AMH Chapter 15 Section 2

Report
American History
Chapter 15 Section 2
Containment
• In 1945 Britain and the United
States pushed the Soviets to
hold free elections in Eastern
Europe, but they refused.
• George Kennan, a U.S.
diplomat suggested that the
United States keep the Soviet
Union from expanding its
power until communism fell
apart from its own
weaknesses.
• Thus, the policy of
containment referred to
keeping communism within its
territory through diplomatic,
military, and economic actions.
Soviets in the Middle East
• Soon after, Soviet-related crises
erupted in the Middle East,
specifically Iran and in Turkey.
• In Iran, Soviet troops remained in
the northern part of Iran and
Stalin demanded access to Iran's
oil supplies.
• Soviet troops also helped Iranian
Communists establish a separate
government.
• However, the Soviets backed
down only under threats of force
from the United States (flexing
our nuclear bomb power).
Communists in Greece
• In August of 1947, Greek
Communist launched a
guerrilla war against the
Greek government.
• President Truman asked
Congress for money to help
Greece and Turkey fight
communism.
• His Truman Doctrine was
meant to aid (money) “free
peoples who are resisting
attempted subjugation by
armed minorities or by
outside pressures.”
Marshall Plan
• To weaken the appeal of
communism, Secretary of
State George C. Marshall
proposed the European
Recovery Program or
Marshall Plan which gave
Europe aid (money) to
rebuild its economies.
• The U.S. had come to a
conclusion in early 1948
that the Soviet Union was
deliberately trying to
undermine Germany's
economy.
Combining the Three Zones
• In 1948 the United
States, France, and
Britain combined or
merged their zones
(along with the zones in
West Berlin) to create
West Germany.
– The Soviets blockaded
Berlin in anger.
Berlin Airlift
• Truman ordered the
Berlin airlift, in which
cargo planes brought
food and other supplies
to the city.
• President Truman
wanted to keep West
Berlin alive without
provoking war with the
Soviets.
NATO
• Stalin finally lifted the
blockade, but Americans
and Western Europe were
moved to form North
Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO).
• NATO members (12
nations) agreed to help
each other if attacked.
• The Soviets set up the
Warsaw Pact alliance.
China
• Besides Europe, the Cold War
spread to Asia (including China
and Korea).
• In China, Mao Zedong led
Communist forces in a revolt
against Chiang Kai-shek’s
Nationalist, government.
• Their fight began in the 1920s.
• However, the two sides
stopped fighting during World
War II and joined forces to
stop the Japanese invasion.
Sending Aid
• After the war ended, the
two groups began fighting
again.
• The United States wanted
to stop the spread of
communism in Asia.
• It sent Chiang Kai-shek $2
billion in aid.
• However, the
Communists captured the
capital Beijing and moved
south.
Taiwan and One China
• The Nationalists left the
mainland and fled to
Taiwan.
• The United States set up
formal relations with the
Nationalists on Taiwan.
• In 1949 the Communists
set up the People’s
Republic of China.
• By using the veto power
in the United Nations
Security Council, the U.S.
kept representatives of
Communist China out of
the United Nations.
China & Soviet Union
• In the same year, the
Soviet Union tested its
first atomic weapon.
• In 1950 it signed a
treaty of alliance with
China.
• Americans feared that
these allies would
support Communist
revolutions around the
world.
Japan
• The United States also
changed it policy toward
Japan.
• General Douglas MacArthur
mission was to introduce
democracy to Japan and
keep it from threatening
war again.
• Americans saw Japan as a
way to defend Asia against
communism.
Korea
• After World War II,
the Allies divided
Korea at the 38th
parallel.
• The Soviet-controlled
north became
Communist.
• In the U.S.-controlled
south, an Americanbacked government
was set up.
North Korean Invasion
• The Soviets gave
military aid to North
Korea, which built a
huge army and invaded
South Korea on June 25,
1950.
What to do in Korea…
• President Truman saw
this as a test of the
containment policy.
• President Truman was
able to get the United
Nations to act on Korea
since the Soviet delegate
had boycotted the
Security Council on
another matter; they
(Soviets) were not
present to veto the
American proposal.
United Nation Troops
• He sent MacArthur and
the American military to
Korea.
• Truman also asked the
United Nations for
troops to help.
• In September 1950,
MacArthur ordered an
invasion.
China Getting Involved
• The North Koreans were
taken by surprise, and they
retreated across the 38th
parallel.
• MacArthur pushed the
North Koreans toward the
Chinese border.
• The Chinese were afraid of
a UN invasion and warned
the UN troops to retreat.
• Then the Chinese invaded
Korea and pushed UN
troops south.
Firing a General
• General MacArthur wanted
to expand the war into
China.
• He criticized Truman for
wanting a limited war, a war
fought to achieve limited
goals.
– In response, Truman fired
MacArthur.
• During the Cold War, one of
the biggest concerns that
shaped American foreign
policy was all-out war might
lead to nuclear war.
• By 1951 the UN forces
drove the Chinese and
North Koreans back
over the 38th parallel.
• An armistice was signed
in July 1953.
• By then more than
35,000 Americans had
died in the war.
After the War
• During the Korean War, the United States began a
military buildup.
• In the past, the United States focused on Europe
to contain communism.
• Now it had to focus its military on Asia.
• Defense agreements were signed and aid was
given to those fighting communism in Asia.

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