PodCar7_LOTT-Evolving APMs to ATNs Using Driverless Car

Report
THE EVOLUTION OF APM SYSTEMS
TO ATN SYSTEMS USING
DRIVERLESS CAR TECHNOLOGY
1
THE EVOLUTION OF APM SYSTEMS TO
AUTOMATED TRANSIT NETWORK
SYSTEMS USING DRIVERLESS CAR
TECHNOLOGY
J. Sam Lott, Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
Session – October 24, 2013
Emerging Transportation Technologies – R&D
Podcar City 7 Conference
Innovations in Public Transportation
2
Premise
The complexity of our
densest urban environments
will produce a need to blend
automated technologies.
The best solutions may come
from the following equation:
Automated
People
Mover
(APM)
Automated /
Connected
Roadway
Vehicle
(AV/CV)
Automated
Transit
Networks
(ATN)
3
Topics
• Evolution of Fully Automated Guideway Transit Systems
• APM/ATS Standards and Safety Requirements
• Evolution of Automated / Connected Roadway Vehicles
• Next Phase of Evolution – Automated Transit Networks
4
EVOLUTION OF
FULLY AUTOMATED GUIDEWAY
TRANSIT SYSTEMS
5
Evolution of Fully Automated Guideway
Transit
Automated People Mover
Systems – 50 Years of
History
Miami
Metromover
6
Evolution of Fully Automated Guideway
Transit
Automated Metro Systems –
25 Years of History
Singapore
Metro
7
Evolution of Automated Transit Network
Technologies
Automated Transit Networks – 15 Years
of History
Uppsala, Sweden
Masdar City, Abu Dhabi
London Heathrow Airport
8
APM/ATS STANDARDS AND
SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
9
ASCE–21 APM Stds. Technology Spectrum
Miami Metromover – Downtown
District Circulator
New York JFK AirTrain – Rail
Station to Airport Connector
Masdar City – Urban District Circulator
Toronto Pearson Intl. Airport –
District Circulator
10
ASCE 21 Provisions for ATN Technology
• Seated and Standing Distinctions in Acceleration and
Deceleration Rates
• Off-Line Station Train Control Functional Requirements
Martin Lowson Presentation at 2013 APM Conference:
“I feel that the Ultra design has
been better because of our
utilization of the APM
standards. I have also found
that the committee is prepared
to be respond effectively to
issues bought to their
attention. An example is off-line
stations, which are a feature of
PRT systems, but are not a
feature in conventional APMs.”
11
IEC Automated Urban Guided Transport
Safety Requirements – IEC 62267
• International committee worked
for 8 years to create 62267
• Defined by Metro Systems with:
• Driverless Train Operations (DTO)
• Unmanned Train Operations (UTO)
• Automated Metro systems are now
the norm in Europe and Asia for
regional scale transit applications
• Other IEC standards describe the
functional requirements of the
Command and Control System
12
Paris Metro –
First Application of IEC
Safety Standard
• Process started to
convert old lines to
unmanned fully
automated operation
• Line 1 conversion has
occurred while in service
• 750,000 riders a day
• Retrofit of full ATC
• Platform edge doors
Grand Paris Express is a
planned network of new
lines that will ring Paris –
all 200 kilometers will be
fully automated.
Source: RATP, Bruno Marguerite
13
IEC Technical Report 62267-2
Hazard Analysis at Top System Level
• International Task Force worked
for 5 years to create this
Technical Report
• Companion Document to AUGT
Safety Requirements IEC 62267
• Representation on Task Force:
Large Metros, Equipment
Suppliers, and Consultants
• Purpose: Understanding of
Safety Issues Under Full
Automation (Unmanned Train
Operations)
14
EVOLUTION OF
AUTOMATED/CONNECTED
ROADWAY VEHICLES
15
Evolution of Automated / Connected
Roadway Vehicles
Robotic Vehicle Systems
• Système de guidage
Le système CIVIS : Rouen,
Clermont-Ferrand, Las Végas
optique :
Capteurs du DGOC :
 gyromètre
 codeur angle volant,
 codeur levier pendant.

vitesse du véhicule
CALCUL
ATEURV
Supervision
gestion des modes
Vision
Estimation
Loi de
commande et
asservissement
vidéo
Sécurité
Moteur couple
EL
Evolution of Automated / Connected
Roadway Vehicles
Robotic Vehicle Systems
2 Get There Personal Rapid Transit
ULTra Personal Rapid Transit
Evolution of Automated / Connected
Roadway Vehicles
Robotic Vehicle Systems
Toyota demonstrated
an automated vehicle
system during a 6
month period at the
2005 Aichi World Expo.
Toyota IMTS – Intelligent
Multimodal Transit System
Toyota Engineers Reported on the Success of the
2005 Demonstration at the 2007 APM Conference
• Line-Haul Operations with Off-Line Stations
• Platoons of 2 and 3 Automated Buses with Automated
“Coupling” and “Decoupling” While in Motion
• Operating Fleet: 13 vehicles
• 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. Daily Operation for 185 Days
• Headways: Fixed Schedule
 7 min. Peak
 10 min. Off-Peak
• Manual Operation Over Portion of a Branching Route
• Transported Over 2 Million Passengers.
Evolution of Automated / Connected
Roadway Vehicles
Robotic Vehicle Systems
Google Automated
Vehicle Demonstration
July 2013
TRB Automated
Roadway Vehicle
Workshop at
Stanford University
Fully Automated Roadway Vehicles Will Be
On the Market By 2020
Commercial Vehicle Platooning With a Single
Driver is in Active Prototype Demonstration
NEXT PHASE OF EVOLUTION –
AUTOMATED TRANSIT
NETWORK
24
Proposal Made at the TRB 2013 Stanford
Workshop on Road Vehicle Automation
• IEC Technical Report 62267-2
Hazard Analysis at Top System Level
Provides a Starting Point
• ATS/APM Consensus Standards Provide
a Model for AV Safety Requirements
• Proposed Approach Follows a Phased
Process for Applying the Hazard
Analysis
1. Perform APM/ATS Standards Review
2. Create Industry HA Framework for
AV/CV Technology to Transit &
Controlled Environments
3. Evolve HA Framework for Application
to Autonomous Vehicles in Mixed Flow
25
Evolution of Automated Transit Networks to
Automated Transit Vehicle Applications
• Toyota IMTS Provides a
Glimpse of the Future
World of Transit Service
• Supervisory Control/
Automated Dispatch
System Provides:
 Continuous Optimization of
Fixed Route Service Routes
within the Highest Activity
Parts of the Network
 Demand Response Service to
Meet Dynamic Ridership In
Lowest Activity Parts of the
Network
26
Evolution of Automated Transit Networks to
Automated Transit Vehicle Applications
• Automated Roadway Vehicles (i.e., Robotic Vehicles)
Allow a Transitway System Without Track/Switches
• Portions of Transitway Can Be Grade Separated and
Portions At-Grade With Limited Automotive Traffic
Interactions
• Off-Line Stations Allow:
Direct Origin to Destination Service
Highest Demand Patterns Efficiently Served by a
Corresponding Portion of the Operating Fleet
• Maximum Passenger Carrying Efficiency
for each Seat-Mile of Vehicle Service
27
EVOLVING APM SYSTEMS TO ATN
SYSTEMS USING DRIVERLESS CAR
TECHNOLOGY
J. Sam Lott, Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
Session – October 24, 2013
Emerging Transportation Technologies – R&D
28
TECHNICAL PAPER AT 2005 APM CONFERENCE:
OPTIMIZING AGT APPLICATIONS
THROUGH DEMAND-RESPONSIVE
CONTROL SYSTEMS
J. Sam Lott
Kimley-Horn and
Associates, Inc.
Eugene Nishinaga
Bay Area Rapid
Transit District
What’s the Point?
Premise: Supervisory Control Systems with
demand-responsive capability, when combined with
a hybrid operation of direct station to station
dispatch and conventional service, allow more cost
effective systems to be built and operated, while
providing passengers with a higher level of service.
Benefits of the Hybrid Approach
• Off-line stations allow more frequent passage of
smaller, independent vehicles on the main line
• Smaller vehicles lower the civil construction cost
through reduced size of guideway/stations
Benefits of the Hybrid Approach (cont.)
• Hybrid operations provide service levels
competitive with conventional mass transit
• Direct-to-destination service reduces
passenger travel time and reduces empty
vehicle (non-revenue) seat-miles
• Flexibility of hybrid operations allows
efficiency to be optimized between demand
responsive and conventional modes
Conclusions
• Hybrid Operations have the potential to reduce
vehicle size and associated costs, increase
revenue per seat-mile, and improve passenger
service by the combination of:
Demand Responsive/Direct to Destination
Operations
Conventional Fixed Route Operations
• Hybrid Operations could radically change our
concept of what constitutes high-capacity
transit
A GENERIC FRAMEWORK FOR HAZARD
ANALYSIS OF AUTOMATED VEHICLES IN
TRANSIT SERVICE –
PROPOSED TRB, FEDERAL AGENCY AND
ITS / AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY COLLABORATION
J. Sam Lott,
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
Shared Mobility and Transit Breakout Session
TRB Second Annual Workshop on
Road Vehicle Automation
33
Generic Hazard Assessment Performed as
an Element of IEC Standard Process
• Task Force Formed Under WG 39 and 45 to Develop
an International Consensus on:
• Hazards of Fully Automated DTO and UTO Operations
• Appropriate Functional Safeguards to Mitigate Hazards
• Series of Meetings Built Progressive Consensus:
• Format and Terminology
• Hazard Identification and Categorization
• Generic Safeguards to Mitigate Hazards
• IEC Technical Report Established a Framework for
Generic Hazard Analysis of AUGT/APM Design
• Full Risk Analysis Still Required for
Each Project
34
Structure of IEC Hazard Analysis Table
• Ensuring safe movement of trains
•
•
•
•
Safe route
Safe separation of trains
Safe speed
Safe accelerations/braking
• Supervising guideway / preventing collisions with
obstacles
• Supervising guideway / preventing collisions with
persons
• Supervising passenger transfer (at stations)
• Door operations
• Person between cars or between car and platform
• Safe starting conditions
• Operating a Train
• Putting into service or taking out of service
• Supervising the status of a train under UTO
• Detection and Management of Emergency
Situations
35
Published Report – Hazard Analysis Table
Hazard / Cause / Trigger / Accident (Effect)
Safeguard / Remark / IEC 62267 Ref. Section Number
NOTE: Hazards common with those of manually driven/ attended trains were not
addressed in the generic HA – i.e., considered “Out of Scope”
36
Alain’s Instructions
Alain’s Initial Invitation August 22nd and September 5th
• Any chance that you could come over to Washington in October and speak
in my session at the Podcar Conference . A followup to your presentation
and comments at Stanford would be ideal for this conference.
• Also, you might be able to comment on ASCE's APM Standards and how
they may help/hinder the evolution of driverless cars as a shared-ride
"transit" option.
• I'm trying to put together a session that bridge the advances in vehicle
automation (those advances that lead to the ability to remove the driver
from the vehicle and have it operate in mixed (with conventional cars &
trucks) traffic on existing streets and highways ) with the provision of
shared-ride "transit"(a fleet of vehicles owned and operated by some
entity(ies) that offer mobility to the general public.)
• Here was a thought I had: "Evolving APMs to ATNs using Driverless car
technology" with some emphasis on the "Standards" especially given
ASCE's APM Standards
My final response on September
• Okay, I can run with this topic. It actually ties into a technical paper I did
with Gene Nishinaga for the 2005 APM Conference. It was called
“Optimizing AGT Applications Through Demand-Responsive Control
Systems”. I will use this specific topic that you have recommended, with a
minor change to the title if possible – “The Evolution of APM Systems to
ATN Systems Using Driverless Car Technology”.
11.00 Emerging Transportation
Technologies – R&D
Moderated by Alain Kornhauser, Princeton University
A series of projects using self driving cars for new mobility
solutions is emerging. How can this technology promote public
transportation, and what is the state of art?
• Dr. Jerome Lutin, Former VP of Research at New Jersey Transit
"Opportunities to Leverage Advances in Driverless Car
Technology to Evolve Conventional Bus Transit Systems"
• Dr. Ingmar Andreasson, Logistikcentrum "Synergies Between
PRT and Driverless Cars"
• Dr. Samuel Lott, Kimley Horn "Evolving APMs to ATNs Using
Driverless Car Technology"
• Dr. Adriano Alessandrini, University of Rome, "Evolving Today's
Low-speed Driverless Shuttles to Area-wide Transit Service"
• To Be Named, Mercedes Benz North America "Today's Intelligent
Drive Platform and Nearterm Opportunities"

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