Welcome to Boot Camp From Sgt. C.J. Soltesz (‘Cobra’) Cameras 101 Chris Soltesz SSE-DS BPSD Sony Electronics, Inc. (817) 417-0126 (214) 669-5861 [email protected] Cameras 101: Introduction • “It has been my experience that the dissemination of a little knowledge will achieve one of two possible outcomes. It will either prompt the person learning to go out and gather even more information on the subject, further expanding their knowledge base, or give them a sense of false security and make them a very dangerous source of misinformation.” Cameras 101: Agenda • • • • • • • • Introduction Camera Technology Types of Cameras Camera Design Lenses Accessories Applications Packages Cameras 101: Introduction • A Video Camera is responsible for: – Capturing a moving image by accurately reproducing the scene. It’s like a microphone for your eyes Cameras 101: Camera Parts • Camera Lens – Focuses light onto imager in the Camera • Camera – Light hits prism or filter inside camera – Split by prism or filter and then directed at imager – Imager Translates light information into electrical signal – Signal can then be transmitted or recorded Cameras 101: Camera Design Parameters • Camera Design – Single or Multi-Imager • Tube Cameras • CCD • CMOS – Imager Size – Processing • Analog • Digital (DSP) – Type • • • • Studio EFP ENG Image Capture Definition/Aspect Ratio Standard Def. High Def. Multi Def. Form One Piece Fixed Lens Dockable Convertible Etc. Standard NTSC PAL Multi-Std. Cameras 101: Imagers • Single or Multi-imager cameras – Cameras can generally come in two flavors. One uses a single pickup device and a optical filter to divide the light into red, green and blue to capture the different electrical signals from the three color channels. This type is known as a single CCD (or one chip) camera. – The second uses three separate imagers and a prism to separate the light and capture the corresponding channel. This type is now known as a 3CCD (or three chip) camera. Today’s highest resolution cameras are all 3CCD cameras. Cameras 101: Imagers • Imager Size – The more light that can be directed on the imager, the better the performance of the camera. A larger imager performs better in low light situations. Early tube imagers were 1”, 2/3”or 1/3”. Today’s 3CCD cameras come in the following sizes: • 2/3” • 1/2” • 1/3” • 1/4” • 1/4.7” Cameras 101: Imagers • Tube cameras – Early cameras used vacuum tube imagers that translated the optical image focused on the phosphor photosensitive surface of the tube into an electrical signal. Image Orthicons, Saticons, Vidicons, Plumbicons, Newvicons and Trinicons are all different types of cathode ray tube imagers that were used. Cameras 101: Imagers RCA 5820 Image Orthicon Camera Tube Cameras 101: Imagers • CCD cameras – Starting in the late 1980’s, charge coupled devices (or CCD’s) replaced vacuum tubes. CCD’s have been continually improved over the last fifteen years, with the greatest gains being made in sensitivity, noise reduction and resolution . The latest imager technology being developed is CMOS, which has the potential to be more cost effective than CCD’s. Sony CCD Trend of Improvement for Performance 1998 Power HAD CCD 1990 On-ChipMicro lens 1985 HAD Sensor ・On-Chip-Lens ・Low Dark Current ・E-Shutter 1999 ・Internal Lens →High Sensitivity ・Thinner Insulation ・Re-construction （Gapless） →High Sensitivity Technology →High Sensitivity Low Smear 2001 New Construction CCD Film Power HAD EX CCD ・Further Improvement →High Sensitivity Low Smear →Low Smear Sensor ■HAD Sensor ■Hyper HAD ■Power HAD CCD On-Chip-Micro lens ■Power HAD EX On-Chip-Micro lens On-Chip-Micro lens I’nal Lens Photo-Shielding film Photo-Shielding film Poly Si Sensor V-register Smear Poly Si Sensor V-register Photo-Shielding film Smear Photo-Shielding film Poly Si Poly Si Sensor V-register Improved reflection, resulting in less Smear Sensor V-register Thinner Insulation Film Improvement of Performance by New Construction CCCD On-Chip-Micro lens On-Chip-Micro lens Internal Lens Photo-Shielding film Photo-Shielding film Poly Si Poly Si Sensor Sensor V-register Fig.-2 New CCD Sensor Construction Fig.-1 Power HAD CCD Sensor Construction Improvement of Smear by thinner insulation membrane Power HAD CCD camera ： V-register -125dB Power HAD EX CCD camera ： (Typical) -140dB (Typical) Thinner Insulation Film CCD Improvement (Smear Level) BVP-950FIT BVP-900FIT BVP-550FIT DVW-790WS BVP-500FIT DNW-90/WS HDW-750 BVP-90 BVP375 BVP-70IS BVW-D600 BVP-370A DVW-700 BVP-70 BVW-400A BVP-370 HDC700 BVW-400 HDW700 -150 -140 Smear Level (dB) -130 BVP-900IT BVP-950IT DXC-D35 DNW-7 BVP-550IT DNW-9WS DVW-707 BVP-500IT DXC-D30 DVW-709WS -120 BVP-50 -110 -100 -90 -80 ’87 BVP-5 DXC-3000 ‘88 ’89 HDC-900 MSW-900 BVP-E10 BVP-7 DXC-M7 BVW-300 ‘90 ’91 BVP-7A DXC-537 BVW-300A ‘92 ’93 ‘94 ’95 ‘96 ’97 ‘98 ’99 ’00 ’01 ‘02 Cameras 101: Imagers • CMOS cameras – CMOS Imaging Technology for motion video has been in development for the last five years. CMOS technology differs from CCD technology in many important areas . CMOS is less expensive to manufacture, uses less power and provides the ability to process pixel by pixel. With the introduction of the Sony HVR-A1U and HVR-V1U, CMOS cameras have arrived at the entry level of professional cameras. Camera Features: Imager • 3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System – Sony Original Pixel Interpolation Technology • Higher Sensitivity • Full HD Resolution 3 ClearVid CMOS Sensor System V:1080 H:960 G/R/B Channels with Sony Original Pixel Layout Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology Mechanism of the Interpolation Technology Pixel Count H:960 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 V:1080 2 Pixel Count after Interpolation H: 960 1 2 3 H: 1920 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4 1 1 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V: 1080 Interpolation 3 4 5 6 7 8 V: 1080 :Interpolated Pixels Pixel Count after Interpolation H:1920 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 V:1080 3 4 5 6 7 8 :Interpolated Pixels Before Interpolation V:1080 H:960 After Interpolation V:1080 H:1920 Camera Process Diagram Camera Process of the HVR-V1 is 1080/60p 4:2:2 Signal Processing New!! B&I Exclusive Progressive Scan Progressive Scan is available 60Hz Camcorder 30p p/i conv. Shooting 24p Recording 2-3 pulldown Shooting 50Hz Camcorder 25p Shooting 60i 60i Recording p/i conv. 50i Recording HVR-V1U 2:3 Pulldown • Same method as Varicam, DVX100, and traditional Telecine – Frame is captured PROGRESSIVELY every 1/24 second – Frame is divided into 2 separate fields – Each field is laid down to tape in a “2:3” cadence, resulting in 60 fields per second • 24 Progressive Frames • 60 Fields (30 Frames) NLE and 2:3 Pulldown • The NLE “sees” the 2:3 Pulldown • “Tags” and removes the 2:3 pulldown • Enables editing on a 23.98 timeline – Perfect for 24 fps DVD authoring – Essential for Film Out – Great for maintaining “cinema look” throughout post • 2:3 can be added back in for tape output, if desired Cameras 101: Processing • Analog Processing – The earliest camera designs utilized tube amplifiers. Huge multi-conductor cables connected the imagers to the electronics (they were huge). With the development of the transistor, cameras were able to offer better signal processing in a much smaller form. New developments in IC amplifiers helped, but adding analog amplifiers added noise. Improving camera design by adding advanced signal processing depended upon determining if the benefit would outweigh the noise induced by the processing circuit. Cameras 101: Processing • Digital Signal Processing (DSP) – Today’s Digital cameras maintain higher image quality by processing the signals digitally. First, the component signals are converted from analog to digital through high quality A-D converters. These converted signals are then processed in the digital domain using advanced >30bit processors. Almost every camera manufactured today uses DSP. Cameras 101: Processing • DSP (cont.) – The use of Digital Signal Processing allows complex signal manipulation that would not be possible in an analog design. Innovative picture quality improvements showing the benefits of DSP can be seen in features like: Fully adjustable Gamma, 6 vector Matrix, Detail, Knee, Clip, Stretch, Skin Tone Detail, Advanced Pixel Restoration (APR), Fine dark detail and contrast, Total Level Control System, Advanced Diagnostics True-Eye and DynaLatitude. 12bit A/D -12 bit A/D conversion and signal processing - Better YC and S/N ratio 10 bit 12 bit Finer resolution Better resolution High light part is cut. VCX-377 DSP Bit Length Stream for Y Signal MSB Most Significant Bit 3 1 1 A/D C. 10 bit 8 D1 8 bit 8 2 2 8 8 1 1 8 8 8 8 D/A C. 10 bit 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 LSB Least Significant Bit A/D C. ~ PP ~ PR in Up Converter Output Linear Matrix ~ Ped.Mix ~ Before Gamma DTL Mix ~ Gamma In Gamma Out After Gamma DTL Mix ~ Knee ~ Knee APT Mix ~ RGB Clip Out ~ YC Mix In YC MTX Y Out Y. Knee ~ Y Clip Out ~ RC In RC Out to VTR 10 bits from MSB will be converted to analog as camera output Cameras 101: Camera Types Studio and EFP Cameras – Studio Cameras are meant to be kept in the studio. This traditionally would be a large, high performance broadcast camera with a lens specifically designed for close up work. – EFP stands for Electronic Field Production. This camera would have the same performance characteristics as the previous type, but may be of a more portable Camcorder design. Cameras 101: Camera Types ENG Cameras – ENG stands for Electronic News Gathering. This type of camera was developed for the rough and tumble Broadcast News industry. Usually a robust Camcorder design, and is meant to operate under all types of weather and lighting conditions. Some Sony ENG camcorders can be configured for studio use (DSR-390, DSR570WS). Cameras 101: Camera Types Image Capture – Image Capture cameras do just that and only that. This type of camera has many uses: Security, Image Magnification, Copy Stand, Industrial, Medical, Remote Control, and Videoconferencing use to name just a few. Cameras 101: Design • Definition and Aspect Ratio – Standard Definition • 720 X 486 (640 X 480) • 4:3 Aspect Ratio – High Definition • 1920 X 1080 or 1280 X 720 • 16:9 Aspect Ratio (widescreen) – Multi-Definition • Both SD and HD • Imager that can provide both – Many of today’s SD Cameras are widescreen • This preserves 16:9 Aspect Ratio for Up-conversion to HD Cameras 101: Design • Form – One Piece • Camera is a one piece unit – Fixed Lens • Lens is not removable – Dockable • Camera head can docked to different backs for different uses – Convertible • Can be set up for Studio (Box) or ENG Style Style Lenses. Studio design called a Sled. – Etc. • Up to each manufacturer. Cameras 101: Design • Standard – NTSC • US (and others) Broadcast Video Standard – PAL • European Broadcast Video Standard – Multi-Standard • Both Cameras 101: Lenses • Lens choices – Critical to overall Camera performance • All Light going to camera must pass through lens • Frequencies of light determined by MTF of Lens • Broadcast and HD Grade Lenses – Must Match Imager size • 2/3” Imager requires 2/3”Lens – ½” Lens Mount design Choices • Hot Shoe • Double Hot Shoe – Aspect Ratio also affects Lens Choice • 20% difference in lens telephoto Cameras 101: Lenses • Lenses (Cont.) – Lens Manufacturers • Canon and Fujinon most popular – Lens Length/Type • Determined by studio size, camera placement and/or shots required for production • Most ENG lenses today have zoom capabilities that are at least 18X • Wide angle Lenses are also used where space is critical – Rear Lens Control Kits • Accessories for Studio and EFP (OB) Style Shooting • Rear Lens controls are not interchangeable between manufacturers Cameras 101: Lenses • All Sony ½” and 2/3” cameras have removable lenses – Sony uses standard Bayonet Mount – Lens Models are named by size: • 2/3” Canon “YJ”, “J” (Broadcast), “HJ” (High Def) • 2/3” Fujinon “A”, “HA” (High Def) • ½” Canon “YH”, Fujinon “S” or VCL’s • Smaller lenses (1/3” and C-Mount) are also VCL’s (can be confusing) Cameras 101: Accessories • Accessories – Camera Adaptor (CA) • Provides for analog or digital signal transmission and control interface to CCU. • Can be sent over Multicore, Triaxial, Fiber or Wireless. • Can also provide audio, prompter, return video and intercom. – Camera Control Unit (CCU) • Provides power to camera and accessories as well as providing remote control of image for adjustment during production. Also provides connection point for signal output. Generally a Studio or OB application. Cameras 101: Accessories • More Accessories – Remote Control Panel • Provides for remote connection to CCU for shading and control of camera. • Can also connect directly to camera for CCU type performance without need for CCU. Used in EFP. – Viewfinder • The viewfinder is a video monitor that allows the camera operator to see what they are shooting. Can be ENG (smaller for shoulder mounted shooting ) or Studio (larger for standing behind the camera). Cameras 101: Accessories • Even More Accessories – CCU Interconnection cables • • • • Not included. Multicore designated CCZAD. Triax designated CCTA (1/2”) or CCTB (3/8”) Sold in specific lengths (CCZAD50 with length in meters. – VTR Back • Video tape recorder that mounts to the back of a Dockable Camera Head. Creates camcorder like design. • Latest designs are Disc based. Cameras 101: Accessories • Still Even More Accessories – Tripod Mounting Plate • Provides quick release mounting point for Tripod. – Tripod or Pedestal • Stable platform to shoot from. • Fluid Head provides smooth pan and tilt. – Intercom Headset • PH8S Headset for CCU-D50, CA-D50. Cameras 101: Accessories • Could there possibly be any more?? – Batteries • Different batteries for different models – Battery Chargers • Need the correct charger to match the battery – AC Adaptors • For use when you have AC power available. – Camera Cases • Hard or soft cases for shipping cameras and accessories. – Wireless Mics • Do I really need to finish this? Cameras 101: Applications • Camcorders provide recording capabilities directly onto tape or Disc – Sony Professional/Broadcast Camcorder formats: • • • • • • • • • DV DVCAM Beta SX MPEG IMX XDCAM Digi-Beta HDV XDCAM HD HDCAM Cameras 101: Applications • Camcorders features and capabilities. – Very different products for different markets. • • • • • Professional Wedding/ Event Videographer Independent Film Making Broadcast News Gathering Wildlife Videography Electronic Cimematography – All of these present different imaging demands and require a different performance level from the camera. Cameras 101: Applications • Camcorder Pricing – Sony Camcorders: • • • • • • • • • • • DSR-PD170 HVR-V1U HVR-Z1U DSR-400L DSR-450WSL PDW-F350 PDW-530 MSW-970 DVW-970 HDW-750/1 HDW-F900R $3,940.00 $4,890.00 $5,946.00 $10,800.00 $15,000.00 $25,800.00 $34,000.00 $37,000.00 $49,700.00 $71,100.00 $79,900.00 Cameras 101: Applications • What about Image Capture cameras? – Known as Box or POV Cameras • DXC-990 ½” 3CCD • DXC-390 1/3” 3CCD – Can be fixed or mounted on PTZ head • Other manufacturer (AMX, Crestron) – Needs power supply • CMA-D2 or CMA-D3 • Requires specialized interconnection cables (CCDC/CCMC) – Remote Control for CCU type control • RMC-950 – Additional Specialized Lenses and Mounts for a variety of different applications (microscopy, etc) Cameras 101: Applications • HD Image Capture POV Camera – HDC-X300 • ½” High Definition Box Camera • Provides HDSDI or HD Component Out – HDC-X300K package with Canon VCL719BXS Lens – Remote Controls for CCU type control • RCP-700 • RCP-750 • RMB-150//A – No external CCU Cameras 101: Applications • Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras – Include Camera and PTZ Mechanism • EVI D Series 1CCD PTZ Camera • BRC Series 3CCD PTZ Camera – Accessories • EVI- remote controls and dome housings • BRC- we will cover later – Uses for these products can range from Videoconferencing to Security. These cameras are used in Religious, Education, Corporate and Government applications. Cameras 101: Applications • Internet Protocol (IP) Cameras – Network Connected Cameras • SNCRZ50N IP PTZ Camera • SNCRZ25N IP PTZ Camera • SNCRX550N/B 360 IP PTZ Camera – Accessories • Dome Housings, mounting options Cameras 101: Applications • Application determines Camera Choice – Example: High Definition Shooting • Need highest resolution possible for historic preservation of event. • Electronic Cinema Production (Star Wars) – Your Solution? Cameras 101: Applications • Application determines Camera Choice – Example: One piece Palmcorders • Used in high risk situations (i.e. CNN Gulf War coverage, Combat Cam) • Used in documentary shooting where a smaller camera is less obtrusive on subject. • Used in areas that would be sensitive to full size ENG camcorder (Hey, look!! That’s a news crew!) – Your Solution? Cameras 101: Applications • Application determines Camera Choice – Example: Long distance camera signal transmission with sophisticated camera control, communication, etc. • Sports remote shooting in a stadium • Triaxial, fiber or wireless connection? – Your Solution? Cameras 101: Applications • Application determines Camera Choice – Example: Robotic Control • Determined by camera placement: I need to have a shot from the grid • Tower cam – Your Solution? Cameras 101: Applications • Application determines Camera Choice – Example: Image Capture • Manufacturing process requires monitoring and inspection, but only provides space for small sized camera. – Your Solution? Cameras 101: Packages • Cameras come in Packages – Include Camera and different accessories • Studio Packages • ENG Packages (camcorders) • Other types of packages Cameras 101: Packages • Studio Triax Camera Package Example – DXCD50WSHPAC1. • This triax studio system 1 package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-TX50 triax camera adaptor, CCUTX50 triax CCU with SDI & camera controls, RCPD50 camera remote control (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment. Cameras 101: Packages • Studio Multicore Camera Package Example – DXCD50WSHPAC5 • Mulitcore system. This package includes: the new DXC-D50WSH 3CCD portable camera widescreen, CA-D50 camera adaptor, CCUD50 camera control unit, RCP-D50 camera remote control panel (joystick-type), DXF-51 viewfinder, & VCT-U14 tripod attachment. Cameras 101: Models • Camera L model Example – DXCD50L • The DXC-D50/D50WS is the next-generation in the DXC-series of cameras, designed for even greater picture quality and operational convenience. These cameras are offered in two different versions: the DXC-D50H and L are 4:3 models and DXC-D50WS 16:9/4:3-switchable model. Both feature the new high-performance Power HAD EX CCD sensor and precise 12bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus low noise and smear characteristics over previous models. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario. Another important aspect of Sony DXC-D50/D50WS cameras is their excellent system versatility. Two types of camera-control units are available; the CCU-D50, for multi-core CCU operation, and the CCU-TX50, for Triax CCU operation. The new RCPD50/D51 Remote Controllers can also be used with either system. With a host of sophisticated features, the DXCD50/D50WS provides an ideal solution for small studio operations at an affordable price. Cameras 101: Models • Camera H model Example – DXCD50WSH • The new DXC-D50WSH is the simplified version of DXC-D50WSL not including the ENG viewfinder tripod plate and microphone common to the "L" series. The DXC-D50 cameras are offered in two main different versions: the DXC-D50H/DXC-D50L at 4:3 aspect ratio models and DXC-D50WSH/DXC-D50WSL 16:9/4:3 switchable aspect ratio models. All feature the highperformance Power HAD EX CCD's and precise 12-bit A/D conversion built into a highly sophisticated LSI. The result is superior picture quality, high sensitivity, plus extremely low noise and smear characteristics. A variety of automatic functions have also been included, allowing easy and convenient operation in any shooting scenario. Cameras 101: Packages • ENG Camera Package Example – DSR400K • Introducing our new generation DSR-400 camcorder featuring 3-2/3" Power HAD EX CCD's. The DSR-400K model includes a 17X 2/3" CCD lens. Some of the features of the DSR-400 camcorder are new style and rugged alloy body construction, interchangeable 2/3" zoom-lenses, Power HAD EX CCD's, Full Digital Signal Processing, high resolution 1.5" B&W viewfinder (DXF-801) and LCD panel, Memory Stick Scene file storage and software upgrade, compact & lightweight, adjustable shoulder pad, video light connector, electronic color temperature adjustment, jog dial menu control, DV and DVCAM recording, and professional audio features. RCP-D50/RCP-D51 cannot be used (not compatible) with DSR-400 camcorders. Cameras 101: Packages • Palmcorder Camera Package Example – DSRPD170PAC • This package includes the new DSR-PD170 3CCD DVCAM compact camcorder and LCPD150BP soft carrying case. • Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, wide angle lens, lens hood, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc. – You just have to know that. Cameras 101: Packages • HD Palmcorder Camera Package Example – HVRZ1U • New 3CCD 1080i HDV camcorder is here! The new HVRZ1U features three newly developed Super HAD 1/3" CCDs. These new 16:9 native CCDs, combined with a high quality 12X Optical Zoom Carl Zeiss Vario-Sonnar T* Lens and Sony's new 14 bit A/D and DXP Digital Extended Processor, result in precise image acquisition with superb detail and clarity. The advanced CCD design allows more light to reach the pixel imager, reducing video noise and improving the signal-to-noise ratio. The new HVR-Z1U records this exceptional imagery using the recently adopted HDV 1080i format onto a DVCAM mini cassette. – Nowhere does it say that this camera comes with a battery, A/C adaptor/charger, remote control, AA batteries for the remote, etc. – You just have to know all that too. Cameras 101: Build your own camera package • Where would you start? – What is the application? • Is there a budget? • SD or HD • Is Aspect Ratio an Issue – What is the Camera type needed? • Studio, EFP, ENG, Image Capture? • What is their shooting environment? • If it’s a camcorder, what recording format? – What accessories will they need? • Lens application, CCU’s, CA’s, viewfinders, cables, batteries, chargers, cases, etc. Cameras 101: Hands on Cameras • Let’s get started! Questions? Thanks!!