Patriots at War

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Patriots at War
Chapter 9 Lesson 2
• Ethan Allen, like George
Washington, was a tall man
famous for his strength. He
could out-wrestle, out-throw,
and out-lift any challengers.
• He moved out to the green
mountain land of New
Hampshire to farm.
• He and his friends called
themselves the “Green
Mountain Boys” and they
loved to prove how strong
and tough they were.
Fort Ticonderoga
• The American Revolution gave Ethan Allen and
the Green Mountain Boys something to fight
about.
• The Patriots asked the Green Mountain Boys for
some help with the war. They asked the Boys to
capture the weapons at Fort Ticonderoga in
upstate New York.
• Ethan Allen planned the attack very carefully
• He sent in a spy to get information. The spy told
Allen the number of men in the fort and where
there was a weak spot in the walls.
• Benedict Arnold was a colonel in the
Continental Army and one of
Washington’s most trusted men.
• Arnold was very hard to get along
with and very soon Ethan Allen and
his Green Mountain Boys disliked
him and his orders.
Enter Benedict Arnold
• To keep the peace, the two men agreed to
share command of the men.
• Arnold fought like a proper soldier while
Ethan Allen and his men growled and
whooped like animals.
• Before long, the fort, its ammunition, and
rum belonged to the American Army.
Enter Benedict Arnold
• Washington knew the trip back to Boston
with the cannons would be difficult.
• He sent Henry Knox, an engineer, to
figure out a way to bring the 5,000 pound
cannons back through forests, over hills
and streams in the middle of winter.
The Long Trip to Boston
Henry Knox
• Knox and his men
built sleds and used
horses and oxen to
drag the cannons 250
miles.
• Knox brought back 59
cannon and helped
Washington put them
on hills that
overlooked Boston.
The hills were called
Dorchester Heights.
• With the cannons pointed down at them in
Boston, the British knew they were in a
terrible position.
• The British decided to leave Boston and
sail north to Nova Scotia.
• Many of the Loyalists felt they would be in
danger if they stayed. They boarded the
ships with the British soldiers and left their
lives in Boston behind.
The British Leave Boston
• Read and complete the worksheet on “The
British Leave Boston”
• Work independently and carefully.
• This will be taken for a grade.
Time to Reflect and Weigh in
• No one knows the numbers for sure, but
some 5,000 black men and boys fought in
the American Revolution.
• Most of the American soldiers were said
to be Scotch-Irish = poor farmers from
Scotland or Ireland who came to America
for new opportunities.
Who were the soldiers of
the American Revolution?
• The American soldiers were mostly
citizens and not career soldiers.
• They would sign up to fight for a period of
time (sometimes 2-6 months, sometimes a
year) and go home when their time was up.
• Many soldiers would just leave and go
home when they wanted to or if they had to
tend to their farms.
Who were the soldiers of
the American Revolution?
• George Washington had to be very tough on
deserters threatening them with whippings,
imprisonment, or hanging.
• He spent a lot of his time trying to convince
soldiers to re-enlist and stay for longer periods of
time.
• These were also soldiers that were fighting for
their families and their livelihoods. They would
fight to the death if they had to. Many did.
Who were the soldiers of
the American Revolution?
• King George III was determined to defeat
the Americans.
• He hired European soldiers from Germany
to add to the already large British Army.
• These soldiers were called mercenaries.
• A mercenary is a soldier that is paid to
fight for another country.
Who Fought with the British?
German Soldiers in
the American Revolution
• After the British left Boston, things started to
go badly for the Americans.
• George Washington and his army were almost
captured in New York as the British
surrounded Manhattan Island.
• The only thing that saved the Americans was
that the British were so confident that they
delayed their attack for a day or two so they
could attend some parties in the city.
Victory and Defeat
America the Story of Us
• Nathan Hale was 21 years
old when George
Washington asked him to
step behind enemy lines and
gather information on the
British in New York.
• New York was set on fire
and Nathan Hale was
captured as he was running
out of the burning city.
Nathan Haleteacher, spy, Patriot
• He was condemned to death
without a trial.
• It has been reported that his
last words before he was
hung were, “I regret that I
have but one life to lose for
my country.”
• Hale’s story inspired many
terrified Americans to keep
up the fight.
Nathan Haleteacher, spy, Patriot
• After Washington's defeat in New York, He retreated
into Pennsylvania.
• The men in the army were cold, hungry and sick.
• Washington knew that he was about to lose many men
who would just quit and go home. If this happened,
he would lose the war, for sure.
• Washington needed a victory.
• In order to achieve that victory, he needed a
remarkable plan.
Defeat and Victory
• Trenton, New Jersey was filled with German mercenaries
hired by the British to fight the Americans.
• Washington knew a surprise attack would give him the
advantage he would need to capture these soldiers.
• Washington shared his plan with only his highest ranking
officers and keeping all of the soldiers in the dark.
• Washington knew that the German soldiers would be
celebrating Christmas, so he planned to attack them on
Christmas night after they had a full day of celebrating.
The Battle of Trenton
While the Hessians sleep…
• Washington and his men won at Trenton.
• Washington captured 1,000 Hessian prisoners and all
of their supplies: food, blankets, tents, clothes,
weapons, and ammunition.
• Washington’s victory at Trenton encouraged the men
that victory was possible.
• At Washington’s request, many of his soldiers reenlisted after January 1st and stayed with their
beloved leader.
• There would be more victories ahead, but many
defeats as well.
What Victory Means
• After the winter was over, the British went on the
offensive to destroy the American forces.
• The plan was to establish British control along Lake
Champlain to Albany, New York and south along the
Hudson River to the Atlantic.
• This would separate the Northern Colonies from the
rest of the Colonies. Divide and Conquer.
• British General John Burgoyne devised a three-fold
plan. If all went as expected, he would capture
Washington and his forces in Albany, New York.
All did not go
as expected.
The Battle of Saratoga
• Burgoyne was the first leg of the plan.
• He would start in Montreal and travel south toward
New York.
• Burgoyne took his time
along the way and even
recaptured Fort Ticonderoga
just because he didn’t want
the Americans to have it.
The Battle of Saratoga
• The second leg was led by General Howe in New York.
• He was to travel North toward Albany and meet
Burgoyne .
• Howe decided that Philadelphia was a more important
city than Albany, New York.
• Howe disregarded orders and attacked Philadelphia
instead.
William Howe
• The third leg was led by Barry St. Leger.
• St. Leger was to advance east toward Albany,
N.Y. from Lake Ontario down the Mohawk
River.
• St. Leger’s men were made up mostly of
Native Americans. Their first stand was at
Fort Stanwix.
• The Native Americans heard that an
additional force led by Benedict Arnold was
on the way.
• The Native Americans deserted St. Leger and
he was forced to retreat to Canada.
St. Leger
The Plan
To Philadelphia
Surrender of Burgoyne
• At the Battle of Saratoga, Benedict Arnold was wounded
in the leg. He would never again lead an American army.
• Arnold was angry at the American Army because he had
been passed over many times for promotions despite
heroic service to our country.
• Arnold had married, Peggy Shippen, the daughter of a
Loyalist sympathizer. Ms. Shippen was used to a life of
means and luxury and Arnold was now in need of money.
• Peggy Shippen was used to deliver messages from Arnold
to the British. Some say she helped negotiate the terms.
Benedict Arnold-Traitor
• Arnold supplied the British with information on the number of
soldiers, supply depots, and troop locations.
• The British Army was very interested in the plans for West Point,
a fort along the Hudson River.
• Arnold was to hand over the plans as his final act of treachery.
• The transfer of information went wrong and Arnold was
discovered by George Washington. Regrettably, Washington sent
the orders for his friend to be arrested.
• Arnold escaped onto a British prison ship and lived in London
until his death in January of 1801 at the age of 60.
Benedict Arnold-Traitor
• John André, the
British partner of
Benedict Arnold, was
captured and hanged
as a spy.
• He was found with
notes written in
Arnold’s handwriting
containing sensitive
information.
Fort West Point
West Point Today
• Things weren’t going well for the Americans.
They lost the battles of Brandywine and
Germantown and then British General Howe
captured Philadelphia and Congress had to flee!
• While the British were warm and comfortable in
Philadelphia, Washington and his troops were,
cold, hungry, sick, and miserable in a place called
Valley Forge Camp.
Valley Forge Camp
Valley Forge Camp
Valley Forge Camp
• There was little at Valley Forge except the
Schuylkill River.
• The army had no barracks for the men. These
needed to be built from the trees in a nearby
woods.
• Washington liked Valley Forge because it was
high land, hear enough to Philadelphia to keep
watch on the city, but not so close the British
could surprise him with an attack.
Valley Forge Camp
From Colonies to Country :pages 128-130
Von Steuben made an army.
• During the winter, more than 2,500 men died from the
cold, hunger and disease.
• Washington appointed Nathaniel Greene as Quartermaster
General to get supplies to the soldiers.
• Without Greene’s efforts, many more American men
would have died.
• By June, the British left Philadelphia and went to New
York.
• They had no idea that the men that suffered through
Valley Forge were now a strong fighting force.
Spring Arrives
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Open your text book to page 302.
Read the lesson with a partner.
As you read, check over your notes.
Be sure you have all of the IMPORTANT
information from the textbook included in
your notes.
• Finally, complete the Lesson Review
questions on page 308 (1-5)
Time to Read, Write, and Think

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