Sustainability Options in Water Treatment - Trb

Report
SESSION: MANAGING CONTAMINATION
Sustainability Options in Wastewater and Groundwater Treatment
Christopher Reitman, P.E.,VP, Advanced GeoServices
This presentation will highlight a range of sustainable options for treatment of stormwater run-off, ballast water, wastewater, and
groundwater run-off at transportation facilities. For stormwater, many common vegetative options for filtering run-off from facilities
exist, in accordance with best management practices. With an understanding of basic chemical principles these options can be
easily upgraded to passive systems which capture metal contaminants and capture and degrade organic contaminants. The
simplicity or complexity of these treatment systems can be tailored to the type and concentration of the contaminants present, the
level of treatment required, the amount of operations and maintenance which can be managed and the amount and grades of the
land present.
For groundwater, surface water and ballast water treatment, an understanding of basic principles of ozone treatment can facilitate
a huge range of applications for removal of biological contamination, metals contamination, and organic contamination. Ozone can
be used effectively and efficiently because it is the strongest available oxidant and it can be created on-site from normal air, which
minimizes the need for management of chemicals on-site. Similarly, the ozone has a very short half-life, so no permanent ozone
residuals are created from the ozone treatment process. Recent advances in the use of ozone have made it safer to use and
lower in cost to generate. A few case studies of the technical, economic, regulatory, and social advantages of using an ozone
treatment system for destruction of volatile organics will be reviewed. Treatment approaches with ozone have helped allow industry
to move from a treat to discharge approach to recycle, reuse, and zero-discharge approaches.
Mr. Reitman is Professional Engineer with over 30 years of experience and is a Vice President of Environmental Services for Advanced
GeoServices Corp. In his role as Vice President, he assists clients in making strategic decisions on utilization of sustainable solutions for
addressing wastewater and waste management issues associated with soil and groundwater. Mr. Reitman’s recent focus has been on the
utilization of oxidation and advanced oxidation technologies to treat organics and inorganics in water. Mr. Reitman also has experience in
utilization of biological systems and nanotechnology for addressing organics and inorganics in water. Mr. Reitman has applied his knowledge
on over 50 RCRA and Superfund sites throughout the country.
Sustainable Options For Water
Treatment
Christopher T. Reitman, P.E.
1055 Andrew Drive, Suite A
West Chester, PA 19380
Tel: 610-840-9100, Fax: 610-840-9199
www.Advancedgeoservices.com
[email protected]
2
Presentation Overview
• Introduce unconventional but sustainable and
cost-effective options for water treatment at
transportation facilities:
– Ballast water,
– Wastewater,
– Groundwater, and
– Run-off.
• Review applications of ozone for sustainable
treatment.
3
Typical Sustainability Goals/Drivers
• Companies must meet reduced
POTW/Effluent discharge guidelines/standards
• Must be economical
• Must treat more recalcitrant compounds
Conventional BioRetention Systems
• T
Typical Bioretention
System
Not typically engineered
to be contaminant
specific and or to meet
contaminant specific
discharge standards
5
PASSIVE BIOTREATMENT APPROACH
Engineered to meet specific
discharge goals which are
often contaminant specific
Settling
Pond
1
Aerobic
•
•
•
•
2
Aerobic
Cell Type – Aerobic
Ammonia Nitrification
Aerobic Carbon Biodegradation
Metals Precipitation (Carbonates,
Oxides, Hydroxides)
BOD/COD Reduction
3
4
Aerobic
Anaerobic
Anaerobic
• Dentrification to
N2
• Dechlorination of
Organics
• Metals
Precipitation
Basin
• Aeration
• Settling
NPDES
Discharge
Existing Passive BioTreatment
Applications
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Airport – Glycol Treatment
Domestic Sanitary Sewage
Winery Wash Water
Greenhouse Leachate
Landfill Leachate
Slaughterhouse Wastewater
Mushroom Farm leachate
Bakery Process Water
Liquid Swine Manure
Mining Waste for Metals (bioreactors)
Many, many other applications
Most things that can be treated with conventional systems can be treated
with Passive Biotreatment systems
7
Contaminant Specific Treatment
Well Known Treatment Profiles Exist For Most Elements/Compounds
Oxidizing Aerobic
Anaerobic
8
Design Process
• Understand matrix being treated, volume of
contaminants and discharge goals
• Choose an appropriate substrate and system
• Utilize column studies and pilot scale studies
to verify applicability
• Step-wise process to demonstrate proof of
concept and applicability to each water type
• Plantings often incorporated into the
treatment process
9
Substrate Selection Considerations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Availability
Economics
Suitability for Treatment
Start-up Rate vs. Longevity
Buffering Capability
Start-up Color Tolerance
Particle size
Permeability
Typical Treatment Substrates
Sawdust
ALFALFA HAY
SAWDUST
CORN WASTE
Soil
Soil
MUSHROOM
COMPOST
COW MANURE
WOOD CHIPS
BREWERY WASTE
Ref: Hagerty
Example 1 - Glycol Treatment for
Aircraft Deicing
 Heavy snow loads in winter
 Airfield operations are heavily
dependent on effective deicing
operations.
Ref: Wallace, et al
12
Aircraft Deicing
• Deicing fluids include ethylene glycol (EG),
propylene glycol (PG) and diethylene glycol (DEG)
• Runoff can contain over 20,000 mg/L at 1oC
• New environmental regulations are requiring
treatment of deicing runoff.
• Major challenge for conventional treatment
plants.
• Systems constructed at both Heathrow and
Buffalo airport
13
Design Considerations
•
•
•
•
•
Design COD Load
System Loading
Available Area
Bed volume
Understand Aeration Requirements for
Degradation in warm and cold conditions
14
Review Available Treatment Options
• Anaerobic Digestion (biogas)
– Shock loadings, limited net biogas
• Mechanical Treatment (activated sludge, MBRs)
– Shock loadings, energy intensive
• Discharge to Regional Sewer
– Long-term concerns over cost and capacity
• Passive (ponds and open-water wetlands)
– Land intensive
• Biotreatment with Wetlands
– No water exposed, land intensive
15
Complete Treatability Testing
• Measure glycol degradation in both warm and cold
temperatures
• With and without aeration
Ref: Wallace, et al
16
Construct System
Ref: Wallace, et al
17
Buffalo Airport Deicing Fluid Treatment 2010-2011
18,000
16,000
Calculated CBOD5 (mg/L)
14,000
Influent CBOD5/TOC: 2.25
Effluent CBOD5/TOC: 0.45
Based on Stantec's Engineered
Wetland Treatment System BNIA
Calibration of TOC Meters Report
(6/4/2010)
Influent
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
Effluent
4,000
2,000
0
10/29/2010
11/18/2010
12/8/2010
12/28/2010
1/17/2011
2/6/2011
2/26/2011
3/18/2011
4/7/2011
4/27/2011
Ref: Wallace, et al
18
Example 2 – Zinc and Lead Removal
Ref: Gusek, Wilderman, et al
19
Typical Treatment Cell Construction
Activities
Mixing Substrate
Ref: Blumenstein, et al.
Placement of Substrate
20
Final Site Conditions
Take Home Points on Passive Treatment
• Applicable to both organics and metals
• Treatability Testing is key for scale-up from
column, bench, pilot and full scale
(Part Art – Part Science)
• Very consistent performance available from full
scale systems.
• Land must be available for implementation
• Can be very cost-effective
• Not walk away systems -require some
maintenance
22
Ozone – Another Sustainable
Technology
23
How is Ozone (O3) Produced?
It only takes a spark
Ozone Formation from Lightening
Ozone is responsible for the "fresh air"
smell after a lighting or thunder storm.
An electrical discharge (a spark) splits an oxygen
molecule into two oxygen atoms. These unstable
oxygen atoms combine with other oxygen molecules.
This combination forms ozone.
Ref: Leusink
24
How Long Does it Last?
Ozone Dissolved
in Water (ph-7)
Half-life
Temp (C)
15
30 minutes
20
20 minutes
25
15 minutes
30
12 minutes
35
8 minutes
13X as soluble as oxygen
Does Not Last Very Long In Water!
Ref:Leusink
25
How Strong Is It?
Oxidation Potential
Oxidant
Electrochemical
Potential (volts)
Free Radical, -OH
2.80
Ozone, O3
2.07
Hydrogen Peroxide, H2 O2
1.78
Potassium Permanganate, KMnO4
1.70
Chlorine Dioxide, ClO2
1.57
Hypochlorous Acid, HOCl
1.49
Chlorine gas, Cl2
1.36
Oxygen (molecular), O2
1.23
Bromine
1.09
Sodium Hypochlorite, NaOCl
0.94
Iodine
0.54
26
Ozone History – Is it Safe?
1785
Strange odor was recognized by Van Murum
Presented to academy of Munich in 1840
Connected smell from electrolysis, sparking and lightening
Named ozone after greek word ozein meaning “to smell”

1840

1857
First industrial ozone generator – Werner von Siemens
1866
Identified molecular structure O3 – Jacques-Louis Soret
1893
First full-scale drinking water application – Oudshoorn, Netherlands
1897
First ozone company, Compagnie Generale de l'Ozone – Marius Paul Otto
1903
First US drinking water installation – Niagara Falls, New York
1906
Oldest continuously operating drinking water installation – Nice, France
1909
Ozone used as a preservative for cold storage of meats – Koln, Germany
1933
Research performed on the effect of ozone on banana ripening - Gane
1936
Research on ozone as an antimicrobial agent performed - Klotz
1940
Oldest continuously operating US drinking water installation – Whiting, IN
1982
FDA GRAS declaration for ozone use in bottled water applications
1996
Japan and Australia approve ozone use for foods
1997
EPRI petitions to achieve GRAS approval for ozone use on food products
2001
Final rule granting GRAS approval for ozone use in direct contact with food
27
Key Advantages of Ozone





Strongest disinfectant/oxidizing agent available
Adds no chemicals (no chemical storage)
Unstable - Leaves no residual (reverts to oxygen)
Provides flexibility to adjust to a wide range of
flows and concentrations
Can be combined with peroxide or UV for even
higher strength (Advanced Oxidation Processes
– AOP)
28
Where is Ozone Used?







Water Treatment
 Disinfection
 Control of algae
 Oxidation of inorganic and organic compounds
Air Treatment
 Odor reduction and control
 Control of yeast and mold spores
Aquariums and Aquaculture
Industrial
 Paper production – pulp bleaching
 Cooling tower biocide
 Semiconductor production
Food
 Surface sanitation
 Food storage, extend shelf life(cold storage)
 Direct contact (produce washing with ozonated water)
Laundry
Medicine
29
Water Treatment - Groundwater
Groundwater Remediation



Pump and Treat
In-Situ and ex-situ Remediation
Common contaminates





BTEX
MTBE
TBA
Chlorinated Solvents
Any other compound broken down by
chemical oxidation
30
Typical System Components
•
•
•
•
•
Air Source
Dryer
O2 Concentrator
Ozone Generator
Air-Water Contactor
31
Conclusions
• Many creative ways to implement sustainable
solutions in water treatment
• Passive Biotreatment and Active Oxidative
Solutions both may be part of Green
Sustainable Solutions if you understand the
applications and the benefits
32
Reference List
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
Scott Wallace, Mark Liner, David Cooper, Clodagh Murphy, Russell Knight, Glycol
Treatment for Aircraft Deicing, Power Point.
Gusek James J., Periodic Table of Passive Treatment, ASMR Conference, 2009,
Paul Hagerty, Linda Figueroa, Ph.D., James Fricke, Organic Substrate Selection
Considerations for Containment Specific Treatment Using Bio infiltrating
Systems, Powerpoint
Paul Hagerty, Linda Figueroa, Ph.D., James Fricke, The Effect of Particle Size on
Sulfate Reduction Efficiency on Mining Influenced Water, Powerpoint
Joel Leusink, Ozone Solutions, Understanding Ozone, Powerpoint
James Gusek, P.E., Dr. Thomas Wildeman, Aaron Miller, and James Fricke, The
Challenges of Designing, Permitting, and Building a 1,200 GPM Passive
Bioreactor for Metals Drainage, West Fork mine, Missouri.
E.P. Blumenstein and J,.J. Gusek, Designing a Biochemical Reactor for Selenium
and Thallium Removal from Bench Scale Testing through Pilot Construction

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