Goat Herd Health Issues and Concerns Michelle Bilderback, DVM Ruminant Extension Veterinarian University of Kentucky Goat Health Management Preventative Health Care Biosecurity Vaccination program Parasite control program Good nutrition and feeding management Predator management Hoof care Good Biosecurity l Start with healthy stock l Buy from reputable breeders l Isolate new animals for at least 30 days Maintain a closed herd if possible http://www.sheep101.info/201/biosecurity.html Biosecurity for Goat Farms Don’t mix your goats with other goats (or sheep). Don’t loan goats. Don’t board goats. Don’t loan equipment. Limit access to your farm and animals. Control dog, cat, rodent, fly, and bird populations. Basic Herd Health Supplies l l l l l l l l l Thermometer Record book Alcohol Balling gun for oral dosing of bolus medication Syringes and needles of various sizes and gauges Sharp's container for used needles (old soda bottle) Ear tagger and tags Wound dressing Deworming or drench gun Basic Herd Health Supplies Dewormers (anthelmintics) l Antibacterials/antibiotics (penicillin and tetracycline are most commonly used)-Not for organic production l Biologicals (Tetanus antitoxin, Tetanus toxoid, C. perfringens toxoid) l Injectables (vitamin A, D, & E, vitamin B complex, BoSe) l Health Program for Goats l A veterinarian should be consulted to tailor a health program for your specific herd. l Very important since many products are not labeled for goats. Essential Vaccines l Clostridial diseases (CD-T) • Clostridium perfringens type C affects kids < 1 month type D affects kids > 1 month • Most critical for farms which feed a lot of grain or allow instant access to lush pasture • “Overeating Disease” l Clostridium tetani – tetanus Vaccination Program for Goats Combination Products: Labeled for Goats: Essential 3+T (Colorado Serum Co) Vision CD/T (Intervet) l Labeled for sheep/Cattle: Bar Vac CD/T (Boehringer Ingelheim) Other Vaccines * Consult your Vet! u u u u u u Soremouth (live)- ONLY in infected herds Pneumonia Footrot Chlamydia or Campylobacter (vibrio)- in infected herds Rabies Caseous lymphadenitis beware of CaseBac in pregnant does l Autogenous vaccine made from bacteria isolated on a specific farm. * not labeled for goats Health Program-Does l l l l Good nutritionBody Condition Score of 3-3.5 prior to kidding Deworm based on FEC or FAMACHA Check udder, teats, teeth, feet-cull for chronic disease Vaccination Program for Mature Goats l Does • Vaccinate 1 to 2 months prior to kidding for Clostridium perfringens type C & D plus Tetanus toxoid. • Two shots are necessary the first time an animal is vaccinated. • Selenium 1 month prior to kidding in deficient areas l Bucks • Vaccinate annually Health Program-Kids Colostrum!! l Observe daily for signs of diarrhea or respiratory disease l Castrate males before 3 months of age (market?) l Vaccination Program for Kids l Kids • Vaccinate at approximately 4-6 weeks of age • Booster in 3-4 weeks • Vaccinate earlier if dams were not vaccinated • Use tetanus antitoxin at the time of castration or disbudding if dam was not vaccinated Site of Administration Subcutaneous Injections l Meat goats • Prefer injections in neck l Breeders • Prefer the axilla area (behind the elbow) • Nodular mass not as visible • Not readily mistaken for caseous lymphadenitis Handling Livestock Safely Small animal chute, minimum bending Incoming Program l Unknown History -Individually catch, identify and examine for health problems -Set up a separate isolation area for sick goats (Take temperature/record) -Fecal sampling of at least 10% of animals to know where the group is relative to parasites -Isolate from other animals and pasture for 1 month Incoming Program -Observe for well being at least twice a day. Wear coveralls, rubber boots and gloves. These animals should be handled last. -Vaccinate against tetanus and Clostridium perfringens C & D (overeating disease) -Deworm and Trim Feet -Clean and disinfect pens when goats leave Goat Health Management Know how they look and behave normally Normal Range for Goat Physiological Parameters Temperature, rectal 103 - 104° F l Heart rate 70 – 90 beats per minute l Respiration 12 – 20 per minute l Rumen movements 1 – 2 per minute l Puberty 4 – 10 months l Estrous cycle 21 days l Estrus (standing heat) 12 – 48 hours l Gestation 150 days l Common Health Problems Internal parasites Digestive/Nutritional Respiratory complex Reproductive Hoof Skin May not show signs of illness. Top 5 Causes of Death in Goats-LDDC 2009 Haemonchosis l Parasitism l Coccidiosis l Pneumonia l Coccidiosis (Eimeria) l Gastro-intestinal parasites #1 health problem affecting small ruminants l Round worms Haemonchus contortus Barber pole worm Ostertagia Trichostrongyles l l l Lungworms Parelaphostrongylus tenuis Meningeal (deer) worm Coccidia “Barber pole Worm” Haemonchus contortus l Female has a red and white stripe spiraling down its body, like a barber pole l The red stripe is the worm’s intestine full of blood and the white stripe is the uterus full of eggs l Adult worms attach to lining of goat’s stomach, bore into stomach wall and suck blood l “Barber Pole Worm” l l l l Goats can lose up to 10% of their blood volume a day and death can quickly result (“Anemia”) Individual female worms can produce 5000 eggs/day If one goat has 500 female worms, then that animal can generate 2.5 million eggs per day and a herd of 50 goats can produce 1 billion eggs per week! Eggs hatch at temperatures above 50 F and best between 80-90 degrees F Life Cycle of H.contortus Eggs pass to outside in manure within a few days. l Eggs hatch then the larva (baby worm) eats bacteria in the manure, matures, then climbs up (<6 inches) nearby blades of grass and waits to be eaten by a goat l Larvae are swallowed, go into stomach, mature into adults and attach to lining. l • Entire process can take 17 days Life Cycle of H. contortus http://www.ext.vt.edu /pubs/sheep/410027/figure1.html Image courtesy of Biozetica The Bad News l Intensive use and total reliance on anthelmintics (dewormers) has led to drug resistant populations of worms l This is the single greatest threat to grazing goats worldwide. Drug Class Trade Names Classes of Dewormers Benzimidazole Safeguard/ Panacur Synathic/ Benzelmin Valbazen* Imidazole/ Pyrimidine Levasole/ Tramisol** Rumatel StrongidT Macrolide Ivomec Dectomax Eprinex Cydectin *Do not use in first trimester pregnancy ** Do not use in last month of pregnancy Veterinarian/Client/Patient Relationship A very specific relationship: A veterinarian has assumed responsibility for the need for medical treatment. Veterinarian is personally acquainted with the keeping and care of the animals Veterinarian is readily available for emergency and follow-up evaluation The FAMACHA© System for assessing anemia and barber pole worm infection in small ruminants Clinical Category Color PCV Deworm? 1 Red > 28 No 2 Red-Pink 23-27 No 3 Pink 18-22 ? 4 Pink-White 13-17 Yes 5 White < 12 Yes Parasite Management Principles Do not overstock pastures and pens (3-5 goats/acre) 2. Don’t overgraze (5” min) 3. Rest pastures sufficiently: Rule of thumb is 3 months 4. Enable browsing -select leaves and tender tips 5. Practice selective deworming, not prophylactic deworming = 1. Parasite Management Principles 6. Administer drugs properly 7. Determine which drugs work on your farm 8. Select goats which are more resistant to internal parasites 9. Practice good sanitation 10.Use coccidiostats Multi-Species Grazing COCCIDIA SUSPECT if diarrhea in one month old (or older) kids Dark, damp, dirty conditions! Coccidia Stress Over crowding Second to third month of age Terry Hutchens Coccidiosis l One celled parasite (“protozoa”) l Young kids or older goats under stress l Watery, bloody diarrhea Death l Sanitation. Begin feeding coccidiostats at 3 weeks of age. Courtesy of Dr. Kevin Pelzer, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine Digestive/Nutritional Overeating Disease Clostridium perfringens toxin Produces toxin when rumen pH drops and normal movement of intestine slows down Heavy grain feeding or allowed in lush, fast growing pastures Depressed, diarrhea, death Vaccination/Gradual diet change Goat Grazing Preference Trial University of Kentucky Robinson Station 2006 (Most to least) Sorghum Sudan White clover Turnip Red clover Chicory Sericea Lespedeza Tall Oatgrass Alfalfa Warm Season Grasses (EGG, Swtich, BB, Indian) Reed Canarygrass Orchardgrass Annual Lespedeza Novel Endophyte TF Endophyte Free TF Infected TF Bluegrass Bermudagrass Good nutrition and feeding management Feed balanced rations Feed according to production cycle and growth stage Separate animals according to their nutritional needs Supplement pasture and forage, when necessary and economical Make feed changes gradual Adequate feeder space Good feeder design Selenium, Copper, Zinc Se, Cu, Zn Disease resistance- immune response Reproductive function Digestive/Nutritional l o o o o o Urolithiasis (Blocked buck /wether) Formation of large crystals in the urethra called “calculi” Strain to urinate, vocalize, colicky Important Factors: Early castration, salt and water availability, Pygmies WATER, WATER, WATER 2:1 ratio of Calcium to Phosphorus Pregnancy Toxemia Does carrying multiple fetuses in late pregnancy – Cannot consume enough calories to meet her needs l Depression, off feed, down, neurologic signs of blindness, teeth grinding, tremors and death l Proper nutrition-small portions, high E l Respiratory Disease l Pneumonia Primarily Mannheimia hemolytica and Pasteurella multocida Begins after stress &/or viral infection Fever, nasal discharge, coughing, death Treatment-Antibiotics Reproductive Disease Abortions (primarily late term) due to: 1. Toxoplasmosis-Cats 2. Chlamydia 3. Camphylobacter Bring or Send fetus to the Diagnostic Laboratory for diagnosis Vaccinate if problem in your herd. l Hoof l l Foot scald (between toes) Foot rot (in hoof) • Infectious • Environmental • Two bacteria • One bacteria • Contagious • Not contagious • Foul odor Hoof Problems Treatment consists of: Antibiotics Proper care and trimming of foot Environmental Control l l Prevention-Rocks help Proper Hoof Trimming Go slow Be careful Contagious Ecthyma (Orf) Soremouth Treatment usually not needed systemic antibiotics if internal mouth lesions or mastitis Zoonotic!! wear gloves Skin CL- Caseous Lymphadenitis Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Swollen lymph node closest to entrance point Contagious!! l Caseous Lymphadenitis Zoonotic Diseases l l l l l l l l l l Rabies Q Fever- birthing fluids Anthrax Brucellosis- birthing fluids Tuberculosis Soremouth Leptospirosis E. coli Salmonella Avian Influenza Veterinary Emergencies Keep the animal calm, stop any bleeding, get a veterinarian ASAP Dog Attacks Uroliths Dystocia-no progress 30-60 minutes after water bag breaks Overeating/Grain Overload Severe Anemia l Emergency Kit Thermometer (Normal 101-103 F) l Bandage Material l Vet Wrap l Betadine Solution l Topical Medication (Neosporin) l Towels l Questions?