Chapter 8 * Carbon Chemistry

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Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry
Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry
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Section 1 – Properties of Carbon
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Standards
6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability
to combine in many ways with itself and other
elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living
organisms
Carbon Atoms and Bonding
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Because of its unique ability to combine
in many ways with itself and other
elements, carbon has a central role in the
chemistry of living organisms
Forms of Pure Carbon
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Diamond, graphite, fullerenes and
nanotubes are four forms of the element
carbon
Diamond – crystalline form of carbon in
which each carbon atom is bonded
strongly to four other carbon atoms
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Formed from high temps and pressure
Melting point is more than 3500 C
Forms of Pure Carbon
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Graphite – each carbon atom is bonded tightly
to three other carbon atoms in flat layers
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Bonds are very weak
“Lead” in pencils is mostly graphite
Forms of Pure Carbon
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Fullerenes – consists of carbon atoms
arranged in the shape of a hollow sphere
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Called buckyballs after an architect
Nanotube – carbon atoms are arranged in
the shape of a long, hollow cylinder
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Tiny, light, flexible and extremely strong
Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry
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Section 2 – Carbon Compounds
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Standards
3.c – Students know atoms and molecules form solids by
building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal
structure of NaCl or long-chain polymers
6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its ability to
combine in many ways with itself and other elements,
has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms
Organic Compounds
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Organic compounds – compounds that contain
carbon
Many organic compounds have similar
properties in terms of melting and boiling
points, odor, electrical conductivity and
solubility
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Many are gases at room temperature
Many have a strong odor
Many do not dissolve in water
Hydrocarbons
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Hydrocarbon – compound that contains
only the elements carbon and hydrogen
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Hydrocarbons mix poorly with water
All hydrocarbons are flammable
Structure of Hydrocarbons
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The carbon chains in the hydrocarbon may be
straight, branched or ring-shaped
Structural formula – shows the kind, number and
arrangement of atoms in a molecule
Isomer – compounds that have the same chemical
formula but different structural formulas
C4H10
C4H10
Structure of Hydrocarbons
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Saturated hydrocarbons – only single bonds, has
maximum number a hydrogen atoms attached
Unsaturated hydrocarbons – has double or triple
bonds, have fewer hydrogen than saturated
hydrocarbons
Structure of Hydrocarbons
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Substituted hydrocarbon – atoms of other
elements replace one or more hydrogen atoms in
a hydrocarbon
Alcohol – a substituted hydrocarbon that
contains one or more hydroxyl groups
 hydroxyl group –OH
Organic acid – a substituted hydrocarbon that
contains one or more carboxyl groups
 carboxyl group –COOH
Ester – compound made by chemically
combining an alcohol and an organic acid
Polymers
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Polymer – large molecule made of a chain
of many smaller molecules bonded together
Monomer – smaller molecules that make up
polymers
Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry
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Section 3 – Polymers and Composites
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Standards
3.c – Students know atoms and molecules form
solids by building up repeating patterns, such as
the crystal structure of NaCl or long-chain
polymers
6.a – Students know that carbon, because of its
ability to combine in many ways with itself and
other elements, has a central role in the chemistry
of living organisms
Forming Polymers
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Polymers form when chemical bonds link
larger numbers of monomers in a
repeating pattern
Polymers and Composites
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Proteins – formed from smaller
molecules called amino acids
Amino acid – a monomer that is a
building block of proteins
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The properties of a protein depend on which amino
acids are used and in what order
Examples – finger nails, spider web
Polymers and Composites
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Composites – combines two or more
substances in a new material with
different properties
Many composite materials include one or
more polymers
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Examples – fishing rods, snow boards
Chapter 8 – Carbon Chemistry
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Section 4 – Life with Carbon
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Standards
6.a – Students know that carbon, because of
its ability to combine in many ways with
itself and other elements, has a central role
in the chemistry of living organisms
6.b – Students know that living organisms are
made of molecules
Carbohydrates
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Carbohydrate – an energy-rich organic
compound made of the elements carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen
Simple carbohydrate – the simplest carbs are
sugars (glucose is in your body – C6H12O6)
Complex carbohydrate – a polymer made of
smaller molecules that are simple carbs bonded
to one another
Proteins
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Proteins – formed from
smaller molecules called
amino acids
Amino acid – a monomer that
is a building block of proteins
Each amino acid molecule has
a carboxyl group (–COOH)
and an amino group (–NH2)
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The body uses proteins from food to
build and repair body parts and to
regulate cell activities
Lipids
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Lipids – energy-rich compounds made of
carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
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Lipids include fats, oils, waxes and cholesterol
Gram for gram, lipids release twice as much
energy in your body as do carbohydrates
Fatty acids – organic
compound that is a monomer
of a fat or oil
Cholesterol – a waxy lipid in
animal cells
Nucleic Acids
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Nucleic acids – very large organic molecules
made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,
nitrogen and phosphorus
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Two types – DNA and RNA
Elements that make up all living things…
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C – Carbon
H – Hydrogen
N – Nitrogen
O – Oxygen
P – Phosphorus
S – Sulfur

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