Asbestos

Report
Asbestos Awareness
Presented by QBE
Loss Control Services
Asbestos Awareness
What is Asbestos ?
• Generic term for various fibrous mineral
silicates
• Fibers very resistant to heat and
chemicals and do not conduct electricity
• Formerly widely used in many industries
Uses of Asbestos
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3600 commercial products
Use began around 1900
Until 1940 use limited
From 1940 until 1970’s used extensively
After 1980 phase out began
1989- EPA phase out rule
Types of Asbestos
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Chrysotile
Amosite
Crocidolite
Tremolite
Actinolite
Anthophylite
Chrysotile
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Most common type of asbestos
Heat resistant
Sprayed on insulation
Fireproofing
Long flexible fibers easily spun into yarn
Amosite
• Not as common as chrysotile
• Pipe and boiler insulation
• Fibers easily become airborne
Pipe Insulation
Crocidolite
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Fibers shorter and more brittle
High tensile strength
Primarily used in cement products
Fibers hard to control
Common Uses
• Insulating Products (1926-1971)
• Surfacing Material (sprayed or troweled)
(1935-1970)
• Extrusion Panels (since 1930)
• Transite Boards (unknown)
Ceiling Tiles
• Armstrong “Sanserra”
• Armstrong “Santaglio”
• Armstrong “Embossed Design”
Roofing Materials
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Shingles and clapboard (unknown)
Roofing felts (since 1910)
Roofing asphalt (unknown)
Roof putty (unknown)
Roof coatings (since 1900)
Floor Materials
• Mastics (1945-1980)
• Asphalt tile cement (since 1959)
• Vinyl asbestos tile (1950-1980)
(9” x 9” tiles more likely to contain asbestos
than 12” x 12” tiles)
• Asphalt asbestos tile (1920-1980)
Paper Products
• Corrugated (1910-1980)
• Indented (since 1935)
• Millboard (since 1925)
Other Products
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Caulks and putties (1900-1973)
Adhesives (since 1945)
Joint compound (1945-1977)
Plaster/stucco (unknown)
Spackles (1930-1978)
Fireproofing (1935-1978)
Cements (since 1900)
Paints and coatings (1900-1978)
Spray-on Insulation
Spray-on Insulation
Asbestos in Buildings
• About 20% of all buildings
• About 5% with sprayed or trowled on ACM
(asbestos containing materials)
• About 16% with ACM on pipes or boilers
• Very few with ACM ceiling tiles
• About 42% with ACM containing floor tiles
Asbestos Related Diseases
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Asbestosis
Lung cancer
Mesothelioma
Other Cancers
Asbestos
Fiber
In Lungs
Asbestosis
• Lung scarring of air sacs (alveoli)
• Since asbestos fibers strong, they do not
break down
• Asbestos fibers act as “small
needles”scarring lung tissue
• Scarring reduces expansion or air sacs
Asbestosis
Asbestosis Symptoms
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Latency 15 years
Heavy difficult breathing
Blue skin tone
Clubbing of toes and fingers
More susceptible to colds and pneumonia
Victims usually die from heart failure
Mesothelioma
• “Asbestos Cancer”
• Rare- 2000 cases per year in U.S.
• Cancer of the pleura (chest cavity lining)
or peritoneum (abdomen wall lining)
• Small fibers enter cells causing
uncontrolled growth (cancer)
• Increased pressure on lungs, heart and
other internal organs
Mesothelioma
Mesothelioma
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Latency 30 years
Painful progressive disease
6-12 month prognosis
Death by heart attack or stroke
Mesothelioma Symptoms
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Cough, chest tightness and pains
Swelling of abdomen
Dramatic weight loss
Stomach pains
Lung Cancer
• Non-smokers with asbestos exposure- 5%
chance
• Smoker 1-pack/day and asbestos
exposure- 50% chance
• Smoker 2 pack/day and asbestos
exposure- 95% chance
Other Disease
• Cancers of colon, stomach, large intestine,
esophagus
• Pleural Plaques- Scars on lining of chest
walls
• Pleural Effusion- fluid buildup in lungs
Pleural Plaques
Who is at Risk from Asbestos?
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Insulators
Boiler Makers & Repairers
Miners of Asbestos
Ship Yard Workers
Power-plant Workers
Brake Line Workers
Pipe Fitters
Exposure Limits
• ACGIH-TLV as an 8 hr. time-weighted
average- 0.1 f/cc (fiber per cubic
centimeter of air)
• OSHA PEL as an 8 hr. time-weighted
average- 0.1 f/cc (1 f/cc for a 30 min.
excursion period)
Exposure Factors
• Concentration of fibers in air
• Duration of exposure
• Use of respirators and other protective
measures
Release of Fibers
• Friable- Loose, easily released into air.
Example - spray applied materials
• Non-friable- Fibers not easily released into
air. Example - floor tiles
Friable Asbestos
• Damaged ACM.
• Fluffy, spray-applied fireproofing
• Non-friable ACM can pose a hazard when
sawed, sanded or during demolition
Friable Asbestos
• In most cases, intact, undisturbed ACM
does not pose a health hazard. Only
when disturbed does a health hazard
exists.
• Removal of ACM may cause a problem
where none existed
• In-place management may be the best
control method
EPA Regulations
• AHERA- Asbestos Hazard Emergency
Response Act -1986 Inspection and
management of asbestos in schools
• NESHAP- National Emission Standard for
Hazardous Air Pollutants- 1973 regulates
activities involving asbestos, i.e.
manufacture, disposal, demolition,
application, etc
Asbestos Abatement
OSHA
• 1926.1101- Construction
• 1910.1001- General Industry
29 CFR 1926.1101
• Demolition or salvage where asbestos
present
• Removal or encapsulation of ACM
• Construction, alteration, repair and
maintenance where asbestos is present
• Installation of materials containing asbestos
• Cleanup, transportation, disposal and
storage of ACM
State/Local Regulations
• May have separate rules
• Enforcement delegated from federal
government
• Training and certification required in each
state or local area
Contractors
• Only certified contractors meeting EPA,
state or local requirements allowed to
perform work involving ACM
Awareness
• Buildings containing ACM should be
abated before contractor begins work
• If materials suspected of containing
ACM are encountered, stop work and
contact management
• Wear respiratory protection in dusty
situations

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