Ku.-MAAWE-PONO - American Indigenous Research Association

Report
Puʻu ʻŌʻō Lava Flow,
October 2014
“A Sense of Place”
American Indigenous Research Association Conference
2014
Waipiʻo
Kukuihaele
Kū Kahakalau, Ph.D.
Hawaiʻi
AKUA
ʻĀINA
ALOHA
KANAKA
PONO
W
A
I
P
I
ʻ
O
ʻIʻinimaikalani Kealiʻikuaʻāina & Pōlanimakamae Kaʻoakaokalani
Kahakalau
PROFESSIONAL
JOURNEY
• 1985 Hawaiian Language Teacher
• 1990s Kūkulu Kumuhana Outdoor
Learning Family Camps, Waipi’o
• 1996 Ph.D. Indigenous Education
• 2000 Kanu o ka ʻĀina New Century
Public Charter School (K-12)
• 2002 Mālamapōkiʻi (Pre-K) bilingual Early Childhood Program
• 2003 Hālau Wānana Indigenous
Center for Higher Learning
• 2008 Kauhale ʻŌiwi o Puʻukapu
First Platinum LEED certified
educational facility in Hawai’i
• 2011 Kū-A-Kanaka Indigenous
Research Institute
• 2012 Basic Hawaiian interactive,
online Hawaiian Language Program
PEDAGOGY OF ALOHA
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

Culturally-driven
Family-oriented
Community/Place-focused
Economically sustainable
GROWTH AS A HAWAIIAN
KŪ-A-KANAKA
(stand as a Hawaiian, live as a Hawaiian, be Hawaiian)
• Hawaiian epistemology
grounded in native values
• traditional lifestyle
aligned with Hawaiian
ʻōlelo noʻeau (proverbs)
• habits, customs and
rituals of 21st century
Hawaiian practitioners
HISTORY OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH
• Teacher
• Ph.D. Student
• Researcher
1985 - 2014
• extensive, in depth informal study
• meticulous, rigorous formal research
• intense, heuristic contemplation
MĀʻAWE PONO
The Good Way
Hawaiian
Research
Methodology
ʻAha Māwaewae: Clearing-the-Way-Feast
MARY KAWENA PUKUʻI: “Clearly then, this
first feast for the hiapo [first born] … ritually
started the child on the mā’awe pono (right track)
of honor and responsibility.”
(Pukui, Haertig, Lee, 1972)
Indigenous Heuristic
Action Research (1990s)
Māʻawe Pono
(2014)
Mixed methodology
Hawaiian methodology
6-phase heuristic process
8-phase exploratory process
Western Worldview
Indigenous Epistemology: KūA-Kanaka
Study and solve native issue(s) Study and solve native issue(s)
Aligned with Indigenous and Using native Hawaiian methods
Western methods
Academically grounded –
Western research paradigms
Designed for and accountable
to academia
Culturally grounded – Hawaiian
ʻōlelo noʻeau (proverbs)
Designed for and accountable to
native community
Mary Abigail Kawena`ula-o-ka-lani-a-hi`iakai-ka-poli-o-pele-kawahine-`ai-honua
Wiggin Puku`i
(1895-1986)
NATIVE INTELLIGENCE
Ua lehulehu a manomano ka ʻikena a ka Hawaiʻi.
Great and numerous is the knowledge of the
Hawaiians.
Haole kī kōlea.
Plover shooting
haole. Blundering
Caucasian.
The haole, in going plover
hunting, shoots with his
shotgun, killing some,
maiming others. The
maimed can fly elsewhere
to die or become victims
of some other
animal. But the
Hawaiian goes quietly at
night with a net. He takes
what he wants and lets the
others escape unharmed.
PLACE-BASED KNOWLEDGE
ʻŌlelo ke kupa o ka ʻāina ua mālie, ua au koaʻe.
The natives of the land declare the weather is calm
when the tropic bird travels afar.
As natives we know our environment.
INSIDER KNOWLEDGE
ʻO ka uhiwai nō kāi ʻike i ka ʻino o ka wai.
Only the mist knows the storm that caused the
streams to swell.
Only those who are close to a person/situation know
the problem(s).
INDEPTH KNOWLEDGE
He lawai`a no ke kai pāpa`u, he pōkole ke aho;
he lawai`a no ke kai hohonu, he loa ke aho.
A fisherman of the shallow sea uses only a short
line;
a fisherman of the deep sea has a long line.
A person whose knowledge is shallow does not have
much, but he whose knowledge is great, does.
ATTENTION TO DETAIL
E kuhikuhi pono i nā au nui a me nā au iki o ka ʻike.
Instruct well in the large and the little currents of
knowledge.
In teaching do well, the small details are as important
as the large ones.
STRENGTHS-BASED APPROACH
ʻAʻohe puʻu kiʻekiʻe ke hoʻāʻo ʻia e piʻi.
No cliff is so tall that it cannot be scaled.
No problem is too great when one tries hard to
solve it.
QUEST FOR EXCELLENCE
Kūlia i ka nuʻu.
Strive to reach the highest.
SOCIAL IMPACT
`O ka pono ke hana `ia, a iho mai nā lani.
Continue to do good until the heavens come down
to you.
Blessings come to those who persist in doing good.
PREPARATION
ʻAʻohe ulu e loaʻa i ka pōkole o ka lou.
No breadfruit can be reached when the picking
stick is too short.
PARTICIPATORY RESEARCH
Ma ka hana ka ʻike.
By doing one learns.
COMMUNITY/PLACE-FOCUSED
ʻIke aku, ʻike mai, kōkua aku, kōkua
mai, pēlā ihola ka nohona ʻohana
Know and be known, help and be
helped, such is family life.
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
Pūpūkahi i holomua.
Unite in order to progress.
OBSERVATION & PARTICIPATION
Nānā ka maka, hana ka lima.
The eyes look, the hands do.
Observe with your eyes, and then
do what is necessary.
Ka pō nui hoʻolakolako, ke ao nui hoʻohemahema.
The great night that provides, the great day that
neglects
The gods supply, but man does not always accept with
appreciation. Guidance is given in dreams.
TACIT KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION
Aia nā hā`ina i loko o kākou.
The solutions and answers are within us.
LONGITUDINAL RESEARCH
Lawe i ka maʻalea a kūʻonoʻono.
Take knowledge and make it deep.
MULTIPLE APPROACHES
ʻAʻohe pau ka ʻike i ka hālau hoʻokahi.
Not all knowledge is contained in one school.
One can learn from many sources.
LACK OF RESOURCES
Pūʻali ke kalo i ka wai ʻole.
The kalo is misshapen for lack of water.
1. ʻImi Naʻauao
Search for Wisdom
2. Hoʻoliuliu
Preparation of Investigation
3. Hailona
Action Research Project
4. Hoʻoluʻu
Immersion
5. Hoʻomōhala
Incubation
6. Haʻiloaʻa
Articulation of Solution(s)
7. Hōʻike
Demonstration of Knowledge
8. Kūkulu Kumuhana
Pooling of Strengths
PHASE 1: ʻImi Naʻauao - Search for Wisdom
• Identify personal passions
• Articulate community issues
• Align passion and issue
• Set research goal
• Research issue informally
• Brainstorm possible solution(s)/theory
• Frame research question & hypothesis
’imi na’auao: to seek knowledge
PHASE 2: Hoʻoliuliu - Preparation for Testing
• Plan and prepare for short term action research
project, which tests solution(s) on small scale w/coresearchers in community
• Select and determine roles of primary researcher, coresearchers & community
• Cultivate relations with co-researchers & community
hoʻoliuliu: to prepare
PHASE 3: Hailona - Action Research Project
• Implement action research project in community
• Gather data (qualitative/quantitative) from multiple
co-researchers using Hawaiian methods
hailona: to test
PHASE 4: Hoʻoluʻu - Immersion
• Immerse in phenomenon day and night
• Analyze data from action research project
• Engage in extensive self-reflection
• Seek external input from elders/experts
• Formulate conclusion
hoʻolu’u: to immerse
PHASE 5: Hoʻomōhala - Incubation
• Step away from phenomenon
• Incubate knowledge / allow it to marinate
• Tune into tacit knowledge
• Articulate what has awakened into consciousness
hoʻomōhala: to evolve , unfold, develop
PHASE 6: Haʻiloaʻa - Articulation of Solution(s)
• Articulate solution(s) with input from coresearchers and community
• Create action plan to implement solution(s)
• Prepare for presentation to community
haʻiloaʻa: to answer a problem
PHASE 7: Hōʻike - Demonstration of Knowledge
• Oral presentation of solution to community in
form they can understand
• Written articulation of solution in professional
journal (optional)
hōʻike: to make known, display, tell, exhibit, reveal,
inform, report, notify, explain, identify characteristics
PHASE 8: Kūkulu Kumuhana - Pooling of Strengths
• Discussion with community re: next steps
• Implementation of solution(s) within community
• Scaled up action research project with increased
input from community
• Continuation of research cycle until problems of
community/nation have been solved
kūkulu kumuhana: to pool thoughts and prayers to solving
common problems; to set up topics for discussion, as an agenda
MĀʻAWE PONO: TRADITIONAL
RESEARCH PROCESS
E kaʻahele i ka
māʻawe a ka pono.
Tread on the good trail,
the trail of
righteousness.
King Liholiho – Kamehameha II:
Na wai ho'i ka 'ole o ke akamai,
he alahele i ma'a i ka hele 'ia e
o'u mau makua.
(1797-1824)
Who would not be wise on a path
walked upon by my parents and
ancestors?
As Indigenous researchers, we should have this same
kind of confidence. We should value our traditional
ways and be confident, contributing members of the
international community of researchers on our terms.
For copy of PPT, or questions
contact:
Kū Kahakalau, Ph.D.
[email protected]
MAHALO!

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