World War I - Teacher Notes

Report
U.S. Involvement in
World War I
“The Great
War”
1914-1918
I. The Roots of War
A. Tensions grew between European
powers in the 1800s and 1900s
because of …
1. Nationalism – deep devotion to one’s
country
a. rivalry between Germany,
Austria-Hungary, Great Britain,
Russia, Italy and France
b. led to a desire for independence
among various ethnic groups.
I. The Roots of War – continued
2. Imperialism – competition for
colonies in Africa and Asia led to
rivalry and distrust among the
European powers
3. Militarism – “the policy of glorifying
military power and keeping an army
prepared for war” = an arms race
between the European powers
RIVALRIES OVER COLONIES LED TO
BITTERNESS IN EUROPE
ARMS RACE
EACH COUNTRY IN EUROPE HAD A DESIRE TO
BETTER ITS ARMY AND NAVY.
GREAT BRITAIN TRADITIONALLY HAD THE
MOST POWERFUL NAVY IN EUROPE. GERMANY
BEGAN TO EXPAND HER NAVY, WHICH CREATED
TENSION BETWEEN THE TWO NATIONS.
FRANCE LOST THE ALSACE-LORRAINE REGION
TO GERMANY IN THE FRANCO-PRUSSIAN WAR
OF 1870. THIS LEFT BITTERNESS BETWEEN THE
TWO COUNTRIES AND A DETERMINATION BY
FRANCE TO HAVE HER ARMY READY TO TAKE
BACK THE TERRITORY FROM GERMANY.
I. The Roots of War - cont.
4. Entangled Alliances
- Triple Alliance = Germany,
Austria-Hungary and Italy
(Germany’s ruler, Kaiser Wilhelm II, said
he wanted to show how mighty Germany
had become)
- Triple Entente = Britain, France,
and Russia
INTRICATE AND SOMETIMES
SECRET ALLIANCES IN EUROPE LED
TO OBLIGATIONS BUT ALSO
DIVIDED LOYALTIES IF ATTACKED
AUSTRIAHUNGARY HAD
AN AGREEMENT
WITH GERMANY
WHO HAD AN
AGREEMENT
WITH ITALY.
OTTOMAN
EMPIRE WAS
ALLIED WITH
GERMANY
AGAINST
RUSSIA.
SERBIA HAD AN
AGREEMENT WITH
RUSSIA WHO HAD
AN AGREEMENT
WITH FRANCE
WHO HAD AN
AGREEMENT WITH
GREAT BRITAIN
WHO HAD AN
AGREEMENT
PROTECT
BELGIUM’S
NEUTRALITY
Kaiser Wilhelm II
I. The Roots of War –cont.
B. Crisis in the Balkans
1. Ethnic rivalries dominated this region
known as the “Powder Keg of Europe”
2. Europe’s leading powers along with
Russia all had interests here!
3. New nations were formed:
- Serbia – created by Slavs (most
Russians were Slavic)
- Bosnia – taken over by AustriaHungary (area where many Slavs
lived)
II. WWI Begins
A. Assassination of the Archduke
1. June 28, 1914 – the heir to the
Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke
Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia
were assassinated in Sarajevo
(capital of Bosnia) by a Serbian
terrorist
ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND AND FAMILY
THE HEIR TO THE
AUSTR0-HUNGARIAN
THRONE WAS
ASSASSINATED WHILE
TOURING THROUGH
SERBIA BY GAVRILO
PRINCIP, A MEMBER OF
AN ORGANIZATION
CALLED BLACK HAND,
WHO WANTED
INDEPENDENCE FOR THE
REGION FROM AUSTRIAHUNGARY. THIS
ASSASSINATION
HELPED LEAD TO THE
WAR AS COUNTRIES
RUSHED TO AVENGE THE
MURDER AND FULFILL
THEIR ALLIANCE
OBLIGATIONS.
II. WWI Begins - continued
B. Austria declares war
1. July 28, 1914 – Austria declares war
on Serbia (believing this would be a
short war)
- Germany supports Austria’s
decision
- Russia mobilizes to support
Serbia
* Alliances agree to support each other *
II. WWI Begins -continued
C. Chain Reaction
1. Germany feels “obligated” to support
Austria-Hungary and declares war
on Russia on August 1, 1914
2. August 3, 1914 Germany declares
war on Russia’s ally, France
3. Germany now fighting a Two Front
War
III. The Fighting Starts
A. The Schlieffen Plan - Germany’s plan
to attack France first and then Russia
1. Germany moves through Belgium (a
neutral country) to get to France
2. Britain is outraged at the violation of
neutrality and declares war on
Germany on August 4, 1914
3. Italy breaks their alliance with
Germany by mid-August because of
this violation.
III. Fighting Starts – cont.
B. Trench Warfare:
- (After both sides failed to outflank
each other’s armies, both sides dug in for
a long siege.)
- By the Spring of 1915, two parallel
systems of deep, rat infested trenches
crossed France.
- trenches were very close together and
the space in between, “no man’s land”,
was filled with bombs and barbed wire
.
During the First Battle of the Somme –
which began July 1, 1916 and lasted until
mid-November 1916 – the British suffered
60,000 casualties the first day alone.
Final casualties totaled about 1.2 million,
yet only 7 miles of ground changed hands.
This bloody trench warfare continued for
over 3 years.
TRENCH WARFARE
Trench warfare was the dominant style of fighting. Troops would
dig 10-12 ft. deep trenches for protection against enemy machine gun
fire. The space between two trenches was called “no man’s land.”
To break an enemy’s line artillery would bomb the area, then the
men would run across no man’s land until they could throw
grenades into the enemy’s trench. **Reading “A Wet Little Home”.
TRENCH WARFARE
AERIAL VIEW OF THE TRENCHES
III. Fighting Starts - continued
C. European Nations Take Sides
1. Central Powers = Germany, AustriaHungary
2. Allied Powers = Britain, France, and
Russia – later Japan and Italy join
3. Millions of soldiers march off to war
convinced that the war would be
short
THE WAR BEGAN
WITH THE
ALLIES VERSUS
THE CENTRAL
POWERS AND
SIX NEUTRAL
NATIONS
ALLIES
FRANCE
UNITED KINGDOM (AND ALL OF HER
COLONIES)
ITALY
RUSSIA
JAPAN
ROMANIA
SERBIA
GREECE
PORTUGAL
NEUTRAL NATIONS
SPAIN
SWITZERLAND
NORWAY
SWEDEN
BELGIUM
DENMARK
CENTRAL POWERS
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
GERMANY
BULGARIA
TURKEY
IV. Americans Question Neutrality
A. The United States remains neutral:
1. August 19,1914 – President Wilson
declares U.S. neutrality
2. Most Americans saw no reason to
join a struggle 3,000 miles away that
did not threaten U.S. lives or property.
3. Other Americans wanted to join the
war because of loyalty to their
homelands and to past allies.
President Woodrow Wilson
“Every man who really loves America will act
and speak in the true spirit of neutrality,
which is the spirit of impartiality and
fairness and friendliness to all
concerned….It is natural and inevitable
that there should be the utmost variety of
sympathy and desire among you with
regard to the issues and circumstances of
the conflict. The United States must be
impartial in thought as well as in action.”
President Woodrow Wilson
IV. Americans Question Neutrality
B. Divided Loyalties
- Socialists criticized the war as a
capitalist and imperialist struggle between
Germany and England for markets
- Pacifists, believed war was evil and
that the U.S. should set an example of
peace.
- Many simply didn’t want their sons to
experience war.
B. Divided Loyalties – continued
- Many Americans felt close to Britain
because of common ancestry, language
and democratic systems.
- Germany’s aggression increased U.S.
sympathy for the allies.
- America’s economic ties with the
allies was stronger (during the first 2
years of the war, the U.S. shipped millions
of dollars of war supplies to the Allies and
orders kept coming!!!!)
TOTAL U.S. POPULATION 1910: 91,972,266
U.S. POPULATION BY ETHNIC GROUP FROM BOTH SIDES
OF THE WAR: 32,243,282
9000000
8000000
7000000
6000000
5000000
4000000
3000000
2000000
1000000
0
GERMAN
AUSTRIANHUNGARIAN
BRITISH
IRISH
RUSSIAN
ITALIAN
POPULATION
BY ETHNIC
GROUP IN
MILLIONS
WHAT EXPLAINS THE ANTI-GERMAN
SENTIMENT IN THE U.S. GIVEN THAT
GERMANS COMPRISED THE SINGLE
LARGEST FOREIGN-BORN GROUP?
•CLASHING WITH THE GERMANS IN
SAMOA AND AT MANILA BAY OVER
EXPANSION OF U.S. TERRITORIES IN THE
LATE 19TH CENTURY
•COMPETITION OVER TRADING IN CHINA,
EAST INDIES, THE PACIFIC, AND AFRICA
•GERMAN DOMINANCE OF NAVAL AND
ARMY POWER OVER THE U.S.
•GERMANY INVADED NEUTRAL BELGIUM
•BRITISH PROPAGANDA DEMONIZING THE
GERMANS
V. The War Hits Home
A. The British Blockade
- Britain blockaded the German coast
to stop supplies, including food.
- Result = U.S. angry b/c the blockade
threatened freedom of the seas and
Germany experienced famine (750,000
Germans died of starvation by 1917)
V. The War Hits Home – cont.
B. German U-Boat Response
- Germany responded with a
counterblockade by U-boats = any
allied ships in the waters around
Britain would be sunk.
AD PLACED IN THE NEW YORK TIMES BY
THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT, 1915
NOTICE!
Travelers intending to embark on the
Atlantic voyage are reminded that a
state of war exists between Germany
and her allies and Great Britain and
her allies; that the zone of war
includes the waters adjacent to the
British Isles; that, in accordance with
formal notice given by the Imperial
German Government, vessels flying the
flag of Great Britain, or any of her
allies, are liable to destruction in those
waters and that travellers sailing in
the war zone on ships of Great Britain
or her allies do so at their own risk.
IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY
WASHINGTON, D.C., APRIL 22, 1915.
LUSITANIA SUNK, 1915
BRITISH PASSENGER SHIP
SUNK BY A GERMAN U-BOAT
IN 1915. MORE THAN 1,000
PEOPLE KILLED INCLUDING
128 AMERICANS.
V. War Hits Home – cont.
C. Sinking of the Lusitania
- May 7, 1915 – a U-boat sank the
British liner the Lusitania off the coast of
Ireland.
- 1,198 people died, 128 were
Americans
(Germany defended their actions on
the grounds that the liner carried
ammunition but Americans were still
outraged)
The Lusitania
V. War Hits Home – cont.
C. Sinking of the Lusitania – cont.
- August 1915 – a U-boat sinks another liner,
killing 2 Americans
- Americans protest and Germany
agrees not to sink any more
passenger ships.
- March 1916 – U-boat torpedoed an unarmed
French passenger ship, killing 80 people,
including some Americans.
- Wilson still avoided war and was re-elected
in 1916 using the slogan “He Kept Us Out of
War”!
THE ELECTION OF 1916
DEMOCRAT PRESIDENT
WOODROW WILSON
WILSON RAN ON THE
SLOGAN “HE KEPT US OUT
OF WAR!” HOWEVER HE
KNEW THAT THE U.S. WAS
GETTING CLOSER TO
ENTERING THE WAR
REPUBLICAN SUPREME
COURT JUSTICE CHARLES
EVANS HUGHES
HUGHES CHALLENGED
WILSON’S
UNWILLINGNESS TO
STAND UP TO THE
GERMANS
THE ELECTION WAS SO CLOSE THAT THE RESULT WAS NOT
KNOWN FOR SEVERAL DAYS WHILE CALIFORNIA’S VOTES WERE
TALLIED. WILSON’S LEAD IN CALIFORNIA WAS ONLY BY 3800
VOTES.
WILSON WON WITH 9,129,606 TO HUGHES’ 8,538,221.
VI. The U.S. Declares War
A. January 1917 Germany resumes
unrestricted submarine warfare –
promising to sink all ships in British
waters- hostile or neutral.
- U.S. now knows war in unavoidable
but Wilson decides to wait for “actual overt
acts” before declaring war.
VI. U.S. Declares War – cont.
B. The Zimmerman Telegram – Feb. 1917
1. Telegram sent from the German
foreign minister, Arthur von Zimmerman
to the German ambassador in Mexico
2. Intercepted by British intelligence
3. Telegram proposed:
- that Mexico ally itself with Germany
- if war broke out w/ the U.S., Germany
would help Mexico recover “lost territory in
Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.”
ZIMMERMANN NOTE (1917)
On the first of February we intend to begin submarine
warfare unrestricted. In spite of this, it is our
intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United
States of America.
If this attempt is not successful, we propose an
alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we
shall make war together and together make peace.
We shall give general financial support, and it is
understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost
territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The
details are left to you for settlement. . . .
You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico
of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it
is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with
the United States and suggest that the President of
Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate
with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;
at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany
and Japan.
Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico
that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare
now promises to compel England to make peace in a
few months.
Alfred Zimmermann, German Foreign Minister 1916
FEBRUARY 1, 1917
GERMANY ANNOUNCED THEY WOULD RESUME
THEIR U-BOAT CAMPAIGN AND SINK ALL
(INCLUDING AMERICAN) SHIPS IN THE WAR
ZONE. MANY GERMANS WERE STARVING
FROM THE BRITISH BLOCKADE AND THE
GERMAN MILITARY BELIEVED THEY COULD
FORCE THE BRITISH TO SURRENDER IN A
FEW MONTHS, BEFORE THE U.S. WOULD
ENTER, AND WIN THE WAR.
WILSON CLUNG TO THE HOPE THAT GERMANY
WOULD NOT ACTUALLY ATTACK U.S. SHIPS,
HOWEVER IN MARCH FOUR UNARMED
MERCHANT SHIPS WERE SUNK, WITH 36
LIVES LOST.
VI. U.S. Declares War – cont.
C. America Acts!
- April 6, 1917 the U.S. declares war
on Germany.
- Wilson said that the U.S. must make
the world “safe for democracy”
WILSON ASKED CONGRESS TO DECLARE WAR
APRIL 2, 1917
“THE WORLD MUST
BE MADE SAFE FOR
DEMOCRACY. ITS
PEACE MUST BE
PLANTED UPON
THE TESTED
FOUNDATIONS OF
POLITICAL
LIBERTY. WE HAVE
NO SELFISH ENDS
TO SERVE. WE
DESIRE NO
CONQUEST, NO
DOMINION. WE
SEEK NO
INDEMNITIES FOR
OURSELVES, NO
MATERIAL
COMPENSATION
FOR THE
SACRIFICES WE
SHALL FREELY
MAKE.”
CONGRESS DECLARED WAR APRIL 6, 1917
EXCERPT FROM THE
WAR DECLARATION
“Whereas the Imperial German
Government has committed
repeated acts of war against
the Government and the people
of the United States of
America; Therefore be it
Resolved by the Senate and the
House of Representatives of
the United States of America in
Congress Assembled, that the
state of war between the
United States and the Imperial
German Government which has
thus been thrust upon the
United States is hereby
formally declared; and that the
President be, and he is hereby,
authorized and directed to
employ the entire naval and
military forces of the United
States and the resources of the
Government to carry on war
against the Imperial German
Government; and to bring the
conflict to a successful
termination all of the resources
of the country are hereby
pledged by the Congress of the
United States.”
VII. America Mobilizes
A. Raising an Army:
1. U.S. was not prepared to fight – only
200,000 men were in service.
2. Selective Service Act—authorized a draft of
young men for military service.
- Act required men to register with the gov.
to be randomly selected for service.
- By 1918 – 24 million men had registered.
- Nearly 3 millions were called up!
3. 42 DIVISIONS SENT TO FRANCE 2,084,000 MEN
VII. America Mobilizes
A. Raising an Army - continued
4. Avoiding the Draft
- The government did exempt some
shipyard workers from the draft because
their work was valuable to the war effort.
- Some Americans sought exemption from the
war as a conscientious objector – someone who
opposes war on moral grounds.
* About 3,500 men obtained legal
conscientious objector exemptions.
* Some simply refused to cooperate with
the military and 500 objectors were
court-martialed and imprisoned.
SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT MAY 18, 1917
REQUIRED ALL MALES BETWEEN THE AGES OF 21-30
(LATER CHANGED TO 18-45) TO REGISTER FOR THE
DRAFT
ABOUT 24 MILLION MEN REGISTERED, 23% OF TOTAL
POPULATION
ABOUT 11,000 WOMEN VOLUNTEERED AS NURSES,
CLERICAL WORKERS AND TELEPHONE OPERATORS
SECRETARY OF WAR BAKER PULLED
DRAFT NUMBERS IN THE LOTTERY
SOLDIERS LEFT FOR FRANCE
♫ OVER THERE
http://www.firstworldwar.com/audio/overthere.htm
Over There
Johnnie, get your gun,
Get your gun, get your gun,
Take it on the run,
On the run, on the run.
Hear them calling, you and me,
Every son of liberty.
Hurry right away,
No delay, go today,
Make your daddy glad
To have had such a lad.
Tell your sweetheart not to pine,
To be proud her boy's in line.
(chorus sung twice)
Johnnie, get your gun,
Get your gun, get your gun,
Johnnie show the Hun
Who's a son of a gun.
Hoist the flag and let her fly,
Yankee Doodle do or die.
Yankee Doodle do or die.
Pack your little kit,
Show your grit, do your bit.
Yankee to the ranks,
From the towns and the tanks.
Make your mother proud of you,
And the old Red, White and Blue.
(chorus sung twice)
Chorus
Over there, over there,
Send the word, send the word over there
That the Yanks are coming,
The Yanks are coming,
The drums rum-tumming
Ev'rywhere.
So prepare, say a pray'r,
Send the word, send the word to
beware.
We'll be over, we're coming over,
And we won't come back till it's over
Over there.
VII. America Mobilizes – cont.
B. Convoy System
- U.S. needed to get troops, ships,
supplies, etc., to Europe but knew
they faced the U-boats.
- American Vice Admiral William S.
Sims suggested the convoy system
= heavy guard of destroyers escorted
merchant ships back and forth.
- “Only” 637 Americans were lost to Uboats during the war.
VIII. Fighting in the War
A. American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was
led by General John J. Pershing:
-
-
American infantry were nicknamed
“doughboys” because of the white belts that
they cleaned with pipe clay, or “dough”.
Most soldiers had never been far from home
and none were prepared for the horrors of
war.
GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING, COMMANDER OF
THE AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN WWI
"ALL A
SOLDIER
NEEDS TO
KNOW IS
HOW TO
SHOOT
AND
SALUTE."
VIII. Fighting in the War – cont.
B. New Weapons:
- Machine Guns
- Poison Gas
- Armored tanks
- Airplanes
- Submarines
AIRPLANES ENTERED THE SCENE
SUBMARINES, CALLED “U-BOATS” BY THE
GERMANS, WERE USED TO SINK SUPPLY
SHIPS
TECHNOLOGY
IMPROVED
CANNONS
MACHINE GUNS
TANKS WERE FIRST INTRODUCED
POISONOUS GAS
VIII. Fighting in the War – cont.
C. America on the Offensive
- 1917 – Russia pulls out of the war
and Germany is close to Paris
- Americans arrive and help stop the
German advance and send the
Germans retreating
VIII. Fighting in the War – cont.
D. Germany surrenders:
- Nov. 3, 1918 Austria-Hungary
surrenders
- Same day, German soldiers mutiny
- Nov. 9th new German gov. formed,
Kaiser steps down
- November 11, 1918 – Germany signs
the armistice (an agreement to stop
fighting) to end the war!
IX. Final Toll
• Deaths = 22 million (1/2 civilians)
• U.S. lost 48,000 men in battle, 62,000 died of
disease, more than 200,000 wounded
• Wounded = 20 million
• Economic Cost = $338 billion
X. The War At
Home
A. WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD
•CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON AND
HEADED BY BERNARD BARUCH
•TO INCREASE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION
AND COORDINATE DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES
•THE GOVERNMENT TOOK OVER ALL
FACTORIES.
•THE BOARD INSTRUCTED THE FACTORIES
ON WHAT TO PRODUCE, HOW MUCH TO
PRODUCE, AND THE COST OF THE ITEMS
•WOMEN'S BLOUSE FACTORIES MADE SIGNAL
FLAGS
•RADIATOR MANUFACTURERS MADE GUNS
•AUTOMOBILE FACTORIES MADE AIRPLANE
ENGINES
•PIANO COMPANIES MADE AIRPLANE WINGS
MANUFACTURING
HELMETS AND
HATS FOR
SOLDIERS
WOOL SOCKS FOR SOLDIERS
POSTERS DESIGNED TO CONVINCE WORKERS IT WAS THEIR
DUTY TO PRODUCE (AND THEREFORE NOT STRIKE)
X. War at Home – Cont.
B. War Economy
- Most wages rose during the war
- However, household income was cut
because of rising food prices and
housing costs
- Stockholders saw huge profits
- Union membership boomed
- National War Labor Board was
formed to manage disputes between
workers and management.
NATIONAL WAR LABOR
BOARD
•HEADED BY EX-PRESIDENT TAFT
WAS FORMED TO UNIFY LABOR
POLICIES AND SERVED AS THE
COURT FOR LABOR DISPUTES
•PRESIDENT WILSON HOPED TO
PREVENT STRIKES AS THEY COULD
STOP PRODUCTION OF MUCH NEEDED
GOODS FOR THE WAR
•DURING THE WAR THERE WERE
OVER 6,000 STRIKES, AND THE NWLB
HEARD OVER 1,000 CASES
•THE NWLB ALSO WORKED TO
IMPROVE WORKING
CONDITIONS: AN EIGHT-HOUR
WORKDAY WAS ESTABLISHED IN
SOME AREAS, AND STANDARDS FOR
THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN AND
CHILDREN WERE ESTABLISHED
X. War at Home – cont.
C. Food Administration
- Wilson set up the Food
Administration under Herbert
Hoover to convince Americans to
conserve food.
- Hoover called for people to follow the
“gospel of the clean plate”
- Called for, “meatless”, “sweetless”,
“wheatless”, and “porkless” days.
FOOD ADMINISTRATION
•HEADED BY FUTURE PRESIDENT
HERBERT HOOVER, NEVER IMPOSED
SPECIFIC RATIONS BUT RELIED UPON
VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION
•RATION: TO LIMIT THE AMOUNT OF
FOOD OR RESOURCES PEOPLE CAN USE
•FAMOUS SLOGAN “FOOD WILL WIN
THE WAR – DON’T WASTE IT”
•THE U.S. HAD TO PROVIDE FOOD FOR
ITS OWN CITIZENS AS WELL AS THE
ALLIED COUNTRIES
X. War at Home – Cont.
D. Financing the War
- U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war
- Gov. raised 1/3 through taxes:
- increased income tax
- taxes on tobacco, liquor, luxury
goods
- Gov. raised the rest through public
borrowing – “Liberty Loan” and
“Victory Loan” Bonds and War
Stamps.
THERE WERE FOUR MAJOR LIBERTY LOAN
DRIVES WHICH AMASSED GREAT AMOUNTS OF
MONEY FOR THE WAR EFFORT. PRIVATE
ORGANIZATIONS, LIKE THE RED CROSS AND THE
Y.M.C.A. ALSO HELD FUND RAISING EVENTS.
BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA
THE LIBERTY LOAN
DRIVES USUALLY
INVOLVED A LARGE
PARADE THAT WOULD
INCLUDE SOLDIERS
AND COMMUNITY
MEMBERS
KIDS WERE ENCOURAGED TO CONTRIBUTE
TO THE LOAN DRIVES AS WELL
X. War at Home – Cont.
E. Committee on Public Information
- to popularize the war, the govt.
created the nation’s first propaganda
agency, the (CPI)
- Head of the CPI was George Creel
- CPI’s job was to promote the war
effort!
COMMITTEE FOR PUBLIC INFORMATION:
CREATED BY PRESIDENT WILSON TO SPREAD
PRO-WAR PROPAGANDA
LED BY
JOURNALIST
GEORGE CREEL
WAR PROPAGANDA POSTERS
CIVIL LIBERTIES RESTRICTED DURING THE WAR
CIVIL LIBERTIES ARE
FUNDAMENTAL INDIVIDUAL
RIGHTS THAT ARE PROTECTED IN
THE BILL OF RIGHTS, SUCH AS
FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND
RELIGION, HOWEVER IN TIMES
OF CRISIS THEY HAVE BEEN
RESTRICTED BY THE
GOVERNMENT IN ORDER TO
ACHIEVE LARGER GOALS
DURING WORLD WAR ONE, LAWS
WERE PASSED THAT SEVERELY
RESTRICTED PEOPLE’S RIGHTS
WHO SPOKE OUT AGAINST THE
WAR EFFORT
LED TO 6,000 ARRESTS AND
OVER 1900 PROSECUTIONS
WERE MADE UNDER THE LAWS
X. War at Home –cont.
F. Attacks on Civil Liberties
- Americans from Germany or AustriaHungary became targets of discrimination.
- June 1917 the government passed the
Espionage and Sedition Acts - a person
could be fined up to $10,000 and sentenced
to 20 years in jail for interfering with the war
effort or saying anything disloyal, profane of
abusive about the government.
EXAMPLES OF ANTI-GERMAN
SENTIMENT DURING WWI
•MANY AMERICAN SCHOOLS STOPPED OFFERING
INSTRUCTION IN THE GERMAN LANGUAGE.
•CALIFORNIA'S STATE EDUCATION BOARD
CALLED GERMAN A LANGUAGE OF "AUTOCRACY,
BRUTALITY, AND HATRED”.
•SAUERKRAUT BECAME "LIBERTY CABBAGE"
•SALOONKEEPERS REMOVED PRETZELS FROM THE
BAR
•ORCHESTRAL WORKS BY BACH, BEETHOVEN, AND
BRAHMS VANISHED FROM MUSIC PROGRAMS,
INCLUDING THAT OF THE NEW YORK
PHILHARMONIC
•MANY GERMAN AMERICANS WERE BADGERED,
BEATEN, AND SOMETIMES KILLED.
THE ESPIONAGE ACT OF 1917, LATER AMENDED
AND CALLED THE SEDITION ACT OF 1918
SECTION 3. Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall
willfully make or convey false reports or false statements with
intent to interfere with the operation or success of the
military or naval forces of the United States or to promote the
success of its enemies and whoever when the United States is
at war, shall willfully cause or attempt to cause
insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, refusal of duty, in the
military or naval forces of the United States, or shall willfully
obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the United
States, to the injury of the service or of the United States,
shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or
imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.
SOME OF THE PEOPLE ARRESTED UNDER THESE LAWS. PLEASE SEE THE SPEAKER NOTES FOR DETAILS.
RANDOLPH
DEBS
EASTMAN
REED
BERGER
HAYWOOD
TWO WELL-KNOWN ANARCHISTS, EMMA GOLDMAN
AND ALEXANDER BERKMAN CONVICTED OF
CONSPIRACY AGAINST THE DRAFT LAW WERE
SENTENCED TO TWO YEARS IN A PENITENTIARY
AND FINED $10,000 EACH, JULY 9, 1917. THEY
WERE LATER DEPORTED TO RUSSIA.
SCHENCK V. U.S.
•CHARLES SCHENCK, GENERAL SECRETARY
OF THE AMERICAN SOCIALIST PARTY,
OPPOSED TO THE WAR, MAILED 15,000
PAMPHLETS TO RECENT DRAFTEES THAT
CLAIMED THAT THE DRAFT WAS A
VIOLATION OF THE 13TH AMENDMENT’S
PROHIBITION OF SLAVERY AND TO PETITION
FOR REPEAL OF THE DRAFT.
•HE WAS ARRESTED AND CONVICTED FOR
INTERFERING WITH MILITARY
RECRUITMENT UNDER THE ESPIONAGE ACT.
HE ARGUED THAT HE WAS EXERCISING HIS
FIRST AMENDMENT RIGHT TO FREE SPEECH.
•THE SUPREME COURT UPHELD THE
CONVICTION IN 1919 AND JUSTICE HOLMES
RULED THAT FREEDOM OF SPEECH COULD BE
RESTRICTED WHEN THE WORDS PRESENTED
A “CLEAR AND PRESENT DANGER”. HE USED
THE EXAMPLE OF YELLING “FIRE!” WHEN
THERE WAS NONE IN A CROWDED THEATER.
X.G.War
atChange
Home – cont.
Social
- War prompted the Great Migration,
the large-scale movement of Southern
blacks to cities in the north because:
- escape racial discrimination
- declining cotton industry
- more job opportunities up North
(Racial prejudice against African Americans
still existed in the North)
- African Americans made a significant
contribution to the war effort at home and
abroad.
AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS SERVED IN
SEGREGATED UNITS
HENRY JOHNSON,
LEFT, AND NEADHAM
ROBERTS, RIGHT
RECEIVED THE FRENCH
CROIX DE GUERRE, AN
AWARD CREATED TO
RECOGNIZE BRAVERY
IN THE FACE OF AN
ENEMY
ALTHOUGH AFRICAN AMERICAN SOLDIERS WERE USED
MOSTLY FOR LABOR, THE FRENCH HIRED SOME
INFANTRY THAT FOUGHT ALONGSIDE FRENCH WHITE
SOLDIERS. THESE EXPERIENCES CONTRIBUTED TO THE
SENSE OF EMPOWERMENT EXPRESSED BY THE BLACK
COMMUNITY IN THE HARLEM RENAISSANCE IN THE
1920s.
BUILDING RAILROADS IN
FRANCE
CUTTING DOWN TREES
EACH STAR REPRESENTED A SON
FIGHTING IN THE WAR
X. War at Home – cont.
G. Social Change – cont.
- Women entered the work force in
large numbers and in jobs never before
held by women.
(President Wilson acknowledged the contribution
of women saying, “The services of women
during the supreme crisis have been of the most
signal usefulness and distinction; it is high time
that part of our debt should be acknowledged.”
Their war effort helped spread support for
suffrage.)
WOMEN TOOK THE JOBS LEFT BEHIND BY THE
MEN
NURSES
CONTRIBUTED
TO THE WAR
EFFORT
X. War at Home – cont.
H. Flu Epidemic
- Fall of 1918 a flu epidemic affected ¼
of the U.S.
- Economically devastating b/c –
businesses shut down.
- illness spread rapidly in the army
- killed 500,000 Americans before the
war was over (30 million worldwide).
INFLUENZA, 1918
•SOLDIERS NEAR BOSTON
SUDDENLY STARTED DYING
•THE CAUSE OF DEATH WAS
IDENTIFIED AS INFLUENZA, BUT IT
WAS UNLIKE ANY STRAIN EVER
SEEN
•AS THE KILLER VIRUS SPREAD
ACROSS THE COUNTRY, HOSPITALS
OVERFILLED, DEATH CARTS ROAMED
THE STREETS AND HELPLESS CITY
OFFICIALS DUG MASS GRAVES
•IT WAS THE WORST EPIDEMIC IN
AMERICAN HISTORY, KILLING OVER
600,000, FIVE TIMES THE DEATHS
OF AMERICAN SOLDIERS IN THE
WAR. IT DISAPPEARED AS
MYSTERIOUSLY AS IT HAD BEGUN.
PARADES QUICKLY SPREAD
THE DISEASE
INFLUENZA DEATHS PER 1,000 PEOPLE
COMPARED TO THE NUMBERS OF DEATHS
THE PREVIOUS YEAR
XI. Peace Talks
A. Wilson’s 14 Points, Jan. 18, 1918:
1. No secret treaties between nations
2. Freedom of seas
3. Tariffs should be lowered to foster
trade
4. Arms should be reduced
5. Interests of colonial people should
be considered.
- Points 6-13 dealt with boundary changes
based on the principles of selfdetermination
XI. Peace Talks –cont.
A. 14 Points –continued:
- The 14th Point called for the creation of an
international peacekeeping organization to
address diplomatic crises – League of
Nations!
- The Allies reject Wilson’s 14 points because:
-
-
They wanted to punish Germany
They wanted to gain territory
XI. Peace Talks – cont.
B. Treaty of Versailles:
- The “Big Four” meet in Paris to
discuss the terms of peace.
- Wilson (U.S.),
- Georges Clemenceau (France)
- David Lloyd George (Great Britain)
- Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
- delegates from 32 other countries
- Russia and Germany not present
- Treaty fails to ensure lasting peace!!!!
XII. Legacy of the War
– Americans eager to return to “normalcy” –
Harding
– U.S. military and government strengthened
– Appalled by the destruction, Americans called
WWI, “the war to end all wars.”
– However, unresolved issues will soon drag
the U.S. into an even wider war!!!!

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