Chapter 9 Section2 The Spread of Islam

Main Idea
 After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread beyond the
Arabian Peninsula, shaping a major empire within
100 years. While the empire eventually broke into
smaller parts, Islam continued to spread.
Key Terms
 Abu Bakr: (c. 573–634) First Muslim caliph; as a close
companion and successor to Muhammad, he unified the
restive Bedouin tribes of central Arabia into a strong
fighting force that he led into Iraq and Syria.
 Caliph:"successor to the Prophet"; title given to the
political and religious leader of Muslims
 Caliphate: area ruled by a caliph
 Umayyad:(661–750) first ruling dynasty over the Muslim
 Sunnis:"people who follow the Sunna (way of the
Prophet)"; the largest branch of Islam; believers accepted
the first four caliphs as rightful successors of Muhammad
 Shia: a branch of Islam whose adherents believe that the
caliphate must go to a descendent of Muhammad—
particularly a member of the family of Ali
 Sufis: a branch of Islam emphasizing a personal, mystical
connection with God
 Abbasid: dynasty that overthrew the Umayyad dynasty
to rule the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258; for 150
years the Abbasids maintained the unity of the caliphate
and Islamic culture and civilization flourished.
 Harun al-Rashid: (c. 766–809) Fifth Abbasid caliph (ruled
786 to 809); under his rule, the Abbasid dynasty reached
its height and Islamic culture experienced a flowering.
How did Islam evolve after
Muhammad’s death?
 After Muhammad’s death, his successors built and
empire in less than ten years. Islam expanded and
the empire flourished.
Who were the caliphs, and what did they
accomplish after Muhammad's death?
 The Caliphs were appointed successors who were
leaders in the Muslim community. In the decade
after Muhammad’s death, the caliphs built up Arab
fighting forces and reunified Arabia. Caliph, Abu
Bakr and his successor led their army north,
conquering many neighboring empires. In just 10
years after Muhammad’s death, his followers had
created an empire.
Who were the Sunnis and
the Shia?
There was deep conflict within the Muslim leadership. The
Sunnis were for Abu Bakr and the Shia were for Ali.
What do you think later caliphs
might do with their armies?
 I would image that they would continue to do what
they do. I’m sure they would built up a string army
to try to expand and prosper.
What were key events of the
Umayyad Dynasty?
Under the Umayyad caliphs, Muslim rule spread.
Internal problems weakened the Umayyads,though, and led to
their fall.
Following the death of Husayn, the Umayyads strengthened
their rule over the caliphate. Steps they took to strengthen their
rule included establishing Arabic as the official language and
making coinage uniform throughout the empire.
They also began the first great work of Islamic architecture the
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
Armies also extended the caliphate's borders To the east,
Muslim armies conquered territory all the way to the borders
of China and the Indus River Valley.
What was the result of the
Battle of Tours?
 The Muslim forces lost and this caused the empire to
not be able to expand past Spain (present day
France). This is probably why Islam is not as
predominate in most European countries.
How did the Umayyads treat the
Jews and Christians they conquered?
In general, Muslims allowed considerable religious
freedom. They allowed Christians and Jews People of
the Book to practice their religion. Non-Muslims did
have to pay heavy taxes and endured some restrictions
on their daily lives. For example in some places,
Muslims required synagogues to be built underground
as a symbol of Judaism's inferior status.
Why were some Muslims unhappy
with the Umayyad government?
Arab Muslims became a ruling class with power and
privilege unavailable to those they conquered.This
action conflicted with the strong Muslim ideal of
equality. The wars over the succession were also deeply
upsetting to many of the faithful. These Muslims were
unhappy with the emphasis some placed on political
Judge the use of armed forces in
building the caliphate.
 Personally I am very against violence, so I would
judge it as bad. But the use of armed forced help
build the caliphate and made is expand and grow to
what it was.
What changes occurred under the
Abbasid dynasty?
The Abbasids relocated the capital of the caliphate.
They chose Baghdad, on the Tigris River, in what is
now Iraq. In their new capital, the rulers lived in
splendor. The Abbasids adopted a Persian style of
government in which they cut themselves off from the
people. In the throne room, for example, the caliph was
hidden behind a beautiful screen so that he could not
be seen. The Abbasids also relied on Persian
government officials. Under the Abbasid dynasty, the
nature of Islam changed also.
What were some characteristics
of Abbasid caliphs?
 They were very just and fair rulers. They opened up
Islam to everyone and encouraged people to join.
How did Islam Spread to West
Africa and Southeast Asia?
Trade was one way that Islam spread. As Muslim
trader journeyed from end to end of the caliphate, an
exchange in both goods and information occurred. The
exchange helped bring Islam to places such as West
Africa and Southeast Asia.
What led to the end of the
caliphate’s unity?
The Mongols destroyed the city and killed the Abbasid
caliph. The caliphate was finished.
What allowed the Fatimids to become
more powerful than the Abbasids?
 The Fatimids controlled the Mediterranean and Red
seas, which disrupted Abbasid trade. As a result, the
Fatimids were soon richer and more powerful than
the Abbasids
What groups challenged the rule
of the caliph?
 Europeans( Christians)
 Fatimids
 Seljuk Turks
 Mamluks and Mongols

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