Puʻu ʻŌʻō Lava Flow, October 2014 “A Sense of Place” American Indigenous Research Association Conference 2014 Waipiʻo Kukuihaele Kū Kahakalau, Ph.D. Hawaiʻi AKUA ʻĀINA ALOHA KANAKA PONO W A I P I ʻ O ʻIʻinimaikalani Kealiʻikuaʻāina & Pōlanimakamae Kaʻoakaokalani Kahakalau PROFESSIONAL JOURNEY • 1985 Hawaiian Language Teacher • 1990s Kūkulu Kumuhana Outdoor Learning Family Camps, Waipi’o • 1996 Ph.D. Indigenous Education • 2000 Kanu o ka ʻĀina New Century Public Charter School (K-12) • 2002 Mālamapōkiʻi (Pre-K) bilingual Early Childhood Program • 2003 Hālau Wānana Indigenous Center for Higher Learning • 2008 Kauhale ʻŌiwi o Puʻukapu First Platinum LEED certified educational facility in Hawai’i • 2011 Kū-A-Kanaka Indigenous Research Institute • 2012 Basic Hawaiian interactive, online Hawaiian Language Program PEDAGOGY OF ALOHA Culturally-driven Family-oriented Community/Place-focused Economically sustainable GROWTH AS A HAWAIIAN KŪ-A-KANAKA (stand as a Hawaiian, live as a Hawaiian, be Hawaiian) • Hawaiian epistemology grounded in native values • traditional lifestyle aligned with Hawaiian ʻōlelo noʻeau (proverbs) • habits, customs and rituals of 21st century Hawaiian practitioners HISTORY OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH • Teacher • Ph.D. Student • Researcher 1985 - 2014 • extensive, in depth informal study • meticulous, rigorous formal research • intense, heuristic contemplation MĀʻAWE PONO The Good Way Hawaiian Research Methodology ʻAha Māwaewae: Clearing-the-Way-Feast MARY KAWENA PUKUʻI: “Clearly then, this first feast for the hiapo [first born] … ritually started the child on the mā’awe pono (right track) of honor and responsibility.” (Pukui, Haertig, Lee, 1972) Indigenous Heuristic Action Research (1990s) Māʻawe Pono (2014) Mixed methodology Hawaiian methodology 6-phase heuristic process 8-phase exploratory process Western Worldview Indigenous Epistemology: KūA-Kanaka Study and solve native issue(s) Study and solve native issue(s) Aligned with Indigenous and Using native Hawaiian methods Western methods Academically grounded – Western research paradigms Designed for and accountable to academia Culturally grounded – Hawaiian ʻōlelo noʻeau (proverbs) Designed for and accountable to native community Mary Abigail Kawena`ula-o-ka-lani-a-hi`iakai-ka-poli-o-pele-kawahine-`ai-honua Wiggin Puku`i (1895-1986) NATIVE INTELLIGENCE Ua lehulehu a manomano ka ʻikena a ka Hawaiʻi. Great and numerous is the knowledge of the Hawaiians. Haole kī kōlea. Plover shooting haole. Blundering Caucasian. The haole, in going plover hunting, shoots with his shotgun, killing some, maiming others. The maimed can fly elsewhere to die or become victims of some other animal. But the Hawaiian goes quietly at night with a net. He takes what he wants and lets the others escape unharmed. PLACE-BASED KNOWLEDGE ʻŌlelo ke kupa o ka ʻāina ua mālie, ua au koaʻe. The natives of the land declare the weather is calm when the tropic bird travels afar. As natives we know our environment. INSIDER KNOWLEDGE ʻO ka uhiwai nō kāi ʻike i ka ʻino o ka wai. Only the mist knows the storm that caused the streams to swell. Only those who are close to a person/situation know the problem(s). INDEPTH KNOWLEDGE He lawai`a no ke kai pāpa`u, he pōkole ke aho; he lawai`a no ke kai hohonu, he loa ke aho. A fisherman of the shallow sea uses only a short line; a fisherman of the deep sea has a long line. A person whose knowledge is shallow does not have much, but he whose knowledge is great, does. ATTENTION TO DETAIL E kuhikuhi pono i nā au nui a me nā au iki o ka ʻike. Instruct well in the large and the little currents of knowledge. In teaching do well, the small details are as important as the large ones. STRENGTHS-BASED APPROACH ʻAʻohe puʻu kiʻekiʻe ke hoʻāʻo ʻia e piʻi. No cliff is so tall that it cannot be scaled. No problem is too great when one tries hard to solve it. QUEST FOR EXCELLENCE Kūlia i ka nuʻu. Strive to reach the highest. SOCIAL IMPACT `O ka pono ke hana `ia, a iho mai nā lani. Continue to do good until the heavens come down to you. Blessings come to those who persist in doing good. PREPARATION ʻAʻohe ulu e loaʻa i ka pōkole o ka lou. No breadfruit can be reached when the picking stick is too short. PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH Ma ka hana ka ʻike. By doing one learns. COMMUNITY/PLACE-FOCUSED ʻIke aku, ʻike mai, kōkua aku, kōkua mai, pēlā ihola ka nohona ʻohana Know and be known, help and be helped, such is family life. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION Pūpūkahi i holomua. Unite in order to progress. OBSERVATION & PARTICIPATION Nānā ka maka, hana ka lima. The eyes look, the hands do. Observe with your eyes, and then do what is necessary. Ka pō nui hoʻolakolako, ke ao nui hoʻohemahema. The great night that provides, the great day that neglects The gods supply, but man does not always accept with appreciation. Guidance is given in dreams. TACIT KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION Aia nā hā`ina i loko o kākou. The solutions and answers are within us. LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH Lawe i ka maʻalea a kūʻonoʻono. Take knowledge and make it deep. MULTIPLE APPROACHES ʻAʻohe pau ka ʻike i ka hālau hoʻokahi. Not all knowledge is contained in one school. One can learn from many sources. LACK OF RESOURCES Pūʻali ke kalo i ka wai ʻole. The kalo is misshapen for lack of water. 1. ʻImi Naʻauao Search for Wisdom 2. Hoʻoliuliu Preparation of Investigation 3. Hailona Action Research Project 4. Hoʻoluʻu Immersion 5. Hoʻomōhala Incubation 6. Haʻiloaʻa Articulation of Solution(s) 7. Hōʻike Demonstration of Knowledge 8. Kūkulu Kumuhana Pooling of Strengths PHASE 1: ʻImi Naʻauao - Search for Wisdom • Identify personal passions • Articulate community issues • Align passion and issue • Set research goal • Research issue informally • Brainstorm possible solution(s)/theory • Frame research question & hypothesis ’imi na’auao: to seek knowledge PHASE 2: Hoʻoliuliu - Preparation for Testing • Plan and prepare for short term action research project, which tests solution(s) on small scale w/coresearchers in community • Select and determine roles of primary researcher, coresearchers & community • Cultivate relations with co-researchers & community hoʻoliuliu: to prepare PHASE 3: Hailona - Action Research Project • Implement action research project in community • Gather data (qualitative/quantitative) from multiple co-researchers using Hawaiian methods hailona: to test PHASE 4: Hoʻoluʻu - Immersion • Immerse in phenomenon day and night • Analyze data from action research project • Engage in extensive self-reflection • Seek external input from elders/experts • Formulate conclusion hoʻolu’u: to immerse PHASE 5: Hoʻomōhala - Incubation • Step away from phenomenon • Incubate knowledge / allow it to marinate • Tune into tacit knowledge • Articulate what has awakened into consciousness hoʻomōhala: to evolve , unfold, develop PHASE 6: Haʻiloaʻa - Articulation of Solution(s) • Articulate solution(s) with input from coresearchers and community • Create action plan to implement solution(s) • Prepare for presentation to community haʻiloaʻa: to answer a problem PHASE 7: Hōʻike - Demonstration of Knowledge • Oral presentation of solution to community in form they can understand • Written articulation of solution in professional journal (optional) hōʻike: to make known, display, tell, exhibit, reveal, inform, report, notify, explain, identify characteristics PHASE 8: Kūkulu Kumuhana - Pooling of Strengths • Discussion with community re: next steps • Implementation of solution(s) within community • Scaled up action research project with increased input from community • Continuation of research cycle until problems of community/nation have been solved kūkulu kumuhana: to pool thoughts and prayers to solving common problems; to set up topics for discussion, as an agenda MĀʻAWE PONO: TRADITIONAL RESEARCH PROCESS E kaʻahele i ka māʻawe a ka pono. Tread on the good trail, the trail of righteousness. King Liholiho – Kamehameha II: Na wai ho'i ka 'ole o ke akamai, he alahele i ma'a i ka hele 'ia e o'u mau makua. (1797-1824) Who would not be wise on a path walked upon by my parents and ancestors? As Indigenous researchers, we should have this same kind of confidence. We should value our traditional ways and be confident, contributing members of the international community of researchers on our terms. For copy of PPT, or questions contact: Kū Kahakalau, Ph.D. [email protected] MAHALO!