The Imperative tense: Commands

Report
 The
Imperative tense:
Commands
 Spanish
4 AP,
Interacciones pages
204,283,300
Commands allow you to give a direct order.
There are several kinds of commands:



Formal (Usted and Ustedes)
Informal (Tú and Vosotros/as)
Nosotros/as
Formation:
 Affirmative and Negative formal commands
are derived from the present subjunctive so
they are formed by starting with the yo form
of the present tense, and interchanging the –
AR and –ER/ -IR endings. Él/ella/Ud endings
will work for the formal UD command, and
ellos/ellas/Uds endings will work for the Uds
(or you plural) command. Present tense stem
changes apply as well as any present tense
verb that has an irregularity in the yo form.
Infinitive
Yo form
Present
Alt. Ending
UD command Uds.
command
Hablar
Hablo
-e/-en
Hable Ud.
Hablen Uds
Comer
Como
-a/-an
Coma Ud.
Coman Uds
Cerrar
Cierro
-e/-en
Cierre Ud.
Cierren Uds
Tener
Tengo
-a/-an
Tenga Ud.
Tengan Uds
Conducir
Conduzco
-a/-an
Conduzca
Conduzcan
Dormir
Duermo
-a/-an
Duerma Ud
Duerman Uds
Formation of Negative Commands:
 To make the command negative, just add the
word “no” before the conjugated command.
 Example:
 ¡No hablen Uds. cuando la maestra está
enseñando!

(Don’t talk when the teacher is teaching!)
Infinitive
Ir (to go)
Ser (to be)
Estar (to be)
Dar (to give)
Saber (to know)
Ud. Command
Vaya Ud.
Sea Ud.
Esté Ud.
Dé Ud.
Sepa Ud.
Uds. Command
Vayan Uds.
Sean Uds.
Estén Uds.
Den Uds.
Sepan Uds.
Spelling change:
 *Note that the following verbs are regular,
but they have a spelling change in the
command form.
Infinitive
Ud Command
Uds. Command
Tocar
Toque Ud.
Toquen Uds.
Picar
Pique Ud.
Piquen Uds.
Jugar
Juegue Ud.
Jueguen Uds.
Pagar
Pague Ud.
Paguen Uds.
Agregar
Agregue Ud.
Agreguen Uds.
Empezar
Empiece Ud.
Empiecen Uds.


1. Negative informal commands for tú and
vosotros are derived from the present
subjunctive. This means you start in the yo
form of the present indicative, drop the “o”
and add opposite endings.
Examples:
Tú
Vosotros
No compres más.
No compréis más.
No digas eso.
No digáis eso.
The endings for tú are:
 AR verbs- es
 ER and IR verbs- as
The endings for the vosotros are:
 AR verbs- éis
 ER and IR verbs- áis
There are 6 irregular negative familiar
commands:
Tú/ Vosotros
 Ir – no vayas/ no vayáis
 Dar- no des/ no deis
 Ser – no seas/ no seáis
 Estar-no estés/ no estéis
 Saber- no sepas/ no sepáis
 Haber-no hayas/ no hayáis
The Affirmative informal commands for tú and
vosotros(as) have their own endings. The
affirmative informal commands are derived
from the present indicative tú form minus the
person ending –s.
Present Ind.
Command
Contestas el teléfono. Contesta el teléfono.
Meaning
Answer the phone.
The endings are:
 AR verbs- a
 ER and IR verbs- e





The irregular affirmative tú commands are
Decir – Di
Poner - Pon
Tener – Ten
Ser – Sé
Venir – Ven
Hacer- Haz
Ir – Ve
Salir- Sal
3. The affirmative vosotros(as) commands are
formed by replacing the –r if the infinitive
with –d. They lose their final –d when the
reflexive pronoun os is attached: acordaos.
The one exception to this rule is irse= idos
(go away).


Examples-
Hablar= Hablad
Salir=
Salid
1.The present subjunctive forms of
nosotros(as) are used as commands.


Tomemos el tren.= Let’s take the train.
No hagamos nada.= Let’s not do anything.
2. The affirmative nosotros command is often
replaced by vamos+a+infinitive. Vamos a
estudiar may mean either we are going to
study, or Let’s study. No vamos a estudiar
can only mean We are not going to study.


3. Vamos is used instead of Vayamos for let’s
go. The present tense subjunctive form is
used for the negative: no vayamos.
Vamos al centro. No vayamos al cine.
4. In affirmative nosotros commands, the final
–s of the verb ending is dropped when the
reflexive pronoun nos or the indirect object
pronoun se is added. An accent mark is
written over the stressed syllable. For
example: Lavémonos (Lavemos + nos) Let’s
wash or Prestémoselo (Prestemos + se + lo)
Let’s lendit to her.


Other examples-
(irse) Vámonos
(Sentarse) Sentémonos
Infinitive
Aprender
Abrir
Pensar
Decir
Tener
Venir
Empezar
Ser
Cortar
Ir
+ Tú Command
- Tú Command
Infinitive
Cantar
Escribir
Cerrar
Decir
Tener
Venir
Comenzar
Ser
Correr
Ir
+ Vosotros
Command
- Vosotros Command
Infinitive
Servir
Querer
Venir
Doblar
Escuchar
Comer
Poner
Hacer
Dormir
Conocer
Usted
Ustedes
*How would you make these commands negative?
1.
2.
3.
Textbook p205, exercises 6.8 and 6.9
Textbook p 284, exercises 8.7 and 8.8
Textbook p301, exercises 8.31,8.32, 8.33

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