United States Government

Report
Chapter Focus
Section 1 A Nation of Immigrants
Section 2 The Basis of Citizenship
Section 3 The Rights of the Accused
Section 4 Equal Protection of
the Law
Section 5 Challenges for
Civil Liberties
Chapter Assessment
Chapter Objectives
•
A Nation of Immigrants Describe immigration
policy and explain how it has changed.
•
The Basis of Citizenship Explain the
requirement for United States citizenship.
•
The Rights of the Accused Summarize the
rights of Americans accused of crimes.
•
Equal Protection of the Law Explain the
concept of “equal protection” and the tests by
which the Supreme Court determines
discrimination.
•
Challenges for Civil Liberties Contrast trends
and laws intended to ensure equal opportunity,
privacy, and citizens’ right to know.
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388)
A. Immigrants come to a new country intending
to live there permanently; aliens live in a
country where they are not citizens.
B. The federal government classifies aliens into
five categories:
1. resident aliens
2. nonresident aliens
3. enemy aliens
4. refugees
5. illegal aliens
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388)
C. Protections of the Bill of Rights, such as
freedom of speech and assembly, apply to
aliens as well as citizens.
D. Aliens cannot vote; most are exempt from
military duty and serving on juries.
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388)
I. Immigrants and Aliens (pages 387–388)
What responsibilities do aliens have to
the U.S. government?
They must pay taxes, obey the laws, and be
loyal to the government.
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390)
A. In 1882 Congress began to fully use its
power to regulate immigration, and it
imposed many restrictions during the next
four decades.
B. The Immigration Act of 1924 sharply lowered
the number of immigrants who could arrive
each year and favored those who came from
northern and western Europe.
C. The Immigration Reform Act of 1965 changed
immigration policy by fixing a ceiling on
countries in the Eastern Hemisphere and a
different ceiling on those in the Western
Hemisphere, as well as creating a
complicated system for preferential treatment
of selected immigrants.
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390)
D. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of
1986 was passed to stem the tide of illegal
immigrants and to allow illegal immigrants to
become permanent residents and citizens.
E. The Immigration Act of 1990 was passed to
revise the 1965 immigration law, putting
limits on the flood of immigrants from Asia
and Latin America, and to open immigration
to Europeans who had been adversely
affected by the 1965 law.
F. The 1990 immigration law reduced the total
annual immigration slightly, encouraged
immigrants with special skills, and set up
special categories for special immigrants like
close relatives of United States citizens.
II. Immigration Policy (pages 389–390)
What do you think should be the goals of
the United States immigration policy?
Answers will vary. Students should consider
the historic issues of immigration policy.
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.
___
G alien
___
C resident alien
___
A non-resident
alien
___
F enemy alien
___
E illegal alien
___
D amnesty
___
B private law
A. a person from a foreign country
who expects to stay in the United
States for a short, specified period
of time
B. applies to a particular person
C. a person from a foreign nation who
has established permanent
residency in the United States
D. a general pardon to individuals for
an offense against the government
E. a person without legal permission to
be in a country
F. a citizen of a nation with which the
United States is at war
G. a person who lives in a country
where he or she is not a citizen
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify refugee.
A refugee is a person fleeing a country to
escape persecution or danger.
Cultural Pluralism Every community has
a unique ethnic history. When did people of
various ethnic and racial groups begin to
come to your community? Research your
community’s immigration history at the
local library. Draw a time line showing how
your community grew and when each
group began to arrive.
The Basis of Citizenship
Key Terms
naturalization, jus soli, jus sanguinis, collective
naturalization, expatriation, denaturalization
Find Out
• What are the requirements for citizenship in the
United States?
• What are the main responsibilities of
American citizens?
Certain citizens of the United States by
birth were also made citizens by
Congress. When Congress admitted
Texas as a state in 1845, it also made all
the people of Texas citizens of the U.S.
I. National Citizenship (pages 391–393)
A. Citizens of the United States have rights,
responsibilities, and duties.
B. The Founders assumed the states would
decide who was a citizen.
C. Citizenship came to have both a national
and a state dimension.
D. The Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African
Americans were not U.S. citizens led to the
adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment,
which defined citizenship at both the state
and national levels.
II. Citizenship by Birth (page 393)
A. Citizens by the “law of the soil” are born in
the U.S. or its territories.
B. Children born to a parent who is a U.S.
citizen are also citizens by the “law of blood,”
including children born in another country of
American parents.
III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394)
A. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights
and privileges of native-born citizens.
B. Congress has established qualifications
for naturalization:
1. Applicants must be of good moral
character and have entered the
U.S. legally.
2. Applicants must read, write, and
speak English.
3. Applicants must show basic knowledge
of American history and government
and support the principles of
American government.
III. Citizenship by Naturalization (pages 393–394)
Why must applicants show basic knowledge
of American history and government?
Citizens must understand these subjects in
order to participate fully in government.
IV. Steps to Citizenship (pages 394–395)
A. An applicant must file a petition requesting
citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have
been a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30
months out of the previous 5 years, and have
resided in the state for at least 3 months.
B. At a final hearing, a federal judge
administers the oath of allegiance to the
new citizens.
V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396)
A. Only the federal government can take
away citizenship.
B. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily
or involuntarily.
V. Losing Citizenship (pages 395–396)
How may citizenship be taken away?
Expatriation, crimes such as treason,
or denaturalization.
VI.The Responsibilities of Citizens
(pages 396–397)
A. Responsible citizens need to know about the
laws that govern society.
B. Responsible citizens participate in
political life.
Checking for Understanding
Match the term with the correct definition.
___
E naturalization
A. giving up one’s citizenship by
leaving to live in a foreign country
___
C jus soli
B. the principle that grants citizenship
on the basis of the citizenship of
one’s parents
___
B jus sanguinis
___
F collective
naturalization
___
A expatriation
___
D denaturalization
C. the principle that grants citizenship
to nearly all people born in a country
D. the loss of citizenship through fraud
or deception during the
naturalization process
E. the legal process by which a person
is granted citizenship
F. A process by which a group of
people become American citizens
through an act of Congress
Checking for Understanding
3. Identify Dred Scott v. Sandford.
Dred Scott v. Sandford is the Supreme Court
case ruling that decided African Americans were
not U.S. citizens and led to the adoption of the
Fourteenth Amendment, which defined
citizenship at both the state and national levels.
Checking for Understanding
4. What are the five requirements for becoming a
naturalized citizen?
Applicants must have entered the United
States legally; be of good moral character;
declare their support of the principles of
American government; prove that they can
read, write, and speak English; and show
some basic knowledge of American history
and government.
Checking for Understanding
5. In what three ways may American citizenship
be lost?
American citizenships may be lost through
expatriation, as a punishment for treason,
or denaturalization.
Critical Thinking
6. Synthesizing Information Why does the
United States require citizenship applicants to
speak English and have knowledge of the
American government?
Possible answer: Since the United States is
based on self-government, it is vital that new
citizens understand and support the principles
of government and speak the language in order
to participate.
Constitutional Interpretations The
Fourteenth Amendment extends the
“privileges and immunities” of each state
to all American citizens. Make a chart that
lists the privileges that you believe your
state should provide out-of-state persons
and the privileges that should extend only
to residents of your state.
Reviewing Key Terms
Match the following terms with the descriptions below.
A. affirmative action
B. counsel
C. illegal alien
D. Jim Crow laws
E. naturalization
F. resident alien
G. double jeopardy
H. exclusionary rule
I. security classification system
J. non-resident alien
___
G 1. a person may not be retried for the
same crime
___
E 2. the process of gaining citizenship
___
J 3. person from a foreign country who expects
to stay in the United States for a short,
specified period of time
___
F 4. person from a foreign country who
establishes permanent residence in the
United States
Reviewing Key Terms
Match the following terms with the descriptions below.
A. affirmative action
B. counsel
C. illegal alien
D. Jim Crow laws
E. naturalization
F. resident alien
G. double jeopardy
H. exclusionary rule
I. security classification system
J. non-resident alien
___
C 5. person who comes to the United States
without legal permits
___
B 6. an attorney
___
H 7. keeps illegally obtained evidence out of court
___
D 8. laws that discriminated against African
Americans
___
A 9. policy giving preference to minorities
___
I 10.how government documents are kept secret
Recalling Facts
1. How did the Constitution address the issue
of citizenship?
The Constitution spoke of citizenship only as
a qualification for holding office in the federal
government.
2. What is the difference between an immigrant
and an alien?
An immigrant enters a new country intending
to live there permanently and become a
citizen, whereas an alien is a temporary
resident and may not intend to become a
citizen of the country.
Recalling Facts
3. What are the three basic sources of United
States citizenship?
The three basic sources of United States
citizenship are jus soli, jus sanguinis, and
naturalization.
4. What items must be included in a legal search
warrant?
The warrant must describe the place to be
searched and the person or things to be seized.
Recalling Facts
5. List the three Miranda rules.
Prior to any questioning, the person must be
warned that he or she has the right to remain
silent, that any statement he or she makes may
be used as evidence against him or her in court,
and that he or she has the right to the presence
of an attorney.
Understanding Concepts
1. Constitutional Interpretations How did the
Fourteenth Amendment expand citizenship in
the United States?
It guaranteed citizenship for all people,
regardless of race, who are born in the United
States and subject to its government. It
established state citizenship as an automatic
result of national citizenship.
Understanding Concepts
2. Civil Rights Why did the Court rule that
wiretapping without a warrant was an illegal
search and thus a violation of the Fourth
Amendment?
The Court ruled that the Fourth Amendment
protects people, not simply areas, from search
and seizure.
Critical Thinking
1. Describe the circumstances in which collecting
information about citizens and consumers
conflicts with the individual’s right to privacy.
When government or business shares
information that has been collected with other
agencies, especially when it does not inform the
individual, the right to privacy is jeopardized.
Critical Thinking
2. Making Generalizations How did the
Escobedo and Miranda cases extend
protection against self-incrimination and
forced confessions?
These cases overturned convictions in which
confessions were made by the accused before
that person had access to an attorney and
before the accused was told that he or she had
the right to remain silent.
Critical Thinking
3. Predicting Consequences Use a graphic
organizer like the one below to show what might
happen if there were no formal procedures for
becoming an American citizen.
Effect: The country would be flooded with
immigrants and refugees who could not
participate in government.
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
1. Who are the people grouped on the left of
the cartoon?
They are recent immigrants to the United States.
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
2. What is the meaning of the comment made by
the person on the right?
Native Americans, whose presence in the
Americas dates back thousands of years, are
the only non-immigrants. The man in the middle
is the descendant of immigrants.
Interpreting Political Cartoons Activity
3. How is “illegal immigrants” being defined by
the cartoonist?
In the cartoon, the term “illegal immigrants”
applies to both groups on the left. The cartoonist
implies that “illegal immigrants” are those people
who came to the Americas and took Native
Americans’ lands.

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