Sony_Cameras 101 Ver2

Report
Welcome to
Boot Camp
From Sgt. C.J. Soltesz
(‘Cobra’)
Cameras 101
Chris Soltesz
SSE-DS
BPSD
Sony Electronics, Inc.
(817) 417-0126
(214) 669-5861
[email protected]
Cameras 101: Introduction
• “It has been my experience that the
dissemination of a little knowledge will
achieve one of two possible outcomes. It will
either prompt the person learning to go out
and gather even more information on the
subject, further expanding their knowledge
base, or give them a sense of false security
and make them a very dangerous source of
misinformation.”
Cameras 101: Agenda
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction
Camera Technology
Types of Cameras
Camera Design
Lenses
Accessories
Applications
Packages
Cameras 101: Introduction
• A Video Camera is responsible
for:
– Capturing a moving image by
accurately reproducing the scene.
It’s like a microphone for your eyes
Cameras 101:
Camera Parts
• Camera Lens
– Focuses light onto imager in the Camera
• Camera
– Light hits prism or filter inside camera
– Split by prism or filter and then directed at
imager
– Imager Translates light information into
electrical signal
– Signal can then be transmitted or recorded
Cameras 101:
Camera Design Parameters
• Camera Design
– Single or Multi-Imager
• Tube Cameras
• CCD
• CMOS
– Imager Size
– Processing
• Analog
• Digital (DSP)
– Type
•
•
•
•
Studio
EFP
ENG
Image Capture
Definition/Aspect Ratio
Standard Def.
 High Def.
 Multi Def.

Form
One Piece
 Fixed Lens
 Dockable
 Convertible
 Etc.

Standard
NTSC
 PAL
 Multi-Std.

Cameras 101: Imagers
• Single or Multi-imager cameras
– Cameras can generally come in two flavors.
One uses a single pickup device and a
optical filter to divide the light into red,
green and blue to capture the different
electrical signals from the three color
channels. This type is known as a single
CCD (or one chip) camera.
– The second uses three separate imagers and
a prism to separate the light and capture the
corresponding channel. This type is now
known as a 3CCD (or three chip) camera.
Today’s highest resolution cameras are all
3CCD cameras.
Cameras 101: Imagers
• Imager Size
– The more light that can be directed on
the imager, the better the performance of
the camera. A larger imager performs
better in low light situations. Early tube
imagers were 1”, 2/3”or 1/3”. Today’s
3CCD cameras come in the following
sizes:
• 2/3”
• 1/2”
• 1/3”
• 1/4”
• 1/4.7”
Cameras 101: Imagers
• Tube cameras
– Early cameras used vacuum tube
imagers that translated the optical
image focused on the phosphor
photosensitive surface of the tube
into an electrical signal. Image
Orthicons, Saticons, Vidicons,
Plumbicons, Newvicons and
Trinicons are all different types of
cathode ray tube imagers that were
used.
Cameras 101: Imagers
RCA 5820 Image Orthicon Camera Tube
Cameras 101: Imagers
• CCD cameras
– Starting in the late 1980’s, charge
coupled devices (or CCD’s)
replaced vacuum tubes. CCD’s
have been continually improved
over the last fifteen years, with the
greatest gains being made in
sensitivity, noise reduction and
resolution . The latest imager
technology being developed is
CMOS, which has the potential to
be more cost effective than CCD’s.
Sony CCD Trend of Improvement
for Performance
1998
Power HAD
CCD
1990
On-ChipMicro lens
1985
HAD Sensor
・On-Chip-Lens
・Low Dark Current
・E-Shutter
1999
・Internal Lens
→High Sensitivity
・Thinner Insulation
・Re-construction
(Gapless)
→High Sensitivity
Technology
→High Sensitivity
Low Smear
2001
New Construction
CCD
Film
Power HAD EX
CCD
・Further Improvement
→High Sensitivity
Low Smear
→Low Smear
Sensor
■HAD Sensor
■Hyper HAD
■Power HAD CCD
On-Chip-Micro lens
■Power HAD EX
On-Chip-Micro lens
On-Chip-Micro lens
I’nal
Lens
Photo-Shielding
film
Photo-Shielding
film
Poly Si
Sensor
V-register
Smear
Poly Si
Sensor
V-register
Photo-Shielding
film
Smear
Photo-Shielding
film
Poly Si
Poly Si
Sensor
V-register
Improved reflection,
resulting in less Smear
Sensor
V-register
Thinner Insulation Film
Improvement of Performance by New
Construction CCCD
On-Chip-Micro lens
On-Chip-Micro lens
Internal Lens
Photo-Shielding
film
Photo-Shielding
film
Poly Si
Poly Si
Sensor
Sensor
V-register
Fig.-2 New CCD Sensor Construction
Fig.-1 Power HAD CCD Sensor Construction
Improvement of Smear by thinner insulation membrane
Power HAD CCD camera :
V-register
-125dB
Power HAD EX CCD camera
:
(Typical)
-140dB
(Typical)
Thinner
Insulation
Film
CCD Improvement (Smear Level)
BVP-950FIT
BVP-900FIT
BVP-550FIT
DVW-790WS
BVP-500FIT
DNW-90/WS HDW-750
BVP-90
BVP375
BVP-70IS BVW-D600
BVP-370A DVW-700
BVP-70 BVW-400A
BVP-370
HDC700
BVW-400
HDW700
-150
-140
Smear Level (dB)
-130
BVP-900IT
BVP-950IT
DXC-D35
DNW-7
BVP-550IT DNW-9WS DVW-707
BVP-500IT DXC-D30 DVW-709WS
-120
BVP-50
-110
-100
-90
-80
’87
BVP-5
DXC-3000
‘88
’89
HDC-900
MSW-900
BVP-E10
BVP-7
DXC-M7
BVW-300
‘90
’91
BVP-7A
DXC-537
BVW-300A
‘92
’93
‘94
’95
‘96
’97
‘98
’99 ’00 ’01 ‘02
Cameras 101: Imagers
• CMOS cameras
– CMOS Imaging Technology for motion
video has been in development for the
last five years. CMOS technology differs
from CCD technology in many important
areas . CMOS is less expensive to
manufacture, uses less power and
provides the ability to process pixel by
pixel. With the introduction of the Sony
HVR-A1U and HVR-V1U, CMOS
cameras have arrived at the entry level of
professional cameras.
Camera Features: Imager
• 3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System
– Sony Original Pixel Interpolation Technology
• Higher Sensitivity
• Full HD Resolution
3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System
V:1080
H:960
G/R/B Channels with Sony Original Pixel Layout
Mechanism of the Interpolation
Technology
Mechanism of the Interpolation
Technology
Mechanism of the Interpolation
Technology
Pixel Count
H:960
1
2
3
4
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
V:1080
2
Pixel Count after Interpolation
H: 960
1
2
3
H: 1920
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
4
1
1
2
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
V: 1080
Interpolation
3
4
5
6
7
8
V: 1080
:Interpolated Pixels
Pixel Count after Interpolation
H:1920
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1
2
V:1080
3
4
5
6
7
8
:Interpolated Pixels
Before Interpolation
V:1080
H:960
After Interpolation
V:1080
H:1920
Camera Process Diagram
Camera Process of the HVR-V1 is
1080/60p 4:2:2 Signal Processing
New!!
B&I
Exclusive
Progressive Scan
Progressive Scan is available
60Hz
Camcorder
30p
p/i
conv.
Shooting
24p
Recording
2-3 pulldown
Shooting
50Hz
Camcorder
25p
Shooting
60i
60i
Recording
p/i
conv.
50i
Recording
HVR-V1U 2:3 Pulldown
• Same method as Varicam, DVX100, and
traditional Telecine
– Frame is captured PROGRESSIVELY every 1/24
second
– Frame is divided into 2 separate fields
– Each field is laid down to tape in a “2:3” cadence,
resulting in 60 fields per second
• 24 Progressive
Frames
• 60 Fields
(30 Frames)
NLE and 2:3 Pulldown
• The NLE “sees” the 2:3 Pulldown
• “Tags” and removes the 2:3 pulldown
• Enables editing on a 23.98 timeline
– Perfect for 24 fps DVD authoring
– Essential for Film Out
– Great for maintaining “cinema look” throughout post
• 2:3 can be added back in for tape output, if desired
Cameras 101: Processing
• Analog Processing
– The earliest camera designs utilized tube
amplifiers. Huge multi-conductor cables
connected the imagers to the electronics
(they were huge). With the development of
the transistor, cameras were able to offer
better signal processing in a much smaller
form. New developments in IC amplifiers
helped, but adding analog amplifiers added
noise. Improving camera design by adding
advanced signal processing depended upon
determining if the benefit would outweigh the
noise induced by the processing circuit.
Cameras 101: Processing
• Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
– Today’s Digital cameras maintain higher
image quality by processing the signals
digitally. First, the component signals are
converted from analog to digital through high
quality A-D converters. These converted
signals are then processed in the digital
domain using advanced >30bit processors.
Almost every camera manufactured today
uses DSP.
Cameras 101: Processing
• DSP (cont.)
– The use of Digital Signal Processing allows
complex signal manipulation that would not
be possible in an analog design. Innovative
picture quality improvements showing the
benefits of DSP can be seen in features like:
Fully adjustable Gamma, 6 vector Matrix,
Detail, Knee, Clip, Stretch, Skin Tone Detail,
Advanced Pixel Restoration (APR), Fine
dark detail and contrast, Total Level Control
System, Advanced Diagnostics True-Eye
and DynaLatitude.
12bit A/D
-12 bit A/D conversion and signal processing
- Better YC and S/N ratio
10 bit
12 bit
Finer
resolution
Better
resolution
High light part is cut.
VCX-377 DSP Bit Length Stream for Y Signal
MSB
Most Significant Bit
3
1
1
A/D C.
10 bit
8
D1
8 bit
8
2
2
8
8
1
1
8
8
8
8
D/A C.
10 bit
1
3
3
3
3
3
4
2
LSB
Least Significant Bit
A/D C.
~
PP
~
PR in
Up Converter
Output
Linear Matrix
~
Ped.Mix
~
Before Gamma
DTL Mix
~
Gamma In
Gamma Out
After Gamma
DTL Mix
~
Knee
~
Knee APT Mix
~
RGB Clip Out
~
YC Mix In
YC MTX
Y Out
Y. Knee
~
Y Clip
Out
~
RC In
RC Out
to
VTR
10 bits from MSB will be converted to
analog as camera output
Cameras 101:
Camera Types
Studio and EFP Cameras
– Studio Cameras are meant to be kept in
the studio. This traditionally would be a
large, high performance broadcast camera
with a lens specifically designed for close
up work.
– EFP stands for Electronic Field Production.
This camera would have the same
performance characteristics as the
previous type, but may be of a more
portable Camcorder design.
Cameras 101:
Camera Types
ENG Cameras
– ENG stands for Electronic News
Gathering. This type of camera was
developed for the rough and tumble
Broadcast News industry. Usually a
robust Camcorder design, and is meant to
operate under all types of weather and
lighting conditions. Some Sony ENG
camcorders can be configured for studio
use (DSR-390, DSR570WS).
Cameras 101:
Camera Types
Image Capture
– Image Capture cameras do just that and
only that. This type of camera has many
uses: Security, Image Magnification,
Copy Stand, Industrial, Medical, Remote
Control, and Videoconferencing use to
name just a few.
Cameras 101: Design
• Definition and Aspect Ratio
– Standard Definition
• 720 X 486 (640 X 480)
• 4:3 Aspect Ratio
– High Definition
• 1920 X 1080 or 1280 X 720
• 16:9 Aspect Ratio (widescreen)
– Multi-Definition
• Both SD and HD
• Imager that can provide both
– Many of today’s SD Cameras are widescreen
• This preserves 16:9 Aspect Ratio for Up-conversion to HD
Cameras 101: Design
• Form
– One Piece
• Camera is a one piece unit
– Fixed Lens
• Lens is not removable
– Dockable
• Camera head can docked to different backs
for different uses
– Convertible
• Can be set up for Studio (Box) or ENG Style
Style Lenses. Studio design called a Sled.
– Etc.
• Up to each manufacturer.
Cameras 101: Design
• Standard
– NTSC
• US (and others) Broadcast Video
Standard
– PAL
• European Broadcast Video Standard
– Multi-Standard
• Both
Cameras 101: Lenses
• Lens choices
– Critical to overall Camera performance
• All Light going to camera must pass through lens
• Frequencies of light determined by MTF of Lens
• Broadcast and HD Grade Lenses
– Must Match Imager size
• 2/3” Imager requires 2/3”Lens
– ½” Lens Mount design Choices
• Hot Shoe
• Double Hot Shoe
– Aspect Ratio also affects Lens Choice
• 20% difference in lens telephoto
Cameras 101: Lenses
• Lenses (Cont.)
– Lens Manufacturers
• Canon and Fujinon most popular
– Lens Length/Type
• Determined by studio size, camera placement and/or
shots required for production
• Most ENG lenses today have zoom capabilities that
are at least 18X
• Wide angle Lenses are also used where space is
critical
– Rear Lens Control Kits
• Accessories for Studio and EFP (OB) Style Shooting
• Rear Lens controls are not interchangeable between
manufacturers
Cameras 101: Lenses
• All Sony ½” and 2/3” cameras have
removable lenses
– Sony uses standard Bayonet Mount
– Lens Models are named by size:
• 2/3” Canon “YJ”, “J” (Broadcast), “HJ”
(High Def)
• 2/3” Fujinon “A”, “HA” (High Def)
• ½” Canon “YH”, Fujinon “S” or VCL’s
• Smaller lenses (1/3” and C-Mount) are
also VCL’s (can be confusing)
Cameras 101: Accessories
• Accessories
– Camera Adaptor (CA)
• Provides for analog or digital signal
transmission and control interface to CCU.
• Can be sent over Multicore, Triaxial, Fiber or
Wireless.
• Can also provide audio, prompter, return video
and intercom.
– Camera Control Unit (CCU)
• Provides power to camera and accessories as
well as providing remote control of image for
adjustment during production. Also provides
connection point for signal output. Generally a
Studio or OB application.
Cameras 101: Accessories
• More Accessories
– Remote Control Panel
• Provides for remote connection to CCU for
shading and control of camera.
• Can also connect directly to camera for CCU
type performance without need for CCU. Used
in EFP.
– Viewfinder
• The viewfinder is a video monitor that allows the
camera operator to see what they are shooting.
Can be ENG (smaller for shoulder mounted
shooting ) or Studio (larger for standing behind
the camera).
Cameras 101: Accessories
• Even More Accessories
– CCU Interconnection cables
•
•
•
•
Not included.
Multicore designated CCZAD.
Triax designated CCTA (1/2”) or CCTB (3/8”)
Sold in specific lengths (CCZAD50 with
length in meters.
– VTR Back
• Video tape recorder that mounts to the back
of a Dockable Camera Head. Creates
camcorder like design.
• Latest designs are Disc based.
Cameras 101: Accessories
• Still Even More Accessories
– Tripod Mounting Plate
• Provides quick release mounting point for
Tripod.
– Tripod or Pedestal
• Stable platform to shoot from.
• Fluid Head provides smooth pan and tilt.
– Intercom Headset
• PH8S Headset for CCU-D50, CA-D50.
Cameras 101: Accessories
• Could there possibly be any more??
– Batteries
• Different batteries for different models
– Battery Chargers
• Need the correct charger to match the battery
– AC Adaptors
• For use when you have AC power available.
– Camera Cases
• Hard or soft cases for shipping cameras and
accessories.
– Wireless Mics
• Do I really need to finish this?
Cameras 101: Applications
• Camcorders provide recording capabilities
directly onto tape or Disc
– Sony Professional/Broadcast Camcorder formats:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DV
DVCAM
Beta SX
MPEG IMX
XDCAM
Digi-Beta
HDV
XDCAM HD
HDCAM
Cameras 101: Applications
• Camcorders features and capabilities.
– Very different products for different
markets.
•
•
•
•
•
Professional Wedding/ Event Videographer
Independent Film Making
Broadcast News Gathering
Wildlife Videography
Electronic Cimematography
– All of these present different imaging
demands and require a different
performance level from the camera.
Cameras 101: Applications
• Camcorder Pricing
– Sony Camcorders:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
DSR-PD170
HVR-V1U
HVR-Z1U
DSR-400L
DSR-450WSL
PDW-F350
PDW-530
MSW-970
DVW-970
HDW-750/1
HDW-F900R
$3,940.00
$4,890.00
$5,946.00
$10,800.00
$15,000.00
$25,800.00
$34,000.00
$37,000.00
$49,700.00
$71,100.00
$79,900.00
Cameras 101:
Applications
• What about Image Capture cameras?
– Known as Box or POV Cameras
• DXC-990 ½” 3CCD
• DXC-390 1/3” 3CCD
– Can be fixed or mounted on PTZ head
• Other manufacturer (AMX, Crestron)
– Needs power supply
• CMA-D2 or CMA-D3
• Requires specialized interconnection cables
(CCDC/CCMC)
– Remote Control for CCU type control
• RMC-950
– Additional Specialized Lenses and Mounts for a
variety of different applications (microscopy, etc)
Cameras 101:
Applications
• HD Image Capture POV Camera
– HDC-X300
• ½” High Definition Box Camera
• Provides HDSDI or HD Component Out
– HDC-X300K package with Canon
VCL719BXS Lens
– Remote Controls for CCU type control
• RCP-700
• RCP-750
• RMB-150//A
– No external CCU
Cameras 101:
Applications
• Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras
– Include Camera and PTZ Mechanism
• EVI D Series 1CCD PTZ Camera
• BRC Series 3CCD PTZ Camera
– Accessories
• EVI- remote controls and dome housings
• BRC- we will cover later
– Uses for these products can range from
Videoconferencing to Security. These
cameras are used in Religious, Education,
Corporate and Government applications.
Cameras 101:
Applications
• Internet Protocol (IP) Cameras
– Network Connected Cameras
• SNCRZ50N IP PTZ Camera
• SNCRZ25N IP PTZ Camera
• SNCRX550N/B 360 IP PTZ Camera
– Accessories
• Dome Housings, mounting options
Cameras 101: Applications
• Application determines Camera Choice
– Example: High Definition Shooting
• Need highest resolution possible for historic
preservation of event.
• Electronic Cinema Production (Star Wars)
– Your Solution?
Cameras 101: Applications
• Application determines Camera Choice
– Example: One piece Palmcorders
• Used in high risk situations (i.e. CNN Gulf War
coverage, Combat Cam)
• Used in documentary shooting where a smaller
camera is less obtrusive on subject.
• Used in areas that would be sensitive to full size
ENG camcorder (Hey, look!! That’s a news crew!)
– Your Solution?
Cameras 101: Applications
• Application determines Camera Choice
– Example: Long distance camera signal
transmission with sophisticated camera
control, communication, etc.
• Sports remote shooting in a stadium
• Triaxial, fiber or wireless connection?
– Your Solution?
Cameras 101: Applications
• Application determines Camera Choice
– Example: Robotic Control
• Determined by camera placement: I need to have
a shot from the grid
• Tower cam
– Your Solution?
Cameras 101: Applications
• Application determines Camera Choice
– Example: Image Capture
• Manufacturing process requires monitoring and
inspection, but only provides space for small sized
camera.
– Your Solution?
Cameras 101: Packages
• Cameras come in Packages
– Include Camera and different
accessories
• Studio Packages
• ENG Packages (camcorders)
• Other types of packages
Cameras 101: Packages
• Studio Triax Camera Package Example
– DXCD50WSHPAC1.
• This triax studio system 1 package includes: the
new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera
widescreen, CA-TX50 triax camera adaptor, CCUTX50 triax CCU with SDI & camera controls, RCPD50 camera remote control (joystick-type), DXF-51
viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.
Cameras 101: Packages
• Studio Multicore Camera Package
Example
– DXCD50WSHPAC5
• Mulitcore system. This package includes: the
new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera
widescreen, CA-D50 camera adaptor, CCUD50 camera control unit, RCP-D50 camera
remote control panel (joystick-type), DXF-51
viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment.
Cameras 101: Models
• Camera L model Example
– DXCD50L
• The DXC-D50/D50WS is the next-generation in the DXC-series
of cameras, designed for even greater picture quality and
operational convenience. These cameras are offered in two
different versions: the DXC-D50H and L are 4:3 models and
DXC-D50WS 16:9/4:3-switchable model. Both feature the new
high-performance Power HAD EX CCD sensor and precise 12bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The
result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus low noise
and smear characteristics over previous models. A variety of
automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and
convenient operation in any shooting scenario. Another
important aspect of Sony DXC-D50/D50WS cameras is their
excellent system versatility. Two types of camera-control units
are available; the CCU-D50, for multi-core CCU operation, and
the CCU-TX50, for Triax CCU operation. The new RCPD50/D51 Remote Controllers can also be used with either
system. With a host of sophisticated features, the DXCD50/D50WS provides an ideal solution for small studio
operations at an affordable price.
Cameras 101: Models
• Camera H model Example
– DXCD50WSH
• The new DXC-D50WSH is the simplified version of
DXC-D50WSL not including the ENG viewfinder tripod
plate and microphone common to the "L" series. The
DXC-D50 cameras are offered in two main different
versions: the DXC-D50H/DXC-D50L at 4:3 aspect ratio
models and DXC-D50WSH/DXC-D50WSL 16:9/4:3
switchable aspect ratio models. All feature the highperformance Power HAD EX CCD's and precise 12-bit
A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI.
The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity,
plus extremely low noise and smear characteristics. A
variety of automatic functions have also been included,
allowing easy and convenient operation in any
shooting scenario.
Cameras 101: Packages
• ENG Camera Package Example
– DSR400K
• Introducing our new generation DSR-400 camcorder
featuring 3-2/3" Power HAD EX CCD's. The DSR-400K
model includes a 17X 2/3" CCD lens. Some of the
features of the DSR-400 camcorder are new style and
rugged alloy body construction, interchangeable 2/3"
zoom-lenses, Power HAD EX CCD's, Full Digital
Signal Processing, high resolution 1.5" B&W viewfinder
(DXF-801) and LCD panel, Memory Stick Scene file
storage and software upgrade, compact & lightweight,
adjustable shoulder pad, video light connector,
electronic color temperature adjustment, jog dial menu
control, DV and DVCAM recording, and professional
audio features. RCP-D50/RCP-D51 cannot be used
(not compatible) with DSR-400 camcorders.
Cameras 101: Packages
• Palmcorder Camera Package Example
– DSRPD170PAC
• This package includes the new DSR-PD170
3CCD DVCAM compact camcorder and LCPD150BP soft carrying case.
• Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a
battery, A/C adaptor/charger, wide angle lens, lens
hood, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc.
– You just have to know that.
Cameras 101: Packages
• HD Palmcorder Camera Package Example
– HVRZ1U
• New 3CCD 1080i HDV camcorder is here! The new HVRZ1U features three newly developed Super HAD 1/3" CCDs.
These new 16:9 native CCDs, combined with a high quality
12X Optical Zoom Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T* Lens and
Sony's new 14 bit A/D and DXP Digital Extended Processor,
result in precise image acquisition with superb detail and
clarity. The advanced CCD design allows more light to reach
the pixel imager, reducing video noise and improving the
signal-to-noise ratio. The new HVR-Z1U records this
exceptional imagery using the recently adopted HDV 1080i
format onto a DVCAM mini cassette.
– Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a
battery, A/C adaptor/charger, remote control, AA
batteries for the remote, etc.
– You just have to know all that too.
Cameras 101: Build your own
camera package
• Where would you start?
– What is the application?
• Is there a budget?
• SD or HD
• Is Aspect Ratio an Issue
– What is the Camera type needed?
• Studio, EFP, ENG, Image Capture?
• What is their shooting environment?
• If it’s a camcorder, what recording format?
– What accessories will they need?
• Lens application, CCU’s, CA’s, viewfinders,
cables, batteries, chargers, cases, etc.
Cameras 101:
Hands on Cameras
• Let’s get started!
Questions?
Thanks!!

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