ppt

Report
기본 의학 용어
의공학교실
박성근
table
1. 의학용어의 특징
2. 인체의 기본구조
3. 병리학적 검사분야
4. 방사선과학적 검사분야
5. 임상병리 검사분야
6. 핵의학 검사분야
7. 약물요법 분야
8. 소화기계질환 분야
9. 심혈관계질환 분야
10. 호흡기계질환 분야
11. 근골격계질환 분야
12. 신경 및 정신계질환 분
야
13. 비뇨기계 및 남성생식기
계질환 분야
14. 내분비계 및 여성생식기
계질환 분야
15. 피부과, 안과 및 이비인
후과질환 분야
16. 병원의 진료 편제
해부생리학 용어 I








pharynx: 인두 (咽頭)
tonsil: 편도 (扁桃)
larynx: 후두 (喉頭)
vocal cords:성대(聲帶)
trachea: 기관 (氣管)
bronchus(pl. bronchi):
기관지 (氣管支)
bronchiole: 세기관지
(細氣管支)
alveolus (pl. alveoli):
폐포 (肺胞)








lung: 폐 (肺(臟))
pulmonary: 폐의
lobe: 엽 (葉)
pleura: 흉막 (胸膜)
diaphragm: 횡격막 (橫
隔膜)
mediastinum: 종격동
(縱隔洞)
hilum: 폐문 (肺門)
sternum: 흉골 (胸骨)
larynx I
larynx III
larynx IV
tracheal epithelium
hilum
lung model
lower air pathway
해부생리학 용어 II








rib: 늑골 (肋骨)
costal: 늑골의
respiration: 호흡 (呼吸)
inhalation: 흡입 (吸入)
inspiration: 흡기 (吸氣)
expiration: 호기 (呼氣)
compliance: 유순도
(柔順度), 폐탄성 (肺彈
性)
diffusion: 확산 (擴散)
증상용어 I








cough: 기침
sputum: 담 (痰), 객담
(喀痰), 가래
hemoptysis: 혈담 (血
痰), 객혈 (喀血)
dyspnea: 호흡곤란
asphyxia: 질식 (窒息)
orthopnea: 기좌호흡
(起坐呼吸)
apnea: 무호흡
tachypnea: 빈호흡 (頻
呼吸)




cyanosis: 청색증 (靑
色症)
hypoxia: 저산소증 (低
酸素症)
hypercapnea: 과이산
화탄소혈증 (過二酸化
炭素血症), 고탄산혈증
(高炭酸血症)
hoarseness: 애성 (嗄
聲), 쉰목소리
증상용어 II




rales: 수포음 (水泡音)
crackle: 악설음 (握雪
音)
wheezing: 천명 (喘鳴)
stridor: 천음 (喘音), 협
착음 (狹窄音)
lung auscultation
lung sound I
lung sound II
진단/병리학적 용어 I







tonsillitis: 편도염
pharyngitis: 인두염
laryngitis: 후두염
bronchiolitis: 세기관지
염
chronic bronchitis: 만
성기관지염
bronchiectasis: 기관
지확장증
bronchial asthma: 기
관지천식






lung cancer: 폐암
bronchogenic cancer:
기관지원성암 (氣管支
原性癌)
atelectasis: 무기폐 (無
氣肺)
collapse: 허탈 (虛脫)
pulmonary
emphysema: 폐기종
(肺氣腫)
pneumonia: 폐렴 (肺
炎)
chronic bronchitis
bronchiectasis
bronchial asthma I
bronchial asthma II
bronchial asthma III
lung cancer I
lung cancer II
lung cancer III
lung cancer IV
atelectasis I
atelectasis II
pulmonary emphysema I
pneumonia I
pneumonia II
pneumonia III
pneumonia IV
진단/병리학적 용어 II





bronchopneumonia:
기관지폐렴
lung abscess: 폐농양
(肺膿瘍)
pulmonary
tuberculosis: 폐결핵
(肺結核)
endobronchial
tuberculosis: 기관지결
핵 (氣管支結核)
MOTT
(Mycobacterium other
than tuberculosis):




비결핵항산균 (非結核
抗酸菌)
pneumoconiosis: 진폐
증 (塵肺症)
pulmonary edema: 폐
부종 (肺浮腫)
pulmonary embolism:
폐(동맥)색전증 (肺(動
脈)塞栓症)
hyaline membrane
disease: 유리질막병
(琉璃質膜病)
lung abscess I
lung abscess II
lung abscess III
lung abscess IV
pulmonary tuberculosis I
pulmonary tuberculosis II
pulmonary tuberculosis III
Mycobacterium tuberculosis I
Mycobacterium tuberculosis II
alveolar macrophage
phagocytosis of macrophage
pseudopodia of macrophage
phylogenetic tree of
Mycobacterium
진단/병리학적 용어 III



DILD (diffuse
interstitial lung
disease): 미만성간질
성폐질환 (彌漫性間質
性肺疾患)
IPF (idiopathic
pulmonary fibrosis):
특발성폐섬유화증 (特
發性肺纖維化症)
COPD (chronic
obstructive pulmonary
disease):



만성폐쇄성폐질환 (慢
性閉鎖性肺疾患)
fungus ball (=
mycetoma): 진균종
(眞菌腫)
respiratory failure: 호
흡부전증 (呼吸不全症)
ARDS (adult
respiratory distress
syndrome): 성인성호
흡곤란증후군 (成人性
呼吸困難症候群)
diffuse interstitial lung disease I
diffuse interstitial lung disease II
DILD ⊃ IPF

systemic lupus
erythematosus,
rheumatoid arthritis
etiology

inhaled substances



infection

drug induced


silicosis, asbestosis,
berylliosis,
hypersensitivity
pneumonitis
antibiotics,
chemotherapeutic drug,
antiarrhythmic agents

idiopathic

connective tiss. dis.

systemic sclerosis,
polymyositis,
dermatomyositis,

atypical pneumonia,
pneumocystis
pneumonia (PCP),
tuberculosis
sarcoidosis, idiopathic
pulmonary fibrosis,
Hamman-Rich
syndrome
malignancy

lymphangitic
carcinomatosis
chronic obstructive pulmonary
disease (COPD)


chronic bronchitis &
emphysema
airway narrowing or
obstruction


c.f., DILD – restriction,
increased lung
stiffness
etiology

smoking, occupational
exposures (coal/gold
mining, Cd, welding
fumes), air pollution,
genetics (alpha-1antitrypsin)
alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT)

serine protease
inhibitor




inhibiting a wide variety
of protease
in its absence, elastase
is free to break down
elastin -> the
decreased elasticity of
the lungs -> COPD
(emphysema)
394 amino acids
the gene is located
on the long arm of
14th chromosome
fungus ball (mycetoma,
aspergilloma)
adult respiratory distress
syndrome (ARDS)
ARDS case
young woman just back from West Africa with
fever and 1.7 % P. falcifarum parasitemia
June 2
June 4 16:27
June 5 01:40
진단/병리학적 용어 IV






pleurisy:흉막염(胸膜炎)
pleural effusion: 흉막
삼출 (胸膜渗出)
empyema (=
pyothorax): 농흉 (膿胸)
hemothorax:혈흉(血胸)
pneumothorax: 기흉
(氣胸)
mediastinitis: 종격염
(縱隔炎)

paragonimiasis: 폐흡
충증 (肺吸蟲症)
pleural space
pleurisy (pleuritis)
empyema (pyothorax)
hemothorax
pneumothorax I
pneumothorax II
38 y/o male in skate
board accident
pneumothorax III
tension pneumothorax
lung collapse by TP
needle thoracostomy
Paragonimus westermani (adult) I
P. westermani (adult) II
P. westermani (egg)
진단/치료 용어 I






tonsillectomy: 편도절
제술 (扁桃切除術)
tracheostomy: 기관절
개술 (氣管切開術)
pneumonectomy: 폐절
제술 (肺切除術)
lobectomy: (폐)엽절제
술 ((肺)葉切除術)
thoracotomy: 개흉술
(開胸術)
thoracostomy: 흉강삽
관술 (胸腔揷管術)





decortication: (흉막)
박피술 ((胸膜)剝皮術)
pleuropneumonectom
y: 흉막폐절제술
PFT (pulmonary
function test): 폐기능
검사
bronchoscopy: 기관지
(내시)경검사
tuberculin test (=
Mantoux test): 투베르
쿨린검사
tracheostomy tube
tracheostomy done
lung surgery
anterolateral thoracotomy
median sternotomy
thoracostomy
3 bottle system of chest drainage
chest drainage system
bronchoscopy
rigid bronchoscope
flexible bronchoscope
bronchoscopy II
tuberculin test (Mantoux test)
hypersensitivity reaction
tuberculin test (+) result
진단/치료용어 II





endotracheal
intubation: 기관내삽관
술 (氣管內揷管術)
thoracentesis: 흉강천
자 (胸腔穿刺)
chest tube: 흉관 (胸管)
PCNA (PerCutaneous
Needle Aspiration): 경
피적침흡인술 (經皮的
針吸引術)
postural drainage: 체
위배액법 (體位排液法)

AFB (acid fast bacilli):
항산균 (抗酸菌), 결핵
균 (結核菌)
endotracheal tube &
laryngoscope
endotracheal intubation
thoracentesis set
thoracentesis
chest tube insertion
chest tubes
percutaneous needle aspiration
postural drainage
Hans Christian Gram, 1853-1938
Gram (+) & (-) species
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
mycobacterium species (AFB)
acid-fast staining
acid fast stained M. tuberculosis
acid fast stain (+) & (-) species
acid fast stained cryptosporidia
device for pulmonary function
test
pulmonary function test
lung volumes
results for pulmonary function
test
volume-time curve
flow-volume loop
flow-volume loop
typical results of disease on
spirometry
variable results of spirometry
V/Q ratio
normal values about blood gas
exchange
Blood gas values (ranges) from healthy persons at rest. - Normal mean
tensions for mixed venous blood and for alveolar air are shown below.
PaO2 :
10-13 kPa (75-95 mmHg)
PaCO2:
4.8-6 kPa (36-45 mmHg),
Base Excess:
pH :
PAO2 :
PACO2 :
Mean PvO2 :
Mean PvCO2 :
Zero,
7.35-7.45 (ie,[H+] = 35-44 nM)
10 - 13.3 kPa (75-100 mmHg)
4.8-6 kPa (36-45 mmHg). Mean: 5.3 kPa (40 mmHg),
6 kPa (45 mmHg)
6.1 kPa (46 mmHg)
respiratory failure
Type 1 (hypoxemic)
PaO2
Type 2 (hypercapnic)
low (<60mmHg)
decreased
PaCO2
normal or low (<=45mmHg)
increased
PA-aO2
increased
normal
normal or high
decreased
Parenchymal disease(V/Q
mismatch)
Diseases of vasculature and
shunts: right to
leftshunt,pulmonary embolism
interstitial lung diseasesARDS, pneumonia,
emphysema.
Reduced breathing effort (in
the fatigued patient)
Increased resistance to
breathing (such as in asthma)
A decrease in the area of the
lung available for gas exchange
(such as in emphysema).
pH
etiology

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