American History Chapter 15 Section 2 Containment • In 1945 Britain and the United States pushed the Soviets to hold free elections in Eastern Europe, but they refused. • George Kennan, a U.S. diplomat suggested that the United States keep the Soviet Union from expanding its power until communism fell apart from its own weaknesses. • Thus, the policy of containment referred to keeping communism within its territory through diplomatic, military, and economic actions. Soviets in the Middle East • Soon after, Soviet-related crises erupted in the Middle East, specifically Iran and in Turkey. • In Iran, Soviet troops remained in the northern part of Iran and Stalin demanded access to Iran's oil supplies. • Soviet troops also helped Iranian Communists establish a separate government. • However, the Soviets backed down only under threats of force from the United States (flexing our nuclear bomb power). Communists in Greece • In August of 1947, Greek Communist launched a guerrilla war against the Greek government. • President Truman asked Congress for money to help Greece and Turkey fight communism. • His Truman Doctrine was meant to aid (money) “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” Marshall Plan • To weaken the appeal of communism, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program or Marshall Plan which gave Europe aid (money) to rebuild its economies. • The U.S. had come to a conclusion in early 1948 that the Soviet Union was deliberately trying to undermine Germany's economy. Combining the Three Zones • In 1948 the United States, France, and Britain combined or merged their zones (along with the zones in West Berlin) to create West Germany. – The Soviets blockaded Berlin in anger. Berlin Airlift • Truman ordered the Berlin airlift, in which cargo planes brought food and other supplies to the city. • President Truman wanted to keep West Berlin alive without provoking war with the Soviets. NATO • Stalin finally lifted the blockade, but Americans and Western Europe were moved to form North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). • NATO members (12 nations) agreed to help each other if attacked. • The Soviets set up the Warsaw Pact alliance. China • Besides Europe, the Cold War spread to Asia (including China and Korea). • In China, Mao Zedong led Communist forces in a revolt against Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist, government. • Their fight began in the 1920s. • However, the two sides stopped fighting during World War II and joined forces to stop the Japanese invasion. Sending Aid • After the war ended, the two groups began fighting again. • The United States wanted to stop the spread of communism in Asia. • It sent Chiang Kai-shek $2 billion in aid. • However, the Communists captured the capital Beijing and moved south. Taiwan and One China • The Nationalists left the mainland and fled to Taiwan. • The United States set up formal relations with the Nationalists on Taiwan. • In 1949 the Communists set up the People’s Republic of China. • By using the veto power in the United Nations Security Council, the U.S. kept representatives of Communist China out of the United Nations. China & Soviet Union • In the same year, the Soviet Union tested its first atomic weapon. • In 1950 it signed a treaty of alliance with China. • Americans feared that these allies would support Communist revolutions around the world. Japan • The United States also changed it policy toward Japan. • General Douglas MacArthur mission was to introduce democracy to Japan and keep it from threatening war again. • Americans saw Japan as a way to defend Asia against communism. Korea • After World War II, the Allies divided Korea at the 38th parallel. • The Soviet-controlled north became Communist. • In the U.S.-controlled south, an Americanbacked government was set up. North Korean Invasion • The Soviets gave military aid to North Korea, which built a huge army and invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950. What to do in Korea… • President Truman saw this as a test of the containment policy. • President Truman was able to get the United Nations to act on Korea since the Soviet delegate had boycotted the Security Council on another matter; they (Soviets) were not present to veto the American proposal. United Nation Troops • He sent MacArthur and the American military to Korea. • Truman also asked the United Nations for troops to help. • In September 1950, MacArthur ordered an invasion. China Getting Involved • The North Koreans were taken by surprise, and they retreated across the 38th parallel. • MacArthur pushed the North Koreans toward the Chinese border. • The Chinese were afraid of a UN invasion and warned the UN troops to retreat. • Then the Chinese invaded Korea and pushed UN troops south. Firing a General • General MacArthur wanted to expand the war into China. • He criticized Truman for wanting a limited war, a war fought to achieve limited goals. – In response, Truman fired MacArthur. • During the Cold War, one of the biggest concerns that shaped American foreign policy was all-out war might lead to nuclear war. • By 1951 the UN forces drove the Chinese and North Koreans back over the 38th parallel. • An armistice was signed in July 1953. • By then more than 35,000 Americans had died in the war. After the War • During the Korean War, the United States began a military buildup. • In the past, the United States focused on Europe to contain communism. • Now it had to focus its military on Asia. • Defense agreements were signed and aid was given to those fighting communism in Asia.