PowerPoint Presentations 16

Report
16.1
Chapter 16
Project planning and control
Photodisc. Keith Brofsky
16.1
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.2
Project planning and control
Operations
strategy
Design
Project planning
and control
Improvement
Planning and
control
The market requires…
specified time, quality
and cost of a project
The operation supplies…
the delivery of the project
on-time, on-specification
and to budget.
16.2
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.3
Key operations questions
In Chapter 16 – Project planning and control –
Slack et al. identify the following key questions:
• What is a project?
• What makes project management successful?
• How are projects planned and controlled?
• What is project planning and why is it important?
• How can the techniques of network planning help
project management?
16.3
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.4
Complexity and uncertainty as project dimensions
High
Basic
research
Uncertainty
Oil, gas
exploration
Low
Antarctic
expedition
Military
campaign
Channel
tunnel
Airport
Product
development Advertising
campaign Chemical
plant
Novel
writing
Individual
Low
16.4
Euro
project
Wedding
Company
audit
Group
Organization
Thames
barrier
Airbus
Motorway
Oil
Tanker
Multiorganization
Complexity
Car
plants
Nation
Multi-nation
High
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.5
Stages in project management
Stage
Understanding the
1
project
environment
Stage
2
Stage
3
Changes
Project definition
Project planning
Corrective
action
Stage
4
16.5
Technical
execution
Stage
5
Project control
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.6
The project environment
The project environment consists of all the factors that can
affect the project.
Econo-political
environment
Economy
Government
Geo-social
environment
Geography
National culture
The project
Business
environment
Customers
Competitors
Suppliers/subcontractors
16.6
Internal
environment
Company strategy
Resources
Other projects
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.7
The stakeholder power – interest grid
High
Keep satisfied
Manage closely
Monitor
Keep informed
Stakeholder
power
Low
Low
16.7
Stakeholder interest
High
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.8
How projects can be defined
Project
strategy
Project
scope
The project
Phase 1
Phase 3
Phase 4
Phase 2
Project
objectives
Milestones
16.8
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.9
Matrix management in projects
Matrix management structures often result in staff reporting to more than one
project manager as well as their own department.
Full-time equivalent
resource
Department
1
Department
2
Department
3
Reporting
relationship
Project A
Project B
16.9
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.10
How projects are planned
Identify activities
Estimate time and resources
Identify relationships and dependencies
Identify schedule constraints
Fix the schedule.
16.10
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.11
The three project objectives of quality, cost and time
Quality
New aircraft
project
Music festival
Fixed grant
research project
Cost
16.11
Time
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.12
Stages in the project planning process
Adjust as
necessary
Identify
the
activities
in the
project
16.12
Estimate
the times
and
resources
for
activities
Identify the
relationships
and
dependencies
between the
activities
Identify
time and
resource
schedule
constraints
Fix the
schedule
for time
and
resources
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.13
Work breakdown structure
Serve breakfast in
bed
Produce
glass of
orange drink
Obtain
juice
Produce
boiled egg
in egg cup
Obtain
glass
Produce
boiled
egg
Obtain
egg
cup
Produce
buttered
toast
Produce
toast
Obtain
butter
Arrange
tray
Obtain
plates and
cutlery
Obtain
tray
Obtain
bread
Obtain
egg
16.13
Obtain
water
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.14
Work breakdown structure (Continued)
Work breakdown structure for a project to design an information interface
for a new sales knowledge management system in an insurance
company.
Design information
interface for new sales
knowledge management
system
Training
Form and
train user
group
16.14
Specify
sales
training
Installation
Install
systems
Design
initial
screen
interface
Testing
Test
interface
in pilot
area
Modify
interface
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
‘Making breakfast’ – do activities at earliest time
16.15
Time (mins)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Orange
Bread
Toast
Activities requiring
operator time
Butter
Boil water
Water
Bed
room
Boil egg
Staff required
Tray
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (mins)
16.15
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
‘Making breakfast’ – minimising staff requirements
16.16
Time (mins)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Orange
Bread
Toast
Activities requiring
operator time
Butter
Boil water
Water
Bed
room
Boil egg
Staff required
Tray
4
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (mins)
16.16
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.17
‘Making breakfast’ – minimising staff requirements (Continued)
Time (mins)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Orange
Bread
Toast
Boil water
Water
Butter
Bed
room
Boil egg
Staff required
Tray
4
Activities requiring
operator time
3
2
1
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (mins)
16.17
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.18
Gantt charts
A Gantt chart for the project to design an information
interface for a new sales knowledge management system in
an insurance company.
Activity
a) Form and train user group
b) Install systems
c) Specify sales training
d) Design initial screen interface
e) Test interface in pilot area
f) Modify interface
0
16.18
10
20
30
40
Time (days)
50
60
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.19
Network planning
Activities and network for a simple project.
Activity
a
b
c
d
e
f
Remove furniture
16.19
Remove furniture
Prepare bedroom
Paint bedroom
Prepare kitchen
Paint kitchen
Replace furniture
Immediate
predecessors
None
a
b
a
d
c, e
Activity duration
(in days)
1
2
3
1
2
1
Replace furniture
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.20
Network analysis for a simple decorating project
Activity reference
a
Activity duration
1
1
Event number
3
An event
1
a
2
b
c
2
3
1
16.20
5
f
6
1
d
e
1
2
4
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.21
Network analysis for a simple decorating project (Continued)
With earliest and latest event times
3
3
1
0
2
a
0
1
1
b
c
2
3
1
5
6
d
e
1
2
4
2
16.21
3
6
f
6
1
7
7
4
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.22
Network planning
Activity on arrow – Using ‘dummy’ activities to clarify
relationships.
2
x
x
2
1
1
y
3
y
16.22
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.23
Network planning (Continued)
Activity on arrow – Using ‘dummy’ activities to describe a
relationship that could not be expressed any other way.
16.23
1
3
5
2
4
6
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.24
Network planning (Continued)
Activity on node (AON) network for simple decorating
project.
Prepare
bedroom
Paint
bedroom
Replace
furniture
Remove
furniture
Prepare
kitchen
16.24
Paint
kitchen
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.25
Network planning (Continued)
The network diagram for a motorway project.
18 31
A
D
5
0
0
B
10
7
8
H
E
10
10 10
L
8
27 27
35 35
I
F
9
C
1
G
3
4
19 19
3 J
K
5
M
4
22 22
16.25
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.26
Probabilistic network planning
Probability
Typical subjective probability distribution for an activity
time estimate.
3
Optimistic time
16.26
5
6
Activity duration
13
Expected time
Most likely time
Pessimistic time
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.27
Network planning
How projects are controlled
Planned
expenditure
Actual expenditure
CV
ACWP
ACWP: Actual cost of work
performed
BCWP: Budgeted cost of
work performed
Actual
expenditure
SV
BCWS: Budgeted cost of
work scheduled
SV:
Schedule variance
CV:
Cost variance
Value of work completed
16.27
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010
16.28
Some of the elements integrated in enterprise project
management systems
Scenario planning
Forecasting
Risk management
Critical activity analysis
Float calculation
Work order management
Project
planning
Multi project analysis
Complex resource
scheduling
Real-time reporting
Project portal
Web-based collaboration
Document management
E mail notification
16.28
Integration
Resource levelling
Resource availability
Skills scheduling
Communication
Budgeting
Cost management
Earned value control
Slack, Chambers and Johnston, Operations Management, 6th Edition,
© Nigel Slack, Stuart Chambers, and Robert Johnston 2010

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