Basic Herd Health Supplies - UK College of Agriculture

Report
Goat Herd Health
Issues and Concerns
Michelle Bilderback, DVM
Ruminant Extension Veterinarian
University of Kentucky
Goat Health Management
Preventative Health Care
Biosecurity
Vaccination program
Parasite control program
Good nutrition and
feeding management
Predator management
Hoof care
Good Biosecurity
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Start with healthy stock
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Buy from reputable
breeders
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Isolate new animals for
at least 30 days

Maintain a closed herd if
possible
http://www.sheep101.info/201/biosecurity.html
Biosecurity for Goat Farms
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Don’t mix your goats with
other goats (or sheep).

Don’t loan goats.
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Don’t board goats.

Don’t loan equipment.

Limit access to your farm
and animals.

Control dog, cat, rodent,
fly, and bird populations.
Basic Herd Health Supplies
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Thermometer
Record book
Alcohol
Balling gun for oral dosing of bolus medication
Syringes and needles of various sizes and gauges
Sharp's container for used needles (old soda bottle)
Ear tagger and tags
Wound dressing
Deworming or drench gun
Basic Herd Health Supplies
Dewormers (anthelmintics)
l Antibacterials/antibiotics (penicillin
and tetracycline are most commonly
used)-Not for organic production
l Biologicals (Tetanus antitoxin, Tetanus
toxoid, C. perfringens toxoid)
l Injectables (vitamin A, D, & E, vitamin
B complex, BoSe)
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Health Program for Goats
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A veterinarian should be consulted to
tailor a health program for your specific
herd.
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Very important since many products
are not labeled for goats.
Essential Vaccines
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Clostridial diseases (CD-T)
• Clostridium perfringens
type C affects kids < 1 month
type D affects kids > 1 month
• Most critical for farms which
feed a lot of grain or allow
instant access to lush pasture
• “Overeating Disease”
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Clostridium tetani – tetanus
Vaccination Program for Goats
Combination Products:
Labeled for Goats:
Essential 3+T (Colorado Serum Co)
Vision CD/T (Intervet)
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Labeled for sheep/Cattle:
Bar Vac CD/T (Boehringer Ingelheim)
Other Vaccines *
Consult your Vet!
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Soremouth (live)- ONLY in infected herds
Pneumonia
Footrot
Chlamydia or Campylobacter (vibrio)- in
infected herds
Rabies
Caseous lymphadenitis
 beware of CaseBac in pregnant does
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Autogenous
vaccine made from bacteria isolated on a specific farm.
* not labeled for goats
Health Program-Does
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Good nutritionBody Condition
Score of 3-3.5 prior
to kidding
Deworm based on
FEC or FAMACHA
Check udder, teats,
teeth, feet-cull for
chronic disease
Vaccination Program for
Mature Goats
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Does
• Vaccinate 1 to 2 months
prior to kidding for
Clostridium perfringens type
C & D plus Tetanus toxoid.
• Two shots are necessary the
first time an animal is
vaccinated.
• Selenium 1 month prior to
kidding in deficient areas
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Bucks
• Vaccinate annually
Health Program-Kids
Colostrum!!
l Observe daily for
signs of diarrhea
or respiratory
disease
l Castrate males
before 3 months
of age (market?)
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Vaccination Program for Kids
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Kids
• Vaccinate at approximately
4-6 weeks of age
• Booster in 3-4 weeks
• Vaccinate earlier if dams
were not vaccinated
• Use tetanus antitoxin at the
time of castration or
disbudding if dam was not
vaccinated
Site of Administration
Subcutaneous Injections
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Meat goats
• Prefer injections in neck
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Breeders
• Prefer the axilla area
(behind the elbow)
• Nodular mass not as
visible
• Not readily mistaken for
caseous lymphadenitis
Handling Livestock Safely
Small animal chute, minimum bending
Incoming Program
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Unknown History
-Individually catch, identify and examine
for health problems
-Set up a separate isolation area for sick
goats (Take temperature/record)
-Fecal sampling of at least 10% of animals to
know where the group is relative to
parasites
-Isolate from other animals and pasture for
1 month
Incoming Program
-Observe for well being at least twice a day.
Wear coveralls, rubber boots and gloves.
These animals should be handled last.
-Vaccinate against tetanus and Clostridium
perfringens C & D (overeating disease)
-Deworm and Trim Feet
-Clean and disinfect pens when goats leave
Goat Health Management
Know how they look and behave normally
Normal Range for Goat
Physiological Parameters
Temperature, rectal 103 - 104° F
l Heart rate 70 – 90 beats per minute
l Respiration 12 – 20 per minute
l Rumen movements 1 – 2 per minute
l Puberty 4 – 10 months
l Estrous cycle 21 days
l Estrus (standing heat) 12 – 48 hours
l Gestation 150 days
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Common Health Problems
Internal parasites
 Digestive/Nutritional
 Respiratory complex
 Reproductive
 Hoof
 Skin
 May not show signs
of illness.
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Top 5 Causes of Death in
Goats-LDDC 2009
Haemonchosis
l Parasitism
l Coccidiosis
l Pneumonia
l Coccidiosis
(Eimeria)
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Gastro-intestinal parasites
#1 health problem affecting small ruminants
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Round worms
 Haemonchus contortus
Barber pole worm
 Ostertagia
 Trichostrongyles
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Lungworms
Parelaphostrongylus tenuis
Meningeal (deer) worm
Coccidia
“Barber pole Worm”
Haemonchus contortus
l Female has a red and white stripe
spiraling down its body, like a barber
pole
l The red stripe is the worm’s intestine
full of blood and the white stripe is the
uterus full of eggs
l Adult worms attach to lining of goat’s
stomach, bore into stomach wall and
suck blood
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“Barber Pole Worm”
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Goats can lose up to 10% of their blood
volume a day and death can quickly result
(“Anemia”)
Individual female worms can produce 5000
eggs/day
If one goat has 500 female worms, then that
animal can generate 2.5 million eggs per day
and a herd of 50 goats can produce 1 billion
eggs per week!
Eggs hatch at temperatures above 50 F and
best between 80-90 degrees F
Life Cycle of H.contortus
Eggs pass to outside in manure within a
few days.
l Eggs hatch then the larva (baby worm)
eats bacteria in the manure, matures,
then climbs up (<6 inches) nearby
blades of grass and waits to be eaten by
a goat
l Larvae are swallowed, go into stomach,
mature into adults and attach to lining.
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• Entire process can take 17 days
Life Cycle of H.
contortus
http://www.ext.vt.edu
/pubs/sheep/410027/figure1.html
Image courtesy of Biozetica
The Bad News
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Intensive use and total reliance on
anthelmintics (dewormers) has led to
drug resistant populations of worms
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This is the single greatest threat to
grazing goats worldwide.
Drug Class
Trade Names
Classes of Dewormers
Benzimidazole
Safeguard/
Panacur
Synathic/
Benzelmin
Valbazen*
Imidazole/
Pyrimidine
Levasole/
Tramisol**
Rumatel
StrongidT
Macrolide
Ivomec
Dectomax
Eprinex
Cydectin
*Do not use in first trimester pregnancy
** Do not use in last month of pregnancy
Veterinarian/Client/Patient
Relationship
A very specific relationship:
A veterinarian has assumed responsibility
for the need for medical treatment.
Veterinarian is personally acquainted
with the keeping and care of the
animals
Veterinarian is readily available for
emergency and follow-up evaluation
The FAMACHA© System
for assessing anemia and barber pole worm infection in small ruminants
Clinical
Category
Color
PCV
Deworm?
1
Red
> 28
No
2
Red-Pink
23-27
No
3
Pink
18-22
?
4
Pink-White
13-17
Yes
5
White
< 12
Yes
Parasite Management Principles
Do not overstock pastures
and pens (3-5 goats/acre)
2. Don’t overgraze (5” min)
3. Rest pastures sufficiently:
Rule of thumb is 3 months
4. Enable browsing -select
leaves and tender tips
5. Practice selective
deworming, not
prophylactic deworming =
1.
Parasite Management Principles
6.
Administer drugs properly
7.
Determine which drugs
work on your farm
8.
Select goats which are more
resistant to internal
parasites
9.
Practice good sanitation
10.Use
coccidiostats
Multi-Species Grazing
COCCIDIA
SUSPECT if diarrhea in one month old (or older) kids
Dark, damp, dirty conditions!
Coccidia
Stress
Over crowding
Second to third month of age
Terry Hutchens
Coccidiosis
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One celled parasite (“protozoa”)
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Young kids or older goats under stress
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Watery, bloody diarrhea Death
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Sanitation. Begin feeding coccidiostats
at 3 weeks of age.
Courtesy of Dr. Kevin Pelzer, Virginia-Maryland
Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
Digestive/Nutritional
 Overeating
Disease
 Clostridium perfringens toxin
 Produces toxin when rumen pH drops and
normal movement of intestine slows down
 Heavy grain feeding or allowed in lush,
fast growing pastures
 Depressed, diarrhea, death
 Vaccination/Gradual diet change
Goat Grazing Preference Trial
University of Kentucky Robinson Station
2006
(Most to least)
Sorghum Sudan
White clover
Turnip
Red clover
Chicory
Sericea Lespedeza
Tall Oatgrass
Alfalfa
Warm Season Grasses
(EGG, Swtich, BB, Indian)
Reed Canarygrass
Orchardgrass
Annual Lespedeza
Novel Endophyte TF
Endophyte Free TF
Infected TF
Bluegrass
Bermudagrass
Good nutrition and feeding
management
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Feed balanced rations
Feed according to production
cycle and growth stage
Separate animals according to
their nutritional needs
Supplement pasture and
forage, when necessary and
economical
Make feed changes gradual
Adequate feeder space
Good feeder design
Selenium, Copper, Zinc
Se, Cu, Zn
 Disease
resistance- immune response
 Reproductive
function
Digestive/Nutritional
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Urolithiasis (Blocked buck /wether)
Formation of large crystals in the
urethra called “calculi”
Strain to urinate, vocalize, colicky
Important Factors: Early castration, salt
and water availability, Pygmies
WATER, WATER, WATER
2:1 ratio of Calcium to Phosphorus
Pregnancy Toxemia
Does carrying multiple fetuses in late
pregnancy – Cannot consume enough
calories to meet her needs
l Depression, off feed, down, neurologic
signs of blindness, teeth grinding,
tremors and death
l Proper nutrition-small portions, high E
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Respiratory Disease
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Pneumonia
Primarily Mannheimia hemolytica and
Pasteurella multocida
Begins after stress &/or viral infection
Fever, nasal discharge, coughing, death
Treatment-Antibiotics
Reproductive Disease
Abortions (primarily late term) due to:
1. Toxoplasmosis-Cats
2. Chlamydia
3. Camphylobacter
Bring or Send fetus to the Diagnostic
Laboratory for diagnosis
Vaccinate if problem in your herd.
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Hoof
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Foot scald (between toes)
Foot rot (in hoof)
• Infectious
• Environmental
• Two bacteria
• One bacteria
• Contagious
• Not contagious
• Foul odor
Hoof Problems
Treatment consists of:
 Antibiotics
 Proper care and trimming of foot
 Environmental Control
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Prevention-Rocks help
Proper Hoof Trimming
Go slow
Be careful
Contagious Ecthyma (Orf)
Soremouth Treatment
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usually not needed
systemic antibiotics if
internal mouth lesions
or mastitis
 Zoonotic!!
wear gloves
Skin
CL- Caseous
Lymphadenitis
 Corynebacterium
pseudotuberculosis
 Swollen lymph
node closest to
entrance point
 Contagious!!
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Caseous Lymphadenitis
Zoonotic Diseases
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Rabies
Q Fever- birthing fluids
Anthrax
Brucellosis- birthing fluids
Tuberculosis
Soremouth
Leptospirosis
E. coli
Salmonella
Avian Influenza
Veterinary Emergencies
Keep the animal calm, stop any
bleeding, get a veterinarian ASAP
 Dog Attacks
 Uroliths
 Dystocia-no progress 30-60 minutes
after water bag breaks
 Overeating/Grain Overload
 Severe Anemia
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Emergency Kit
Thermometer (Normal 101-103 F)
l Bandage Material
l Vet Wrap
l Betadine Solution
l Topical Medication (Neosporin)
l Towels
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Questions?

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