Chapter Focus Section 1 A Nation of Immigrants Section 2 The Basis of Citizenship Section 3 The Rights of the Accused Section 4 Equal Protection of the Law Section 5 Challenges for Civil Liberties Chapter Assessment Chapter Objectives • A Nation of Immigrants Describe immigration policy and explain how it has changed. • The Basis of Citizenship Explain the requirement for United States citizenship. • The Rights of the Accused Summarize the rights of Americans accused of crimes. • Equal Protection of the Law Explain the concept of “equal protection” and the tests by which the Supreme Court determines discrimination. • Challenges for Civil Liberties Contrast trends and laws intended to ensure equal opportunity, privacy, and citizens’ right to know. I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388) A. Immigrants come to a new country intending to live there permanently; aliens live in a country where they are not citizens. B. The federal government classifies aliens into five categories: 1. resident aliens 2. nonresident aliens 3. enemy aliens 4. refugees 5. illegal aliens I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388) C. Protections of the Bill of Rights, such as freedom of speech and assembly, apply to aliens as well as citizens. D. Aliens cannot vote; most are exempt from military duty and serving on juries. I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388) I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388) What responsibilities do aliens have to the U.S. government? They must pay taxes, obey the laws, and be loyal to the government. II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390) A. In 1882 Congress began to fully use its power to regulate immigration, and it imposed many restrictions during the next four decades. B. The Immigration Act of 1924 sharply lowered the number of immigrants who could arrive each year and favored those who came from northern and western Europe. C. The Immigration Reform Act of 1965 changed immigration policy by fixing a ceiling on countries in the Eastern Hemisphere and a different ceiling on those in the Western Hemisphere, as well as creating a complicated system for preferential treatment of selected immigrants. II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390) D. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed to stem the tide of illegal immigrants and to allow illegal immigrants to become permanent residents and citizens. E. The Immigration Act of 1990 was passed to revise the 1965 immigration law, putting limits on the flood of immigrants from Asia and Latin America, and to open immigration to Europeans who had been adversely affected by the 1965 law. F. The 1990 immigration law reduced the total annual immigration slightly, encouraged immigrants with special skills, and set up special categories for special immigrants like close relatives of United States citizens. II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390) What do you think should be the goals of the United States immigration policy? Answers will vary. Students should consider the historic issues of immigration policy. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ G alien ___ C resident alien ___ A non-resident alien ___ F enemy alien ___ E illegal alien ___ D amnesty ___ B private law A. a person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the United States for a short, specified period of time B. applies to a particular person C. a person from a foreign nation who has established permanent residency in the United States D. a general pardon to individuals for an offense against the government E. a person without legal permission to be in a country F. a citizen of a nation with which the United States is at war G. a person who lives in a country where he or she is not a citizen Checking for Understanding 3. Identify refugee. A refugee is a person fleeing a country to escape persecution or danger. Cultural Pluralism Every community has a unique ethnic history. When did people of various ethnic and racial groups begin to come to your community? Research your community’s immigration history at the local library. Draw a time line showing how your community grew and when each group began to arrive. The Basis of Citizenship Key Terms naturalization, jus soli, jus sanguinis, collective naturalization, expatriation, denaturalization Find Out • What are the requirements for citizenship in the United States? • What are the main responsibilities of American citizens? Certain citizens of the United States by birth were also made citizens by Congress. When Congress admitted Texas as a state in 1845, it also made all the people of Texas citizens of the U.S. I. National Citizenship (pages 391–393) A. Citizens of the United States have rights, responsibilities, and duties. B. The Founders assumed the states would decide who was a citizen. C. Citizenship came to have both a national and a state dimension. D. The Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African Americans were not U.S. citizens led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship at both the state and national levels. II. Citizenship by Birth (page 393) A. Citizens by the “law of the soil” are born in the U.S. or its territories. B. Children born to a parent who is a U.S. citizen are also citizens by the “law of blood,” including children born in another country of American parents. III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394) A. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights and privileges of native-born citizens. B. Congress has established qualifications for naturalization: 1. Applicants must be of good moral character and have entered the U.S. legally. 2. Applicants must read, write, and speak English. 3. Applicants must show basic knowledge of American history and government and support the principles of American government. III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394) Why must applicants show basic knowledge of American history and government? Citizens must understand these subjects in order to participate fully in government. IV. Steps to Citizenship (pages 394–395) A. An applicant must file a petition requesting citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have been a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30 months out of the previous 5 years, and have resided in the state for at least 3 months. B. At a final hearing, a federal judge administers the oath of allegiance to the new citizens. V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396) A. Only the federal government can take away citizenship. B. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily or involuntarily. V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396) How may citizenship be taken away? Expatriation, crimes such as treason, or denaturalization. VI.The Responsibilities of Citizens (pages 396–397) A. Responsible citizens need to know about the laws that govern society. B. Responsible citizens participate in political life. Checking for Understanding Match the term with the correct definition. ___ E naturalization A. giving up one’s citizenship by leaving to live in a foreign country ___ C jus soli B. the principle that grants citizenship on the basis of the citizenship of one’s parents ___ B jus sanguinis ___ F collective naturalization ___ A expatriation ___ D denaturalization C. the principle that grants citizenship to nearly all people born in a country D. the loss of citizenship through fraud or deception during the naturalization process E. the legal process by which a person is granted citizenship F. A process by which a group of people become American citizens through an act of Congress Checking for Understanding 3. Identify Dred Scott v. Sandford. Dred Scott v. Sandford is the Supreme Court case ruling that decided African Americans were not U.S. citizens and led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship at both the state and national levels. Checking for Understanding 4. What are the five requirements for becoming a naturalized citizen? Applicants must have entered the United States legally; be of good moral character; declare their support of the principles of American government; prove that they can read, write, and speak English; and show some basic knowledge of American history and government. Checking for Understanding 5. In what three ways may American citizenship be lost? American citizenships may be lost through expatriation, as a punishment for treason, or denaturalization. Critical Thinking 6. Synthesizing Information Why does the United States require citizenship applicants to speak English and have knowledge of the American government? Possible answer: Since the United States is based on self-government, it is vital that new citizens understand and support the principles of government and speak the language in order to participate. Constitutional Interpretations The Fourteenth Amendment extends the “privileges and immunities” of each state to all American citizens. Make a chart that lists the privileges that you believe your state should provide out-of-state persons and the privileges that should extend only to residents of your state. Reviewing Key Terms Match the following terms with the descriptions below. A. affirmative action B. counsel C. illegal alien D. Jim Crow laws E. naturalization F. resident alien G. double jeopardy H. exclusionary rule I. security classification system J. non-resident alien ___ G 1. a person may not be retried for the same crime ___ E 2. the process of gaining citizenship ___ J 3. person from a foreign country who expects to stay in the United States for a short, specified period of time ___ F 4. person from a foreign country who establishes permanent residence in the United States Reviewing Key Terms Match the following terms with the descriptions below. A. affirmative action B. counsel C. illegal alien D. Jim Crow laws E. naturalization F. resident alien G. double jeopardy H. exclusionary rule I. security classification system J. non-resident alien ___ C 5. person who comes to the United States without legal permits ___ B 6. an attorney ___ H 7. keeps illegally obtained evidence out of court ___ D 8. laws that discriminated against African Americans ___ A 9. policy giving preference to minorities ___ I 10.how government documents are kept secret Recalling Facts 1. How did the Constitution address the issue of citizenship? The Constitution spoke of citizenship only as a qualification for holding office in the federal government. 2. What is the difference between an immigrant and an alien? An immigrant enters a new country intending to live there permanently and become a citizen, whereas an alien is a temporary resident and may not intend to become a citizen of the country. Recalling Facts 3. What are the three basic sources of United States citizenship? The three basic sources of United States citizenship are jus soli, jus sanguinis, and naturalization. 4. What items must be included in a legal search warrant? The warrant must describe the place to be searched and the person or things to be seized. Recalling Facts 5. List the three Miranda rules. Prior to any questioning, the person must be warned that he or she has the right to remain silent, that any statement he or she makes may be used as evidence against him or her in court, and that he or she has the right to the presence of an attorney. Understanding Concepts 1. Constitutional Interpretations How did the Fourteenth Amendment expand citizenship in the United States? It guaranteed citizenship for all people, regardless of race, who are born in the United States and subject to its government. It established state citizenship as an automatic result of national citizenship. Understanding Concepts 2. Civil Rights Why did the Court rule that wiretapping without a warrant was an illegal search and thus a violation of the Fourth Amendment? The Court ruled that the Fourth Amendment protects people, not simply areas, from search and seizure. Critical Thinking 1. Describe the circumstances in which collecting information about citizens and consumers conflicts with the individual’s right to privacy. When government or business shares information that has been collected with other agencies, especially when it does not inform the individual, the right to privacy is jeopardized. Critical Thinking 2. Making Generalizations How did the Escobedo and Miranda cases extend protection against self-incrimination and forced confessions? These cases overturned convictions in which confessions were made by the accused before that person had access to an attorney and before the accused was told that he or she had the right to remain silent. Critical Thinking 3. Predicting Consequences Use a graphic organizer like the one below to show what might happen if there were no formal procedures for becoming an American citizen. Effect: The country would be flooded with immigrants and refugees who could not participate in government. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 1. Who are the people grouped on the left of the cartoon? They are recent immigrants to the United States. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 2. What is the meaning of the comment made by the person on the right? Native Americans, whose presence in the Americas dates back thousands of years, are the only non-immigrants. The man in the middle is the descendant of immigrants. Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity 3. How is “illegal immigrants” being defined by the cartoonist? In the cartoon, the term “illegal immigrants” applies to both groups on the left. The cartoonist implies that “illegal immigrants” are those people who came to the Americas and took Native Americans’ lands.