channel

GPS disciplining

Remote monitoring
Versatile input power


Options

Standard configuration
(3) 10MHz, (1) 5MHz, (1) 1MHz,
(1) 1PPS
Outputs can be sine, square or
1PPS
Six additional outputs can be
added
Up to twelve output channels per
unit
Improve accuracy & long term
stability
Adjust frequency, monitor Rb
85V – 264VAC.
12 O/P, LPN, 10.23 MHz, 13
MHz, DC, Custom
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56
8200 Key Features
 Low profile package
• 4.0”x4.63”x0.95”H
 Rugged design
• Shock tested to 50g
• Vibration tested to 15g
 Hermetic package
• Impervious to altitude, salt
fog, humidity
 -40C to +80C operating
temp range
Inputs:
• 22 to 32Vdc
Outputs:
• (1) 10 MHz
Monitoring and control:
•Serial Port: RS232
•TTL Indicators: Lock, Analog
8200 not controlled by ITAR
No export license required
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8200/8200LN Specifications
8200
SSB Phase Noise
10 MHz
1 Hz
< - 72 dBC/Hz
10 Hz
< - 90 dBC/Hz
100 Hz
< -128 dBC/Hz
1 KHz
< -140 dBC/Hz
10 KHz
< -148 dBC/Hz
Spectral Purity
Harmonics
< - 50 dBC
Non-Harmonics
< - 70 dBC (<150 MHz)
< - 80 dBc (>150 MHz)
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8200/8200LN Specifications
8200
Short Term Stability (ADEV)
1S
< 3.0E-11
10 S
< 1.0E-11
100 S
< 3.0E-12
Aging (after 1 month)
Monthly
< +5.0E-11 @
+ 25C
Frequency accuracy at shipment
< +5.0E-11 @
+ 25C
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MHM 2010 –
Industry’s Leading Hydrogen Maser
 Most stable atomic clock
 Longest life atomic clock
 Installed base of more
than 130 masers
 Clock of choice at key metrology
and radio astronomy labs
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60
Maser Key Applications
 Metrology
• Where?
– International timekeeping laboratories
• Why a Maser?
– Maser provides superior frequency stability out to one week. This stability
is the key attribute of a maser in a timescale application as well as
support to today’s primary standard’s research
 Radio Astronomy
• Where?
– VLBI – Very Long Baseline Interferometry
– VLBA – Very Large Baseline Arrays
• Why a Maser?
– Maser offers the frequency stability required to allow multiple VLBA
stations to operate as a single instrument
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MHM 2010 Stability and Environmental
STABILITY
Allan deviation
(measured in 0.5Hz bandwidth):
Standard
Low Phase Noise
Option
1s
1.5E-13
8.0E-14
10s
2.0E-14
1.5E-14
100s
5.0E-15
4.0E-15
1,000s
2.0E-15
2.0E-15
10,000s
1.5E-15
1.5E-15
Floor*
<1.0E-15 Typical
1.5E-15
Long term
<2.0E-16 per day*
<2.0E-16 per day*
Auto tuning: no external reference required
* Typically achieved after extended period of unperturbed,
continuous operation. Temperature variation: ±0.25°C, Relative
humidity: ±10%
ENVIRONMENTAL
• Temperature sensitivity:
• Magnetic sensitivity:
• Power source sensitivity:
<1.0E-14/°C
<3.0E-14/Gauss
<1.0E-14
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62
MHM 2010 Phase Noise
Standard
phase
noise
Low phase
noise
option
5MHz
10MHz
100MHz
1Hz
-116dBc
-110dBc
-90dBc
10Hz
-135dBc
-129dBc
-109dBc
100Hz
-148dBc
-142dBc
-122dBc
1kHz
-155dBc
-149dBc
-129dBc
10kHz
-155dBc
-149dBc
-129dBc
100kHz
-155dBc
-149dBc
-129dBc
5MHz
10MHz
100MHz
1Hz
-130dBc
-124dBc
-102dBc
10Hz
-150dBc
-138dBc
-117dBc
100Hz
-158dBc
-146dBc
-126dBc
1kHz
-160dBc
-150dBc
-133dBc
10kHz
-160dBc
-153dBc
-134dBc
100kHz
-160dBc
-153dBc
-134dBc
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
63
Thank You
Ramki Ramakrishnan
Director of Marketing & Business Dev, Clocks BU
[email protected]
+1 707-636-1914
Paul R. Gerry
Senior Product Manager, Clocks BU
[email protected]
+1 978-522-5798
Steve Fossi
VP and General Manager, Clocks BU
[email protected]
+1 707-636-1810
© 2014 Microsemi Corporation. COMPANY PROPRIETARY
Power Matters.TM
67

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