(661-750) The Umayyad Caliph The Umayyads, led by Abu Sufyan, were merchants of the Quraysh tribe that tried to enter Mecca. After adopting the religion of Islam, and winning a civil war, Abu Sufyan’s son, Mu’awiyah, established himself as the first Umayyad caliph. -United the Bedouin tribes to Islamic faith -Conquered surrounding nations including Byzantium and Persia. Military aristocracy administered the conquered and controlled wealth. (661-750) The Abbasid Caliph Abu al-Abbas utilized Persian dissent and political conflicts to rebel against the Umayyads. Conquered people were allowed into gov. posts. Military aristocracy weakened Became cosmopolitan (administrative). Developed infrastructure The Indian Ocean Trade The Indian Ocean was the largest trading network up until the 17th century. It connected East Asia to West Asia. Trade was made easy with the help of monsoon winds. Contributed greatly to global economy. Extended from east Asia through into to East Africa. Why is the Indian Ocean historically significant? The Indian Ocean trade was significant because of its location. Because of its location it was able to achieve cross cultural trade. As a result of the Indian Ocean trade basin production of cotton clothes increased as well as specialized production of sugar, leather, stone and carpet. Due to the often rough ocean conditions caused by monsoon winds, dhows and junks were used to trade and travel. It was the largest trade network until the 17th century. Interactions Between the Two Exports: spices from southeast Asia, incense and horses from Arabia, and pepper and cotton textiles from India- Imports: gold, ivory, and slaves from Africa, and silk and porcelain from China Trade of horses, salt, and cotton brought Islam to East Africa Invention and of spread of the use of dhows allowed Muslims to travel the Indian Ocean quickly and efficiently Why did these interactions occur? These interactions because of the expansions and conquests of the Abbasid and Umayyad dynasties. During the Umayyad dynasties the conquests of North Africa, the first and second siege of Constantinople, the conquest of Hispania and the conquest of Georgia, the Islamic/ Arabic world was expanded greatly. By the end of the Abbasid dynasty, the Islamic Empire stretched from the Indian sub-continent to the Pyrenees. Why are these interactions historically significant? The interactions between the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and the Indian Ocean trade was a major contributor to the spread of Islam. Even today, Islam is still a large religion with millions of worshippers. Quiz Time Name one way that the Indian ocean was historically significant. What were methods of transportation used to cross Indian Ocean? Name the two Islamic caliphs that were mentioned in this power point presentation. Name one way how the interactions between the Islamic world and the Indian ocean occurred.