Mutiple choice * Verbal nouns in Baïnounk Gubëeher

Report
Multiple choice – Verbal nouns
in Baïnounk Gubëeher
1
Talk structure
• The language
• Verbal nouns at a glance
– Classification of verbs with gender morphology
– NC prefixes in Baïnounk
• Theoretical questions
– NV-distinction
– Transitivity
• Syntactic Properties and Distribution of VNs
• Parameters of verb classification (Syntactic, Semantic)
• Further research: areal aspects
2
The language
3
Detailed map, Bainouk
4
Dakar
Genetic affiliation:
Bainouk Gubëeher
DJIBONKER/JIBËEHER
(+Diaspora: Dakar
Ziguinchor)
Speakers: ca. 1500
homeland
diaspora
Niger Congo
-Atlantic
-Northern branch
-East Senegal Guinea
-Nyun
Baïnounk languages
5
The Ñun & Baïnounk languages
West
Gutobor (Tobor)
Guñaamolo (Niamone)
Gubëeher (Djibonker)
Baïnounk
South
Gufangor (Djifangor)
Ñun
Gubelor (Djibelor)
Northeast
? (Gambia, Sedhiou,)
East
Gujaher (Kaasa,Jegui )
Kobiana (Kabuy [GB])
Guinea Branch
Kasanga (sedenghal [GB])
6
Verbal Nouns (VN) in Gubëeher at a glance
7
NC prefixes and VN formation
Singular
Plural
u-
in-
bi-
Collective Other
can combine with
all but 13/328
underived stems.
fufa-
bu-
i-
di-
pi-
gu-
ha-
ja-
hu-
si(n)-
mu(n)-
ba-
ku-
ra(n)-
ña(n)-
bi-
ji-
ka-
Excluded:
• Vocalic (a-,i-, u-)
• Diminutive (ko-,
ño-, ho- ) and
Augmentative
(da-, din-)
• extremely rare
(pi-, hu-)
ta-
a-
bu-
ko-
ño-
da
din
hɔa-
attested as verbal
noun formants
(VNF)
not attested as
VNF
8
Distribution of VNF other than bu
40
35
30
25
20
214/328
underived verb
stems have been
recorded so far
only with VNF bu-,
114/328 with any
of the other VNFs.
derived verbs,
stative verbs
and
recognisable
loans have
not been
taken into
account!
15
10
5
0
gu ba ja bi si ka ha ku ji ta ñan fu fa mu ra
9
Overview VNs and research questions
Different stems, different NC
markers:
Verbal noun
inflected
ha- rox
NC-cry
‘cry’
i-rox-i
1Sg-cry-Asp
‘I have cried’
ja- naaf
NC-cultivate
‘cultivate’
i-naaf-i
1Sg-cultivate-Asp
‘I have cultivated’
What triggers the choice of
a specific VNF?
Same stem, different markers:
Verbal noun
inflected
gu- bëex
NC-pull
‘pull’
jëm- bëex
i-bëex-i
NC-pull
1Sg-pull-Asp
‘pull (a boat)’ ‘I have pulled (it)’
bu- bëex
NC-pull
‘pull’
10
Previous Research VNs
• VN derivation with multiple NC-markers is an areal feature
observable in all Joola (Bayot, Fogny, Banjal, Jirer cf. Sagna
2008) all Bainounk (incl. Kobiana/Kasanga cf. Doneux 1990)
and all Manjaku (incl. Mancagne, Pepel) languages
• In many Casamance languages two NC marker are dominant,
while many others can also occur:
Language
Dominant VNF
Baïnounk
bu-, gu-
Kobiana
bV-, gu- (action nouns)
Joola Fogny
Joola Bandial
Joola Kwaatay
Manjaku
e-, kae-, gaka-, bVpë-, ka (action nouns)
• no analysis so far
• tendency to distinguish
more verbal VNs
(infinitives) and more
nominal VNs (action nouns)
• consensus that there is no
neat distinction between
variants/types of VNs
11
Problem
• Variation inter and intra-speaker
– Some speakers make more and subtler distinctions than others
– No standardisation
• VNs hard to elicit and low frequency in corpus
– sophisticated methodology required because of context sensitive
parameters
– list-effect
– ideas about “correctness” interfere
• Limited data about argument structure, verb classes and
syntax available
For some verbs there seem to be no hard and
fast rules that are valid for all speakers and all
contexts, but clearly tendencies.
12
Syntactic Properties of VNs
13
Transitivity
itr.
(Subject) Spro-V
tr. (Subject) Spro-Verb-Opro/anim (Object)
Rich morphology to
increase or decrease
valency:
jaax ‘eat’
2-place underived
jaax-um ‘eat with’
3-place Applicative
jaax-ëla ‘have a meal’
1-place obect deletion
inanimate
object
(Alex) a-ceem-i
3S-sleep-Asp
‘(Alex) slept’
animate
object
NP
Alex a-wuul-i Asaña
Alex 3S-see-Asp O
‘Alex saw Asaña’
Alex a-wuul-i koloŋ
Alex 3S-see-Asp well
‘Alex saw the well.’
pronominal
a-wuul-em
3S-see-3SOanim
‘S/he saw him/her
a-wuul-i
3S-see-Asp
‘S/he saw it.’
Inanimate objects cannot be suffixed
to the verb as pronouns. only
nominally or it is not mentioned.
14
Nominal and verbal properties
Nominal properties
• NC marker, sg.pl.
bu-saat
NC-pass
‘to pass/passing’’
• modifiers
bu-nobun bumbu
NC-tie Dem:NC
‘This tieing up’
• S and O position
bu-ruk ka ku-no bun-doŋ
NC-drink Con NC-wine good-3SNeg
‘Drinking palmwine is not good.’
Verbal properties
• derivation
sin-wuul-ay
NC-see-Rec
‘to see each other’
• head of predication
min hë-dëek
1Plex NC-go
‘We are going.’
• keeps part of the argument
structure (objects)
• possessive Suffixes
bu-lodin-kenem
NC-greet-3SPoss
‘greeting her’
15
Encoding of participants in
Nominalisations
finite
nonfinite
a-lodin-i Asaña
3S-greet-Asp Asaña
‘S/he greeted Asaña’
bu-lodin ka Asaña
NC-greet Con Asaña
‘greeting Asaña’
a-lodin- em
3S-greet-3SO
‘He greeted her’
bu-lodin- kenem
NC-greet-3SPoss
‘greeting her’
a-maŋ-i bu-lodin- kenem
3S-want-Asp NC-greet-3SPoss
‘He wants to greet her
a-maŋ- em bu-lodin
3S-want-3SO NC-greet
‘He wants to greet her’
Obliques
bu-ceem ka *a fuŋku
NC-sleep Con Prep room
‘sleeping in a room’
a-ceem-i *(a) fuŋku
3S-sleep-Asp *Prep room
‘s/he slept in a room’
ku-waxa ha aŋga di-raax
NC-play Con with NC-sand
‘playing with sand’
ha/ka not only
encodes core
participants but all
kind of complements:
locative, adverbial,
comitative etc.
16
Use of verbal nouns in Gubëeher
Predicative use of VN
(me) bu-rux ka ba-rux
1S NC-drink Con NC-water
‘I am drinking water. (Answer to the
question: What are you doing?)’
In raising constructions
a-bun bu-noox
3S-good NC-sit
‘It is good for sitting’
Complement of verb
haŋgu-ri sin-cem
can-Neg1S NC-sleep
‘I cannot sleep’
Periphrastic contructions
a-leer-i bu-dom
3S-difficult-Asp NC-swallow
‘It is difficult to swallow’
*haŋgu-ri bu-cem
can-Neg1S NCsleep
‘I cannot sleep’
tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek
morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go
‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’
17
Syntactic Parameters of VNF assignment
18
Verbal derivation and VNF I:
Derived transitives with buVNF Derivative
Suffix
bu-
Example
a) bu-ro-lin ‘make cry’
-un/-lin/-um
Causative/Transitive/Appl
(< ha-rox ‘cry’)
b) bu-sel-un ‘pee on’
icative
(< mu-sel ‘pee’)
c) bu-yaax-un ‘make eat’
(< bu-yaax ‘eat’)
Some derivations increasing valency always take VNF bueven though the underived stem takes an other VNF!
19
Verbal derivation and VNF II:
Derived intransitives with gu-, (bi-, ba-)
Derivative Function
Suffix
Examples
-a
a) bi-ñooc-a ‘wash one’s body’
(< bu-ñooc ‘wash tr.’)
b) gu-ñoop-a ‘hide refl.’
(< bu-ñoop ‘hide tr.’)
c) gu-naax-ëla ‘spy on people’
(< bu-naax ‘tell’)
d) bë-fës-ëla ‘eradicate weeds’
(< bu-fës-ul ‘eradicate tr.)
e) gu-jaax-ëla ‘eat a meal’
(< bu-jaax ‘eat tr.’)
-ëla
Middle/Refle
xive,
Object
deletion
Distributive,
Object
deletion
The majority of derivations in -a (middle, reflexive) –ula/ëla
(Distributive) and other valency reducing derivations trigger
the use of VNF gu-, some bi- or ba20
Verbal derivation and VNF III:
Derived reciprokes with sinDerivative
Suffix
Function
Examples
-aj
Reciproke,
Comitative
a) sin-wul-aj ‘meet’
(> bu-wul ‘see’)
b) siŋ-kook-aj ‘accompany e.o.’
(>bu-hook ‘follow’)
c) sin-raan-aj ‘meet’
There seems to be a semantic connection between
reciproke derivation, reciproke relationships (be siblings,
friends, cowifes etc.) and threadlike objects (thread,
cotton thread, iron thread) which are allderived with sin21
Verbs which exclude bugu-dolia
gu-mamaxun
gu-mantant
hë-dil
gu-hosox
gu-saw
gu-rëej
gu-ŋuñ
gu-cigia
gu-jëdda
ku-waan
ku-waxa
ka-lim
‘fish with a
rod’
‘stutter’
‘crosseyed’
‘fart’
‘cough’
‘hunt’
‘defecate’
‘return’
‘dream’
‘lie’
‘lie’
‘play’
‘rain’
For these verbs
all four
informants agree
that they are not
compatible with
bu-. All of these
are intransitive.
22
Transitivity variations I
bë-ñëej gi-rad-i
NC-do:laundry 1SFoc-Aux-Asp
‘I am doing laundry’
The common form is bëñëej. bu-ñëej is accepted
by two of four speakers
only.
BUT:
*bu-ñëej gi-rad-i
NC-do:laundry 1SFoc-Aux-Asp
The bu-form is only
admitted when a
complement attached with
ka
bu-ñëej ha hajah
NC-do:laundry Con clothes
‘wash clothes’
23
Transitivity variations II
i-dë sin-cem
1S-go NC-sleep
‘I go to sleep’
*i-dë bu-cem
BUT: 1S-go NC-sleep
‘I go to sleep’
The bu-form is only
admitted when a
complement attached with
ka
The common form is sincem.
bu-cem is accepted by
one of four speakers only
bu-cɛn ka bu-dep gu-maŋ-i
NC-sleep Con NC-bed FOC:2S-want-Asp
‘You want to sleep in a/the bed’
COMPARE:
i-cem-i a bu-dep
1Sg-sleep-Asp Prep
‘I slept in a/the bed’
24
bu- VNs
Non-bu VN
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
less productive
less predictable
derivation
more nounlike
less transitive
more productive
more predictable
inflection?
less nounlike
more transitive
‘Non-bu-’
VN
as full
Noun
as Nonfinite buVN
VN
Nonfinite
VN
sin-cem
‘sleep’
‘to sleep’
bu-cem
‘to sleep’
bi-ciir
‘death’
‘to die’
bu-ciir
‘to die’
ba-loob
‘words’
‘to speak’
bu-loob
‘to speak’
ba-caam
‘money’
‘to pay’
bu-caam
‘to pay’
bi-naax
‘tribunal’
‘to tell’
bu-naax
‘to tell’
ba-ñaŋ
‘dance’
‘to dance’
bu-ñaŋ
‘to dance’
If there is a
choice between
more than one
VNF it is always
the “non-bu- VN”
which is
ambiguous
between full
noun
interpretation
and a Nonfinite
VN reading
Semantic Parameters of VNF assignment
26
Changes in ontological domain
VNF1
bu-
gloss
VNF2
gu-
gloss
bu-loot
‘to spit’
gu-loot
‘to vomit’
bu-bëex
‘to pull’
gu-bëex
‘to pull (e.g.
cigarette)’
bu-faanin ‘sniff’
gu-faanin
‘smoke’
bu-kubëla ‘turn
around’
gukubëla
turn around’
‘misbehave’
bu-liin
‘braid,
weave’
bu-ŋan
‘enter’
gu-ŋan
VNF3
other-
gloss
jëm-bëex
‘to pull
(fishernet)’
si-kubëla
‘misbehave’
ra-liin
‘weave (cloth)’
‘go to sleep’
27
Semantic fields
Gubëeher
Gloss
Gubëeher
Gloss
ba-farl-a
‘untangle peanuts’
ja-naaf
‘work in the field’
bë-fësël-a
‘weed’
ja-rifun
repiquer
ba- -a
‘re-harvest’
ja-mul
‘harvest’
ba-xac
‘clear land’
jë-gób
cf. bu-gób
‘harvest palmwine’
‘to scratch’
ba-mat
‘clear land’
jë-góbul
‘harvest palmwine’
Gubëeher
Gloss
ja-rug
cf. bu-rug
cf. si-rug-ula
‘plant rice’
‘plant (a tree)’
plantation
të-bir
cf. bu-bir
‘fish with trap’
‘close’
ja-ŋis
‘cut grass’
ta-jah
cf. bu-jah
‘fish with arrows’
‘hit’
ja-ŋaf
‘ascend’ (often
connected to harvesting
fruit or palmwine)
ta-jin-a
cf. bu-jin
‘grill fish’
‘grill’
jam-bok
‘climb’
9 out of 11 ja- VNs are
directly related to
agricultural activities.
28
Pluractionality: Multiplicity of Participants
or Action.
ja- and ba- , two collective plural NC prefixes on nouns seem to keep
convey pluractionality wen used in VN formation. Both host many
agricultural activities, which are often done collectively and involve
plurality of actions, ba- also some other collectively performed
activities:
bë-yin ‘sing’
ba-ñaŋ ‘dance’
bë-dëeka ‘play (game)’
ba-toot ‘sort rice’
cf. bu-toot ‘pick up’
ba-doox ‘transport (goods, rice)
cf. bu-doox ‘carry’
Speakers have commented
on the ba- forms of some
verbs, such as ‘to sing’ as
“the plural” of the
alternative formin bu- and
claimed that it is used
when many peope sing, as
opposed to just one.
29
Qualities and Properties
Qualities with VNF ba
predicative use
Qualities with VNF predicative use
si
ba-li ‘goodness/be good’
a-li
3S-good
‘It is good’
si-riin ‘laziness’
a-riin-a
‘he is lazy’
ji-riin ‘lazybone’
bë-jólo ‘largeness’
a-jólo-i
3S-large-Asp
‘it is large’
si-piim ‘blindness’
a-piim-i/a
‘he is blind’
ji-piim ‘blind
person’
a-lum-em ba-jaax (bu-jaax ‘eat’)
3S-surpass-3SO NC-eat
‘SHe eats more than him/her.’
In the Comparative construction with
the verb lum ‘surpass’ all verbs require
the VNF ba-:
a-lumi-em ba- jir (hë-jir ‘run’)
3S-surpass-3SO NC-run
‘SHe runs faster than him/her’
a-lum-i ba- li
3S-surpass-Asp NC-good
‘It is better’
30
Hypothesis: object deletion vs
suppresion
31
Further research
• areal aspects of verb classification and VNs
32
Summary
• Transitivity
• Pluractionality
• Cultural relevant semantic fields (fish,
agriculture)
• Future/present?
• 1. vs. other ?
33
Doneux’ hypothesis
• Action nouns have taken place of Infinitives in
Kobiana
34
Nominalisation in Gubeeher
Semantics
NC marker
Example
related verb root
1. uHuman
participant 2. ji-
u-mbal ‘fisherman’
ji-def ‘old person’
-mbal ‘fish’
-def ‘be old’
Instrument gu- -um
gu-ŋiis-um ‘sickle’
-ŋiis ‘cut grass’
Location
1. bu2. bu- -um
3. ka-
1. bu-noox ‘cabaret’
2. bu-likina-um
‘kitchen’
3. ka-noox ‘seat’
-noox ‘sit’
-likina ‘cook a
meal’
Quality
1. ba2. si-
1. ba-sóog
‘ugliness/taboo’
2. si-riin ‘laziness’
-sóog ‘be ugly’
-riin ‘be lazy’
VN (Action
noun,
Result,
Nonfinite)
various
bu-ñoŋ ‘to
take/taking’
sin-cem ‘the sleep/to
sleep/sleeping’
-ñoŋ ‘take’
-cem ‘sleep’
35
Loan verbs
VNF bu- and ka- accomodate
most loans from French and Wolof:
–
–
–
–
ka-jang (< Wolof: jang) ‘read, learn’
ka-jaay (<Wolof: jaay) ‘sell’
bu-pentire/ka-pentire (< French peinturer ‘paint’)
bu-komase (< French commencer ‘begin’)
But: Verbs presumably loaned from Joola
languages – or are at least cognates – can also
be found in other noun classes:
Class ka- is rather
rare for nouns in
Gubëeher, but one
of the dominant
VNF in some Joola
languages
Gubëeher is in
contact with
(Fogny, Jirer,
Kaasa, Banjal).
– ja-mbal ‘catch fish’
– ba-caam ‘pay’
36
What is in a root?
Roots are very flexible in terms of NC allocation and also in terms
of word classes:
[ex]
It is unclear whether lexical category/gender is stored in the root
or if the root has to be considered underspecified and that
NC/syntactic category is assigned by insertion into a syntactic
frame
A direction of derivation is difficult to establish, because of the
lack of historical data
37
Nominal and verbal properties
Nominal properties
• NC marker, sg.pl.
bu-koor/i-koor
NC-village/NC-village
‘village/villages’
• modifiers
bu-koor bu-bun bumbu
NC-village Agr-good Dem:NC
‘This nice village’
• S and O position
• possessive Suffixes
bu-koo’-kum
NC-village-1SPoss
‘my village’
Verbal properties
• derivation/Person,number
i-wuul-ay-hurux-o
1Plinc-see-Rec-Fut-1Plinc
‘We will see eachother’
• head of predication
• argument structure
gëegën i-wuul-i u-ñaŋ-kum
yesterday 1S-see-Asp NC-friend1Poss
‘Yesterday I saw my friend’
i-wuul-em gëegën
1S-see-3SO yesterday
‘I saw him yesterday’
gëegën a-wuul-a
yesterday 3S-see-Pass
‘He was seen yesterday’
38
Theoretical questions
39
Qualities I
Qualities with VNF ba
Qualities with
VNF si
ba-li ‘goodness/be good’
a-li
3S-good
‘It is good’
si-riin ‘laziness’
a-riin-a
‘he is lazy’
ji-riin ‘lazybone’
bë-jólo ‘largeness’
a-jólo-i
3S-large-Asp
‘it is large’
si-piim ‘blindness’
a-piim-i/a
‘he is blind’
ji-piim ‘blind person’
si-paab ‘gluttony’
a-paab-a
‘he is gluttonous’
ji-paab ‘glutton’
si-gaar ’stupidity’
a-gaar-a
‘he is stupid’
jan-gaar ‘idiot’
40
Qualities II
In the Comparative construction with
the verb lum ‘surpass’ all verbs require
the VNF ba-:
a-lum-i ba-li
3S-surpass-Asp NC-good
‘It is better’
a-lumi-em ba-jir (hë-jir ‘run’)
3S-surpass-3SO NC-run
‘SHe runs faster than him/her’
a-lum-em ba-jaax (bu-jaax ‘eat’)
3S-surpass-3SO NC-eat
‘SHe eats more than him/her.’
41
Subject Object status
Subject: stands before the verb
can be focused with inis deleted in passive phrase
triggers agreement
Non-Subject:
focused with gka in nominalisations
encoded with suffixes on the verb [animate objects]
becomes subject of passiv phrase
can be relativised
42
Periphrastic
Aux rad: ba-dox ha ja-lihan gi-rad-i
NC-carry Con NC-wood 1SFoc-Aux-Asp
‘I am carrying wood.’
Aux kan: tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek
morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go
‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’
LOC:
innoŋ ja-naaf
LOC:3S NC-work
‘He/she is doing agriculture.’
be:
gu-roŋ u-dikaan-i iŋ-gu-t-i bu-ja ka gu-gu-in
be-3SNeg NC-woman-Poss FocS-be-Dir-Asp Con NC-Red-song
‘It is not his wife who starts this song.’
43
Predicative use of VN
(me) bu-ruk ka ba-rux
1S NC-drink Con NC-water
‘I am drinking water. (Answer to the
question: What are you doing?)’
min hë-dëek
1Plex NC-go
‘We are going.’
The VNs can be used
with or without a
personal pronoun (if
the referent is clear) to
express a present
progressive or an action
that is about to take
place
In raising constructions
a-leer-i bu-dom
3S-difficult-Asp NC-swallow
‘It is difficult to swallow’
a-bun bu-noox
3S-good NC-sit
‘It is good for sitting’
Subject with Adj
Periphrastic
Aux rad: ba-dox ha ja-lihan gi-rad-i
NC-carry Con NC-wood 1SFoc-Aux-Asp
‘I am carrying wood.’
Aux kan: tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek
morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go
‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’
LOC:
innoŋ ja-naaf
LOC:3S NC-work
‘He/she is doing agriculture.’
be:
gu-roŋ u-dikaan-i iŋ-gu-t-i bu-ja ka gu-gu-in
be-3SNeg NC-woman-Poss FocS-be-Dir-Asp Con NC-Red-song
‘It is not his wife who starts this song.’
Complement of verb
min-di gu-way
be.able-Neg:1Sg Cl-swim
‘I don’t know how to swim.’
haŋgu-ri sin-cem
can-Neg1S NC-sleep
‘I cannot sleep’
i-haŋgul-i ja-ŋa’ ka mu-uc
1S-can-Asp NC-mount Con NCpalmtree
‘I can climb palm trees.’
*haŋgu-ri bu-cem
can-Neg1S NC-sleep
‘I cannot sleep’
i-haŋgul-i i-cem
1S-can-Asp 1Ssleep
‘I can sleep’
i-haŋgul-i i-ŋaf ra-uc rara
1S-can-Asp 1S-mount NCpalmtree Dem:Agr
‘I can climb this palm tree
Purposive
Without conjunction: i-dëek bi-nig ka tele
1S-go NC-watch Con television
‘I go watch television.’
With conjunction: an-nig əbən-əŋ ə-gini a-la-tː-a-nɛ mata ha bu-hɔf
3Sg-look:at animal-Pl Agr-Rel 3S-take-Dir-ne Conj Con NC-kill
‘They are looking at the animals which have been brought,
for the sake of killing them.’
Focusing?
bu-nobun bumbooŋ, jëbën
NC-tie Agr:Dem NC-pagne
‘This tieing up is done with pieces of cloth’
bʊ-hupp bumbooŋ, ni a-gob-ah, u-guni ë-gu-t-i bu-dëek, a-ñoŋ-ot ho-xuno hoho
‘Concerning this pouring [of palmwine], since everybody collected wine, tose
who come bring a little bit of wine.’
Methodology
• 1. trip: build a corpus, understand basic syntax
and morphology, elicit verblists (in french)
• 2. trip: expand corpus, transitivity
database/verbal extensions, reformulate first
hypotheses on VNF and their distribution,
check verbs in lexicon for compatibility with
VNF and elicit them in syntactic contexts with
3 speakers
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