Independence Movements 1900-1949 AFRICA INDIA LATIN AMERICA Sub-Saharan Africa Before Independence Africa was the last of the continents to come under European rule malaria prevented most explorers before 1850, when a doctor discovered quinine as a prevention 1869 Opening of the Suez Canal (an excuse for British invasion and occupation of Egypt when Egypt owed them $) Berlin Conference South Africa formed from Dutch settlers (Afrikaners). The discovery of diamonds lured the British, who came in contact with the Zulu and war ensued. Britain won but expected the Afrikaners to rule. Sub-Saharan Africa Before Independence • Few Europeans lived in Africa, yet their small presence had great social and economic effects • railroads were built from the coast to internal mines to provide raw materials to the industrial world; Africans were forced labor • Many Africans migrated to cities for opportunities, breaking up families and creating segregated cities (worst in eastern and southern Africa where whites lived) • Christianity came with missionaries and attracted Africans with their mission schools (taught skills and literacy leading to employment) • • Islam continued to spread by Arab and African merchants The contrast between liberal ideas in Western education and the racial discrimination experienced by those educated Africans led to the rise of nationalism Sub-Saharan Africa: Independence • A few nationalist organizations rose (African National Congress in South Africa) but World War II had the most profound effect on nationalism • increased forced labor, inflation, increased demand for raw materials • Africans also listened to Allied propaganda about European liberation movements, the fight against Nazi racism, and new ideas spread across Africa • these spreading ideas alongside the rise of racism, cities, and changes in religion awakened the next generation that would demand independence Sub-Saharan Africa: Independence • Most of sub-Saharan African independence movements were achieved through negotiations, but those with a significant white settler minority had to resort to armed struggles • Ghana won independence from Britain through an election • This led to Britain granting independence to its other West African colonies, including Nigeria. (Kenya resisted, and the Mau Mau movement had to be put down.) • French colonies were more reluctant to obtain independence, which came slowly. • South Africa constructed a government based on apartheid, or racial separation, promoting racism against the 74% of blacks there. The ANC formed illegal resistance to apartheid for many years (1990.) India Before Independence • India was a colony of GB from late 1700s till mid 1900s. Under its rule India gained many modernities: railroads, cities, cotton and steel mills, a middle class. • This educated middle class became nationalistic, which Britain recognized and granted India small amounts of autonomy-1885 the Indian National Congress was formed, respectfully petitioning for higher government positions for Indians • 1896-1900 2 million people died of starvation because of drought; most forests were cut for land, but each generation got less; the economic development of Britain was unhelpful to most Indians India Before Independence • Hindu Indians were divided into hundreds of castes and occupations • ¼ of Indians were Muslim and discriminated against • the eastern area of Bengal was divided into two, leaving the Hindus there outnumbered by Muslims, beginning serious protests— • the All-India Muslim League was created in response India: Independence • Nationalism grew as India’s steel production rose, and when India supported Britain in WWI • Many Indians expected their support in WWI to be rewarded with independence. Instead, millions died in the flu epidemic and Indians were killed in protests by the British • For 20 years after WWI India was on the verge of war, prevented mainly by Mohandas Gandhi also known as Mahatma “the great soul”, a western educated man in the Indian National Congress. India: Independence • In the 1920s the British began to give education, the economy, and public works over to Indians; India began to industrialize creating a class of wealthy Indian businessmen. • Indians were allowed in regional elections but were excluded from the viceroy’s cabinet, the center of power. When the viceroy declared war in WWII without Indian approval, many Indians left government. Britain promised independence after the war, which Gandhi declared as too little, too late. India: Independence • After WWII the British prepared for Indian independence—complicated by Muslim-Hindu conflict • the Indian National Congress refused to share power with the Muslim League; Ali Jinnah demanded a Muslim country: Pakistan • By 1947 the INC had accepted this divided India concept and two governments were formed • Muslims and Hindus then fled from areas where they were the minority, causing conflicts where there had been none for centuries • the Hindu state of Kashmir still contained a majority of Muslims; annexed by India because it held the headwaters of the rivers that irrigated most of the subcontinent. • The consequence of this annexation of Kashmir is the cause of bitterness between India and Pakistan now Green: Muslim Pink: Hindu Yellow: Buddhist Purple: Animist Latin America: Mexico • Mexico underwent a traumatic social revolution while Argentina and Brazil evolved more peaceably • Mexico: “so far from God, so close to the United States.” The difference between rich and poor was wide in Mexico. • Mexico was most influenced by Spain during colonial times and then U.S. and Britain owned most of the big companies afterwards. The middle class was small and insignificant. • Under Porfirio Diaz there was much material progress, but it benefited only a few businessmen. The average Mexican’s standard of living dropped in 1910. Latin America: Mexico • • Revolution did not come through a well-defined party—it came through a series of ambitious leaders: some famous ones: Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa—peasant leaders. • Constitutionalists won the battles and promised universal suffrage and one-term presidency, the end of Catholic church rule In the 1920s Cardenas set into motion the reforms promised in the 1917 Constitution • • • Mexico became a leading oil producer, but most was sold by U.S. and British companies. In 1938 Cardenas seized the oil companies. The Mexican Revolution accomplished these things: more of the population could participate in politics; presidential terms were six years, one time only; promises of free education, higher wages, security for workers, redistribution of land; they were not all done immediately, but laid the foundation for later industrialization Latin America: Argentina • the pampas (plains) contained numbers of cattle and sheep, producing famous beef and wool, transported on American and British run trains • the urban middle class had gained the secret ballot and universal male suffrage in 1916, and elected a politician they liked. During the World Wars it prospered, trading with the U.S. and Europe. • the Depression hit Latin America hard—they couldn’t afford to trade like before, and turned to leaders that promised to resolve their economic problems. • Juan Peron, inspired by the Nazi victories in Europe, desired to take over Latin America. He was elected as president in 1946 but was unable to create a stable government, eventually overthrown by another military coup Latin America: Brazil • before WWI Brazil produced most of the world’s coffee and cacao, using their money on lavish buildings and cities • 1930 Vargas proclaimed himself president of Brazil. He industrialized the country, created labor unions, pension plans, but largely ignored the peasants • When he was limited by his own Constitution, Vargas abolished it and declared himself supreme ruler. He harmed Latin America with this example.